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Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 2, 2023 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen

Access_open Inleiding

Auteurs Masja van Meeteren en Miranda Boone

Masja van Meeteren
Prof. dr. M.J. van Meeteren is hoogleraar Criminologie bij de sectie Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.

Miranda Boone
Prof. mr. dr. M.M. Boone is hoogleraar Criminologie en Vergelijkende Penologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Access_open Ketenen van het verleden

De lange weg naar bewustwording van het Nederlandse slavernijverleden en de doorwerking in de huidige samenleving

Trefwoorden slavery, memory law, crime against humanity, recognition, excuses
Auteurs Dagmar Oudshoorn-Tinga en Hannie Kool-Blokland

    In recent years, there has been increasing attention for the slavery past. For a long time this part of our past was neglected and a public debate was not possible. The national history was mainly written from the perspective of the glorious days of the Golden Age. Only in the recent decades more attention has been paid to acknowledging the dark sides of our national past. It is becoming increasingly clear that slavery, the slavery trade and forced deportations still make deep scars into today’s society. Ignoring this will complicate healing. Recognition and being able to discuss the slavery past may contribute to healing. Recent national and international developments, such as the Black Lives Matter movement and the public debate that followed this by a larger public than the communities of descendants who were fighting for recognition and excuses for a long time, contributed to the willingness of the government to give more attention to the active role the Netherlands played in the transatlantic slave trade. In this article the authors discuss the assignment that the Minister of Internal Affairs gave the Advisory Board Dialogue Group on the Slavery Past, that is to advise which measures should be taken to further healing and reparations for the slavery past. Which measures are necessary to come to a meaningful debate about that shared past? The advised measures given in the report Chains of the past are focused on three central terms: recognition, reparations and excuses.

Dagmar Oudshoorn-Tinga
Drs. D.H. Oudshoorn-Tinga is directeur van Amnesty International Nederland.

Hannie Kool-Blokland
Dr. J.L. Kool-Blokland is directeur van het Zeeuws Archief in Middelburg.

Een kritische blik op slavernijonderwijs

Trefwoorden slavery teaching practices, lasting impact of slavery, slave trade focus, America focus, othering
Auteurs Joandi Hartendorp

    After apologising for Dutch slavery, the Dutch cabinet has pledged to establish a fund focused on enhancing knowledge and awareness of slavery and its lasting impact, through education. However, when aiming to raise awareness and enhance understanding of slavery, it is crucial to ensure that the knowledge being imparted is sound. To determine the extent to which this is achieved, it is necessary to gain insight into the content of slavery education. Several studies have already been conducted, however, these are mainly based on analyses of slavery textbooks. The author’s research, on the other hand, specifically focuses on what teachers themselves communicate in the classroom. Education scholars argue that history education is a cultural and social practice in which personal considerations play a significant role. Particularly when dealing with sensitive historical subjects, the teacher’s individual input often supersedes the textbook. Hence, the author conducted a study based on 35 in-depth interviews with history teachers to provide an understanding of how slavery history is taught in secondary education. The collected data were analysed using Critical Thematic Analysis, a method that allows for the thematic and critical interpretation of narrative patterns in interviews. The analysis revealed that the lasting impact of slavery that the government seeks to raise awareness of and aims to mitigate, is evident in educational practices. Recognising this lasting impact and making efforts to address it should precede any expansion of the scope of current slavery education.

Joandi Hartendorp
J.M.L. Hartendorp MLitt (Master of Letters) is PhD-kandidaat bij het department ‘Citizenship and the Humanisation of the Public Sector’ van de University of Humanistic Studies, onder supervisie van prof. dr. Nicole Immler en prof. dr. Hans Alma.

Multiperspectiviteit in de maatschappelijke beeldvorming rondom de Curaçaose creoolse spiritualiteit

Trefwoorden Afro-Curaçaoan spirituality, Slavery, Agency, law cases, Sorcery
Auteurs Rose Mary Allen

    This article is an attempt, partly on the basis of examples from the administration of justice, both during the slavery period and just after its abolition in 1863, to provide insight into society’s perception of the Curaçaoan Creole spirituality as it has arisen over the years.

Rose Mary Allen
Prof. dr. R.M. Allen is buitengewoon hoogleraar Cultuur, gemeenschap en geschiedenis aan de University of Curaçao Dr. Moises da Costa Gomez.

Familienamen en het slavernijverleden

Over een onderzoeksopdracht in een te krap juridisch jasje

Trefwoorden Dutch colonial records, recognition, origin of Familynames, name change requests
Auteurs Marian van der Klein

    In this article the author argues that current, legalistic thinking about changing surnames would benefit from a more psychological approach. This would better meet the needs of descendants of enslaved people who are troubled by the surnames colonial governors administered to their ancestors upon ‘emancipation’. The author traces the history of origin of surnames in the Dutch colonial context and discusses the problems that arise when colonial records would be re-used in the present-day context. In a project commissioned by WODC the Verwey-Jonker Institute researched the question of how suitable the colonial registrations are as a basis for name change requests nowadays. As the author argues, a solely archival-technical approach of the wish to change disturbing surnames is inappropriate, especially now that the Dutch government has made official apologies for the slavery past in December 2022. A more generous gesture is necessary, which makes space for healing and for increasing the accessibility of sources for family history.

Marian van der Klein
Dr. M. van der Klein is historicus en senior onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.

Het herkennen en erkennen van ‘kleurenblind’ racisme

Trefwoorden slavery, racial discrimination, racialization, discourse, multiculturalism
Auteurs Maartje van der Woude

    By explaining Bonilla-Silva’s framework of color-blind racism this article aims to call attention to the fact that racism and race-based discrimination have changed over time. Despite the presence of a rule of law and a plethora of non-discrimination legislation, through subtle – seemingly nonracial – narratives, processes of racialization and racism can still continue to exist. By linking this framework to the importance of contextualizing and acknowledging the inequalities embedded within Dutch liberal democracy, the article illustrates how current day ‘color-blind racism’ is inextricably connected to the Dutch colonial history of slavery.

Maartje van der Woude
Prof. dr. mr. M.A.H. van der Woude is als hoogleraar rechtssociologie verbonden aan het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur & Samenleving van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

De strafrechtelijke aanpak van hedendaagse vormen van slavernij in internationale productieketens

Trefwoorden labor exploitation, human trafficking, corporate social responsibility, companies, liability
Auteurs Masja van Meeteren en Anne-Jetske Schaap

    This contribution focuses on modern forms of slavery, more specifically labor exploitation. Slavery has been criminalized in the Netherlands as human trafficking. One form of human trafficking is labor exploitation. The authors focus on labor exploitation in global supply chains of Dutch companies. First, they scrutinize the possibilities that Dutch criminal law provides to hold companies liable for labor exploitation in their global supply chain. Subsequently, they analyze Dutch case law on labor exploitation, to identify cases that took place in supply chains abroad. Finally the authors discuss what barriers and difficulties arise in – eventually – establishing liability for these international forms of labor exploitation.

Masja van Meeteren
Prof. dr. M.J. van Meeteren is hoogleraar Criminologie bij de sectie Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit.

Anne-Jetske Schaap
Mr. dr. A.L.M. Schaap is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen en het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (UCALL) van de Universiteit Utrecht.