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Justitiële verkenningen

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

Over dit tijdschrift  
Aflevering 5, 2013 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Voorwoord

Auteurs Martina Althoff, Janine Janssen en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Wat heeft het allemaal om het lijf?

Over het belang van het begrip gender

Trefwoorden gender, conceptual development, Foucault, transgender, delinquency
Auteurs M. Althoff en J. Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are not only biological differences between men and women; there are also differences in social roles for men and women. In the 1970s the term ‘gender’ was introduced in order to make a distinction between the biological sex and the social roles ascribed to the sexes. But what does that term gender actually mean and what does it add to our understanding of social life in general and especially within the field of law enforcement? In the first part of the article a brief historical overview of the introduction of and debate on the gender concept is presented. The second part zooms in on the actual use of gender in (criminological) research on law enforcement.


M. Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Drugsdealers, gender en straatkapitaal

Trefwoorden illegal drugs, drug dealing, gender, street capital, drugs economy
Auteurs H. Grundetjern en S. Sandberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Early studies of female drug dealers suggest that women are marginalized, passive victims. In contrast, more recent studies describe women as skilful and competent dealers. In a Bourdieu-inspired theoretical framework of ‘street capital’, the authors suggest that the truth is somewhere in between. Female dealers can be successful, but they face more obstacles than men do. The illegal hard drug economy is gendered and favours men. In this paper the authors discuss how female drug dealers develop particular strategies to prove they still belong in ‘the game’. Four such strategies are emphasized: desexualization, violent posture, emotional detachment and service-mindedness. These are common strategies for all drug dealers, but the gendered economy forces female dealers to be particularly careful about their business and self-presentation.


H. Grundetjern
Heidi Grundetjern, MSc is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.

S. Sandberg
Dr. Sveinung Sandberg is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.
Artikel

Herken de homo

Over het beoordelen van de geloofwaardigheid van seksuele gerichtheid in asielzaken

Trefwoorden asylum, homophobia, refugees, LHBT asylum seekers, refoulement
Auteurs S. Jansen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the way in which a stated lesbian, gay or bisexual orientation or (trans)gender identity can be assessed in asylum cases. Recently, the Dutch Council of State sought guidance from the European Court of Justice on this topic. Decisions in which an asylum claim is rejected, because the stated sexual orientation is not considered credible, are often based on stereotypes regarding LGBTs, as the ‘Fleeing homophobia’ research has shown. Illustrated by Dutch examples of stereotypical reasoning, the author elaborates on the pitfalls that should be avoided. She concludes that, as sexual orientation is an extremely personal characteristic, it is in fact not possible to assess someone else’s sexual orientation. Therefore asylum authorities should not try to develop their ‘gaydar’, but should rely on the self-identification of the asylum seeker instead.


S. Jansen
Mr. Sabine Jansen is werkzaam bij het COC in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Als de nood aan de man komt

Slachtofferschap van mannen bij eergerelateerd geweld

Trefwoorden honour-based violence, male victimisation, family pressure, homosexuality, adultery
Auteurs J. Janssen en R. Sanberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sheds light on an aspect of honour-based violence (HBV) that is rarely addressed: male victimisation. HBV is usually regarded as violence inflicted on women by men. Police cases of male victimisation of HBV and scarce literature on this subject illustrate the ways in which men can become victims of violence. Men can be victimised in the same way that women are, for example when they commit adultery, are openly homosexual, or through conflicts about the choice of a partner. A specific and contested form of male victimisation occurs when their families pressure them to commit violence in order to restore family honour. Men are less likely than women to claim victim status and their victimisation of HBV is therefore possibly underreported. The authors do not argue to neglect female victims, but to expand hegemonic images of HBV and gender roles to include male victimisation. More insight into these matters is necessary to ensure the right support for each victim of HBV and to enable men and women to resolve these conflicts together.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nederlandse politie en tevens verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

R. Sanberg
Drs. Ruth Sanberg is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het LEC EGG.
Artikel

Ik ben geen freak! Het leven van transgenders in Nederland

Trefwoorden transgender, gender identity, sex operations, social acceptance, mental health
Auteurs S. Keuzenkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some people are born as men, but feel like a woman; some feel like both a man and a woman; and some feel neither man nor woman. Similarly, there are people who are born as women, but feel like a men, etcetera. For these people, their birth gender and gender identity do not (completely) correspond. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) studied the lives of these so-called transgender persons. 459 transgender persons filled out an online questionnaire between September 2011 and April 2012. Half the respondents knew before the age of 10 that their gender identity did not correspond with their birth gender. Almost a third of the respondents are still (mainly) living in the closet. Negative reactions are quite common. And compared with the rest of the Dutch population, transgender persons are much more often declared unfit for work and suffer much more often from mental health problems.


S. Keuzenkamp
Prof. dr. Saskia Keuzenkamp is als bijzonder hoogleraar Emancipatie in internationaal vergelijkend perspectief verbonden aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Zij is tevens sinds kort werkzaam als manager van de afdeling Effectiviteit bij Movisie in Utrecht. Daarvoor was zij verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau in Den Haag.
Artikel

Discriminatie van transgenders door politie en justitie

Trefwoorden transgender discrimination, violence against transgender, justice, police treatment, equal rights
Auteurs I. Pohlkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While reflecting on gender issues transgender persons and their issues are often neglected. Government institutions on various levels don’t know how to handle their gender nonconformity as neither male nor female. Also they are often targets of inappropriate police and judicial measures. Transgender persons are often sceptical and cautious when interacting with those professionals: a fair and respectful treatment is not to be expected. In this article the author takes on to explore this blind spot. She presents the results of a survey on the transgender discrimination and violence by police and judicial institutions in Germany. The author points out that this is a result of the ongoing structural discrimination of gender non-conform persons in a binary gender system. This topic is part of her PhD thesis on the experience of discrimination and violence of gender non-conform persons in general. Her qualitative study is based on narrative interviews and a group discussion with gender non-conform persons in Germany.


I. Pohlkamp
Ines Pohlkamp MSc promoveert aan de universiteit van Hamburg op seksueel non-conforme vijandige discriminatie en geweld. Zij is verbonden aan het Gender Instituut in Bremen. Contact: pohlkamp@genderinstitut-bremen.de.
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