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Justitiële verkenningen

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 1, 2015 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Inleiding

Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
Auteursinformatie

E.W. Kruisbergen
Gastredacteur drs. Edwin Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Gastredacteur dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij de afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid Nationale Politie.
Artikel

Wat is witwassen eigenlijk?

Introductie tot theorie en praktijk

Trefwoorden money laundering, Organized, Crime, Bitcoin, financial crime
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en M.R.J. Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, which serves as an introduction, the authors take a closer look at theoretical definitions as well as empirical manifestations of money laundering. They discuss the judicial definition and the often used theoretical distinction between ‘three stages’ of money laundering. Furthermore, the authors provide the reader with a quick overview of several forms of money laundering. This overview is based on actual criminal investigations. It covers the transfer of cash money and ‘concealed consumption’, both of which are frequently overlooked by authors who use the three stages model. Also ‘traditional’ forms of money laundering such as loan backs, abuse of legal trade, feigning gambling profit, structuring of real estate deals and ‘new’ forms, i.e. the use of bitcoins, are dealt with.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

M.R.J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Witwasonderzoeken zonder aantoonbaar gronddelict

Het rechterlijk toetsingskader en efficiënt opsporen in zes stappen

Trefwoorden Criminal investigations money laundering, Prosecution, Jurisprudence, Burden of proof, Administration of justice
Auteurs J.P. Rozemeijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Dutch criminal money laundering investigations there is no need to fully proof the predicate offence. When a criminal suspicion of money laundering exists without a direct connection to the predicate offence it’s the suspect who must prove the legal origin of his income or possessions. If the suspect doesn’t succeed in this, the judge will rule that the origin has to be criminal. This article shows in six steps how judges rule in this kind of cases and how an investigation can be done. These six steps are combined with examples from recent jurisprudence. The goal of this article is to raise awareness on this subject in order to operate more efficiently and effectively in money laundering investigations.


J.P. Rozemeijer
Mr. Joris Rozemeijer is werkzaam als beleidsmedewerker witwassen bij het bureau van de Landelijk Officier van Justitie (LOvJ) Witwassen en Terrorisme Financiering van het Functioneel Parket.
Artikel

De illegale economie en nationaal inkomen

Trefwoorden illegal activities, national accounts, European Community, illegal drugs, prostitution
Auteurs B. Kazemier en M. Rensman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2014, almost all countries of the European Community have revised their National Accounts. Besides the introduction of some important methodological and theoretical improvements, now income from illegal activities are included in the estimates of the national income. For the Netherlands the inclusion of illegal activities has increased gross national income by some 0.4%. This is less than the overall average for the European Community.


B. Kazemier
Dr. Brugt Kazemier werkt als onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.

M. Rensman
Dr. Marieke Rensman werkt als onderzoeker bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek.
Artikel

De offshore vennootschap

Het ideale verhullingsinstrument voor de witwasser?

Trefwoorden money laundering, offshore companies, offshore knowledge center, International Business Company (IBC), risk signals
Auteurs T.J. van Koningsveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offshore companies play a substantial role in the laundering of dirty money, especially in bigger cases. This article reflects on the definition of offshore companies and analyses several cases of money laundering through these often complicated financial business structures. The lack of knowledge on offshore money laundering practices hampers criminal investigation worldwide. Improving the registration of cases and sharing knowledge internationally would help to develop better prevention measures and to detect money laundering through offshore companies. The author also provides a list of risk indicators signalizing possible abuse of offshore companies.


T.J. van Koningsveld
Mr. Tjalling Jan van Koningsveld is directeur van het Offshore Kennis Centrum in Almere (www.okcnl.nl) en promovendus aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

De criminele levensloop van hawaladars

Een verkennend onderzoek

Trefwoorden hawala, underground banking, criminal career, Financial sector, Organised crime
Auteurs M.R. J. Soudijn en E.M. de Groen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This research takes a closer look at the criminal careers of 89 offenders who are involved in offering hawala services. The main finding is that 61% has a criminal record that does not consist of hawala related offenses. This finding is important from both a policy and criminological perspective. Firstly, incorporating hawala in the legal financial sector is a difficult prospect with the current people involved. Somehow the sector needs to be cleaned up. Secondly, the findings tie in with other research about criminal careers in organized crime. About two-thirds came into contact with the authorities later in life. However, an important caveat to the authors’ findings is that the outcomes are based on a known group of offenders. The total size of the hawala population is a dark number.


M.R. J. Soudijn
Dr. Melvin Soudijn is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij de Nationale Politie, afdeling Analyse & Onderzoek van de Landelijke Eenheid.

E.M. de Groen
Eline de Groen MSc. studeerde aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en liep in het kader van dit onderzoek stage bij het Flexibel Informatie Expertise Team (FIET) Financieel van de Landelijke Eenheid.
Artikel

Wat doen daders met hun geld?

Uitkomsten van de Monitor Georganiseerde Criminaliteit

Trefwoorden Money laundering, Organised crime, Financial crime, Criminal infiltration approach, Social opportunity structure
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen, E.R. Kleemans en R.F. Kouwenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors use empirical data from the Dutch Organised Crime Monitor to give empirical insight into the investments of organised crime offenders in legal economy. Using a dataset of 1,196 individual investments, they look into what kind of assets offenders purchase and where these assets are located. The authors use the empirical results to assess the tenability of different theoretical perspectives and assumptions that are present in the literature on money laundering and organised crime: the standard economic approach, the criminal infiltration approach and the social opportunity structure. The results of this study show that offenders predominantly invest in their home country and that their investments consist of tangible, familiar assets such as residences and other real estate and companies from well-known sectors. Investments such as bonds as well as stocks in companies in which offenders are not personally involved, were only found in a small number of cases. To put it differently: offenders usually stay close to home with their investments. Based on these results, the concept of social opportunity structure seems to be best suited to understand offenders’ investment choices.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

E.R. Kleemans
Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans is hoogleraar Zware Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R.F. Kouwenberg
Drs. Ruud Kouwenberg werkt bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Belust op misdaadgeld: de werkelijkheid van voordeelsontneming

Trefwoorden asset recovery, confiscation, crime money, evidence-based policy, physical force
Auteurs P.C. van Duyne, F.G.H. Kristen en W.S. de Zanger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch policy makers, as elsewhere, have a strong belief in the effectiveness of asset recovery legislation. There are high expectations concerning the amounts of crime money to be collected, and the collection thereof would enable theauthorities to tackle serious, organized crime and fill the treasury. However, the results of the authors’ empirical research into the actual execution of ‘recovery orders’ show a different image. The majority of asset recovery cases concerns cases with low payment obligations (under € 5,000), indicating that mainly ‘smaller fishes’ are targeted. In general, the collection of crime money proves to be a difficult endeavour. Large amounts are not collected and there are long execution times. Policy makers who publicly announce high expectations, and who budget the expected incomes from asset recovery, do not practice evidence-based policy making and give leeway to false hopes which then require new (legislative) measures.


P.C. van Duyne
Prof. dr. Petrus van Duyne is emeritus hoogleraar empirische facetten van het strafrecht aan de Tilburg University, www.petrusvanduyne.nl.

F.G.H. Kristen
Prof. mr. François Kristen is hoogleraar straf(proces)recht aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (UCALL) van de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/rebo/medewerkers/fghkristen/0.

W.S. de Zanger
Mr. Wouter de Zanger is promovendus aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Accountability and Liability Law (UCALL) van de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/rebo/medewerkers/wsdezanger.
Artikel

Hoe effectief is het antiwitwasbeleid in elke EU-lidstaat?

Trefwoorden anti-money laundering policy, financial crime, policy study, money laundering, cluster analysis
Auteurs J. Ferwerda en B. Unger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    All EU Member States developed anti-money laundering policies based on EU directives and FATF recommendations. While uniformity in this policy area is needed for international cooperation, the different countries are facing different money laundering challenges and interpret the goal of anti-money laundering policy quite differently. This article analyses the money laundering threat in each EU Member State and the effectiveness of the corresponding policy reaction. Furthermore, the authors identify four types of anti-money laundering policy in the EU and classify each country in one of the four types by using the statistical method of cluster analysis.


J. Ferwerda
Dr. Joras Ferwerda is universitair docent bij het departement Economie van de Universiteit Utrecht.

B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is als hoogleraar Economie verbonden aan de Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Agenda

Congresagenda