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Justitiële verkenningen

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 1, 2010 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Voorwoord

Auteurs B.M.J. Slot en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

B.M.J. Slot
B.M.J. Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Misdaadgeld en voetbal

Emotioneel witwassen en andere oneconomische motieven

Auteurs B.M.J. Slot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the growing economic importance of sport in the past two decades there has been a massive increase in the investment of money in the football sector, and some of this has criminal connections. The FATF has carried out a study, Money laundering through the football sector, to analyze what makes the football sector attractive to criminals. The report examines case studies to identify vulnerabilities of the football sector for criminal money. Some of those relate to the financial fragilities of the sector as a whole. Other vulnerabilities involve the intransparant transfer market and the dubious role of football agents. There are also social-psychological vulnerabilities. Football has a long history of private individuals investing in clubs. These individuals do not expect profits, but hope to acquire prestige and gain access to the local or even national establishment. Football has changed from a popular sport into a global industry, but its regulatory structure has not yet caught up with these changes.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    Soccer is the most important professional sport played in Europe. During the last two decades, both the flows of money and the institutional setting have changed dramatically. This paper provides an analysis of the Dutch professional league. How does that league compare to other European leagues? Especially as far as television revenue is concerned, the Dutch league lags the big leagues. This financial inequality has partially been caused by three important changes in the institutional environment: the introduction of the Champions League, the Bosman ruling and the liberalization of the players labour market, that accompanied that ruling. At the moment, an open European market for soccer talent exists, and a closed national product market for teams. Economies of scales exacerbates these problems, so in the near future, it is not to be expected that Dutch soccer teams will be able to compete successfully with their Spanish or British counterparts.


R.H. Koning
Prof. dr. Ruud H. Koning is verbonden aan het Department of Economics, Econometrics & Finance, Faculty of Economics and Business van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

    This article aims to assess the security situation in South Africa during the FIFA World Cup by considering the crime situation and the potential for terrorism. Consideration is also given to the ability of the police and other security services to provide the required level of security without neglecting their normal law enforcement responsibilities and leaving South Africans in general more exposed to crime. A major international event such as the World Cup is an ideal facilitator for crime and a potential target for terrorist groups. South Africa does not presently face any direct terrorist threat, but given the number and diversity of participating countries, there will always be a risk. In general, however, from the evidence it would appear that the South African security services are well prepared to ensure a safe and secure World Cup.


J. Burger
Dr. Johan Burger is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute for Security Studies in Tshwane (Pretoria).
Artikel

Het nieuwe hooliganisme

Geweld ook buiten het voetbalveld

Auteurs H. Ferwerda, I. van Leiden en T. van Ham
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Large-scale violations of public order occur regularly in the Netherlands. The most startling riot of the last decade took place last summer on the beach of Hoek van Holland during the dance festival Sunset Grooves. In this riot as well as in other riots, hooligans play more and more a negative role. Put differently, they do not confine themselves to the riots at football matches, but they also show up at events, parties and in entertainment centres to disturb the peace. The article argues that the phrase ‘hooligan’ is in fact inappropriate. It is better to speak about notorious disturbers of the peace; people who are consciously looking for a stage and an opponent to disturb the peace.


H. Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is als directeur/onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

I. van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.

T. van Ham
Drs. Tom van Ham is als junior onderzoeker werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem.
Artikel

Geweld op het voetbalveld

Auteurs S.F.H. Jellinghaus
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes how football game situations, especially those where players get injured, are posted within the law. In the Netherlands sport rules are not regulated in specific laws. An incident in the soccer pitch should be approached by the ordinary law: criminal law as well as liability. An important standard laid down in jurisdiction is that sport participants accept a certain risk to get hurt.
    A conviction on the basis of criminal law occurs not very often, because it is hard to prove that the accused in a game situation had the intention to cause injury. The author gives an outline of the disciplinary rule structure of Dutch football. The Dutch football association KNVB has an important role in this structure. Every football player is a member of his own club as well as a member of the KNVB. As a consequence the club as well as the KNVB has the authority to take disciplinary action against football players breaking the rules. The disciplinary system and rules are different for professional and amateur football.


S.F.H. Jellinghaus
Dr. mr. Steven Jellinghaus is als universitair docent sportrecht verbonden aan de vakgroep sociaal recht en sociale politiek van de Universiteit van Tilburg en als advocaat aan De Voort Hermes de Bont te Tilburg.

H. Nelen
Prof. dr. mr. Hans Nelen is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van Maastricht University.

L. Groot
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