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Justitiële verkenningen

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 4, 2015 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Artikel

Liefde met hindernissen

Over ongewenste relaties in het verleden

Trefwoorden marriage, partner choice, incest, homosexuality, cohabitation
Auteurs Prof. dr. J. Kok
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This articles offers an overview of four centuries of ‘forbidden relations’ in The Netherlands. From the late sixteenth century onwards, the dominant Calvinist church tried to ‘purify’ the Dutch nation by persecuting all forms of fornication, adultery, incest, and sodomy. The French period (1795-1813) separated church and state, and removed several forms of forbidden relations from the penal code. But social control on relations remained intense. An ‘ideal’ marriage was based on equality of the spouses in terms of social background, religion and age. Parents as well as the local community made sure young people made the ‘right’ choice. Competition between religious groups intensified in the late nineteenth century and mixed marriages became even more problematic. In the 1960s and 1970s all this began to change, and many rules and norms regarding partner choice were relaxed. An example of the changes over time are unmarried cohabitations which transformed from a crime (sanctioned by banishment) to deviant behaviour (sanctions through withholding poor relief) to a more or less normative ‘trial marriage’.


Prof. dr. J. Kok
Prof. dr. Jan Kok is als hoogleraar Economische, Sociale en Demografische geschiedenis verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.
Artikel

De pedofiele relatie

Trefwoorden paedophiles, paedosexual relations, secrets, criminal law, harmfullness
Auteurs Jules Mulder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article reflects on the various aspects of paedophile relationships. It is for a large part based on the author’s 30 years of clinical experience with the treatment of paedosexual men. The characteristics of paedophile relatonships are examined and how they usually develop. What does the paedophile seeks in a relationship with a child and vice versa? The prohibition of paedophilia and its consequences for the paedophile are also discussed. Paedosexuality is banned because of the supposed damage for the child involved. But what causes this damage? And what is the possible damage caused by the prohibition? Finally the author shows the interacting of elements like desire and love as well as manipulation and secrets. The friendship with an older man can be very valuable for a child, which is reflected in many books and movies on this topic. In this sense a paedophile relatonship can be appropriate. But this applies only if the adult has enough self control to refrain from giving in to sexual desires, since a paedosexual relationship can never be appropriate.


Jules Mulder
Jules Mulder is als adviseur van de directie werkzaam bij het Forensisch Psychiatrisch Centrum De Waag.
Artikel

De liefjes van prostituees: pooiers of partners?

Trefwoorden prostitution, anti-trafficking, sex work, human trafficking, abusive relationships
Auteurs Drs. M. Verhoeven en Dr. B. van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we show what relationships may exist between sex workers and their partners. These relationships are diverse and sometimes complex by the presence of both intimacy and intimidation or violence. From the women’s perspective these relationships are not primarily defined as ‘violent’ and ‘involuntary’, they also provide them love, protection and security. From a governments perspective with a focus on human trafficking and exploitation of sex workers, these relationships are quickly mistrusted. In the latest measures to prevent exploitation, all sex workers are questioned about their relationships. Although this may be important for the identification of potential exploitation, in practice the opposite happens: women keep silent about their relationships towards government officials. In other words, an increasing focus on combating exploitation may enforce the stigma on relationships of sex workers.


Drs. M. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.

Dr. B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

De Verdonk-factor?

Steeds minder Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders kiezen partner uit het land van herkomst

Trefwoorden income requirement, pre-entry test, marriage migration, Turkish partner preferences, Moroccan partner preferences
Auteurs Dr. L. Sterckx
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Between 2001 and 2012 there has been a sharp drop in marriage migration from Turkey and Morocco. The number of migration marriages fell particularly sharply in the years after 2004, after changes were made in the legislation concerning marriage migration: the income and age requirements were raised and passing a pre-entry test became conditional to obtaining a visum. This article aspires to explain this decline of migration marriages among co-ethnics of Turkish and Moroccan origin in the Netherlands. As the strongest decline in the number of migration marriages coincides with the introduction of stricter conditions for marriage migration, the author states that these changes in the law acted as a catalyst for a change in mentality among migrant families of Turkish and Moroccan origin.


Dr. L. Sterckx
Dr. Leen Sterckx is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Zij promoveerde in 2014 aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam op een proefschrift over gemengde huwelijken van Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders.
Artikel

Het verbod op het neef-nichthuwelijk

Opvattingen van Turkse en Marokkaanse Nederlanders

Trefwoorden cousin marriage, Turkish and Moroccan Dutch, forced marriages, personal freedom, migration policy
Auteurs J. Priem MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the attitudes of Turkish and Moroccan Dutch regarding cousin marriages, using two qualitative studies. Last year the Lower House of the Dutch parliament passed a bill involving a ban of cousin marriages. The main reason for the ban is that many of these marriages are supposed to be concluded forcibly. The new law will mostly affect immigrant groups, since such marriages occur frequently in this population. This article describes the significance for the enforceability of the ban for these groups as well as the attitudes towards cousin marriage. Legitimacy problems seem to arise because a part of the Turkish and Moroccan Dutch respondents feel that the state should not interfere with the individual choice for a marriage partner. Yet there is also evidence for regulatory compliance on normative grounds, even among those who oppose the bans, due to democratic procedures and religious norms.


J. Priem MSc
Josanne Priem MSc voltooide onlangs haar master Sociologie Grootstedelijke Vraagstukken en Beleid aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.
Artikel

Grote diversiteit en enige rechtsgelijkheid

Juridische samenlevingsvormen voor paren van gelijk geslacht in Europa

Trefwoorden family life, same-sex partners, registered partnership, cohabitation, non-discrimination
Auteurs Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article gives a compact overview of developments in national and European law regarding same-sex partners. Over the last decades, new legal family formats (such as registered partnership and de facto union) have been made available in a growing number of countries. The number of countries that have opened up marriage to same-sex couples is also growing. Authors of comparative family law have proposed various classifications of the new legal family formats. Meanwhile, an increasing number of EU laws now acknowledge non-marital partners. The European Courts have been asked several times to rule on controversial differentiations between different legal family formats or between same-sex and different-sex partners. In the case law of the European Court of Human Rights one can find examples of affirmative eloquence which suggest that more steps towards full legal recognition of same-sex families could be expected.


Prof. mr. K. Waaldijk
Prof. mr. Kees Waaldijk is als hoogleraar comparative sexual orientation law verbonden aan het Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies van Universiteit Leiden, www.law.leidenuniv.nl/waaldijk. Eerdere versies van dit artikel verschenen in het Engels (Waaldijk 2015; Waaldijk 2014). Momenteel leidt hij een onderzoek naar de rechtsgevolgen van huwelijk, partnerschap en samenwonen in een groot aantal Europese landen. Vandaar de volgende acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 320116 for the research project FamiliesAnd Societies (www.familiesandsocieties.eu). De auteur dankt José Maria Lorenzo Villaverde, onderzoeker in dit project, voor zijn nuttige opmerkingen en Jingshu Zhu voor haar hulp bij het vinden van de EU-regelingen.
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