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Justitiële verkenningen

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Aflevering 1, 2021 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
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Inleiding

Auteurs Nico Kaptein en Marit Scheepmaker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This special issue of Justitiële verkenningen (Judicial Explorations) discusses three developments that have driven the use of DNA to grow: technological advances in DNA data sequencing, the booming market for commercial DNA testing, and the internationalization of the collection and sharing of DNA data. More and more DNA data is being distributed without any insight into what exactly happens to this data. While strict rules apply to the management and use of DNA data by the police and judicial authorities, this is not yet the case for data from commercial DNA tests. In this episode of Justitiële verkenningen, particular attention is paid to the rise of investigative genetic genealogy (IGG). This phenomenon means that the police and the judicial authorities use data from commercial DNA databases to track down suspects. The successes achieved in this way in deadlocked murder cases, including in the United States, are also discussed. It is clear that not everyone who sends DNA material to a DTC company foresees such an application, and this use is therefore controversial. Moreover, relatives of these customers are not systematically informed and they are usually not asked for permission. This special issue aims to contribute to the public debate on the consequences and risks of the dissemination of DNA data.


Nico Kaptein
Drs. N.A. Kaptein is directeur van advies- en onderzoeksbureau Maruda.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open Commerciële DNA-databanken: een mixed blessing of een bedreiging voor de foren‍si‍sche praktijk?

Trefwoorden commercial DNA databases, Dutch jurisdiction, legislation, forensic practice, Marianne Vaatstra case
Auteurs Amade M’charek en Peter de Knijff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In April 2018, serial killer Joseph DeAngelo, also known as the Golden State Killer, was spectacularly tracked down. After 13 years of groping in the dark, uploading his DNA profile to a commercial genetic genealogical DNA database helped to identify him within a few months. The use of such commercial DNA databases elicited both hope and dismay. In this contribution the authors address concerns about the use of this technology in the Dutch jurisdiction by situating it in the more than 25 years of careful legislation and forensic practice. They show that much care and attention has been given to the legal and societal aspects of forensic genetic technology and argue that the use of commercial DNA databases warrants a careful and thorough debate before it can be introduced in any sound way.


Amade M’charek
Prof. dr. A.A. M’charek is als hoogleraar Antropologie van de wetenschap verbonden aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Peter de Knijff
Prof. dr. P. de Knijff is als hoogleraar Populatie- en Evolutiegenetica verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum.
Artikel

Het gebruik van DNA in het opsporingsproces

Trefwoorden criminal investigation, DNA, DNA analysis, crime scene, evidence
Auteurs Christianne de Poot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes why forensic DNA research is so interesting for criminal investigation processes, and why DNA does not yet play the role in these processes that could be expected given its unique properties. To this end, the bottlenecks that arise in the forensic investigation process are discussed as well as the opportunities to solve these bottlenecks in the coming years with new technologies and new scientific insights. The article focuses on (1) finding biological traces, (2) determining the relevance and the success rate of these traces, (3) the learning process of criminal investigators, (4) the importance of integrating processes that are currently performed in different places by different professionals, and (5) the promises of rapid mobile DNA technologies in this development.


Christianne de Poot
Prof. dr. C.J. de Poot is als bijzonder hoogleraar Criminalistiek verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij lector Forensisch Onderzoek aan de Hogeschool van Amsterdam. Tot voor kort was zij tevens werkzaam als senior onderzoeker bij het WODC in Den Haag.
Artikel

Een goudmijn vol tips

Het gebruik van genealogische DNA-‍databanken bij opsporing en identificatie

Trefwoorden genealogical DNA databases, criminal investigation, Sweden, the Lisa project, Golden State Killer
Auteurs Lex Meulenbroek en Diederik Aben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The success of investigative genetic genealogy (IGG) in the US hasn’t gone unnoticed in Europe. After US police announced worldwide that the Golden State Killer had been identified with the application of IGG, the Swedish police and judiciary applied the same method to solve a double murder that had remained unsolved for sixteen years. How did this method come about? A young woman unfamiliar with her real name, age, parents, and origins came up with the idea that private genealogical DNA databases that allow customers to trace their distant relatives could also be used to discover her identity. Since then, in the US many cold cases have been solved with the help of these databases and also the identity of many unidentified human remains has been traced. Questions concerning this new method of investigation arise, to which the beginning of an answer is given here. What does the method entail? Is it allowed to use this method in the Netherlands as well?


Lex Meulenbroek
Drs. A.J. Meulenbroek is als forensisch deskundige humane biologische sporen en DNA-onderzoek verbonden aan het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI).

Diederik Aben
Mr. D.J.C. Aben is advocaat-generaal bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden.
Artikel

Publieke waarden en het gebruik van genetische gegevens

Trefwoorden technological advances, sequencing DNA, internationalization, commercial use, public values
Auteurs Petra Verhoef, Yayouk Willems en Marc Groenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Three developments – technological advances in sequencing DNA data, the booming market for commercial DNA tests, and internationalization of collecting and sharing DNA data – are accelerating the use of DNA data worldwide. The authors discuss the impact of the increase in international and commercial use of DNA data and the way it puts public values (like privacy, autonomy, fairness) under pressure. When collecting, analyzing, and translating DNA data, privacy should be guarded, genetic discrimination has to be prevented, digital citizenship could be strengthened, and responsibilities for those applying DNA data should be strongly defined. By doing so, we can thrive for a future in which we make valuable use of DNA data.


Petra Verhoef
Dr. ir. P. Verhoef is themacoördinator bij het Rathenau Instituut. Zij en haar team werken aan verschillende onderwerpen rondom technologie voor gezondheid en landbouw.

Yayouk Willems
Dr. Y.E. Willems is onderzoeker bij het Rathenau Instituut, en zij is gepromoveerd bij het Nederlands Tweelingen Register.

Marc Groenen
M. Groenen MSc werkte tot april 2021 bij het Rathenau Instituut als onderzoeker. Momenteel werkt hij als onderzoeker bij Wageningen Food Safety Research.
Artikel

Genealogische DNA-databanken: consequenties van het delen van ons DNA

Trefwoorden direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, spreading of DNA data, risks, function creep, ownership of DNA
Auteurs Nico Kaptein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims to contribute to the public debate on the consequences and risks of the spreading of DNA data related to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. Market developments drive DTC companies to find new business models. As a result of mergers and acquisitions and of the developments of new products and services, DNA data are often used differently than what they were originally collected for. Since DTC DNA data are not protected as well as health-related data generally are, it is hard to keep track of these data. This is partly due to legal and ethical issues such as unclarity of who owns DNA and problems with informed consent. Risks are identified with regards to privacy, information security, the right not to know, (un)equal opportunities, and national security. The author calls for an investment in knowledge and awareness in order to allow for a fair balance between opportunity and risk of DTC DNA products and services.


Nico Kaptein
Drs. N. Kaptein is directeur van advies- en onderzoeksbureau Maruda.