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Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit

Meer op het gebied van Criminologie en veiligheid

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Aflevering 2, 2021 Alle samenvattingen uitklappen
Artikel

Access_open De betekenis van de verborgen kunst

Trefwoorden art crime, hidden art, forgeries, looting, restitution
Auteurs Marc Cools en Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Art crime, related to the existence of hidden art, appears in the legal and illegal art market. In the criminal ‘artopolis’ especially iconoclasm, forgeries and looting are longstanding phenomena. Today they are subject to the debate on art restitution.


Marc Cools
Prof. dr. Marc Cools is hoogleraar criminologie in de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, vice-vakgroepvoorzitter in de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en werkzaam in het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy aan de Universiteit Gent en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.

Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Artikel

Vernieling en plundering als iconoclasme en bron voor illegale handel in antiquiteiten

Trefwoorden iconoclasm, looting, antiquities, illicit antiquities trade, Islamic State
Auteurs Mathias Desmet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the conflict in Syria and Iraq, Islamic State demolished and looted countless cultural heritage sites and the statues therein, as well as archaeological sites and museums. These acts of iconoclasm, broadly shown in propaganda videos, were aimed at erasing the cultural identity of the population. Additionally, the destruction and looting were also a means to obtain antiquities that could be sold in order to bring in revenues. This article tries to explain the iconoclasm and illicit antiquities trade constructed by Islamic State and how they were related.


Mathias Desmet
Mathias Desmet, MSc Law, is onderwijsassistent in de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en promovendus werkzaam in het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy aan de Universiteit Gent.
Artikel

Nico Gunzburg en het ‘Moskou-Archief’

Trefwoorden Nico Gunzburg, freemasonry, Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg, Moscow-archive, restitution
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 1938, Nico (or Niko) Gunzburg founded the Institute of Criminology at Ghent University.
    Because he was a professor of Jewish origin, Flemish-minded, a political liberal and a freemason, he became the victim, in 1940 and in 1941, of looting by the ‘Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die besetzten Gebiete’. Personal books, documents, art and archives concerning his lodge ‘Marnix van Sint Aldegonde’ were stolen from his house and transported to nazi-Germany. After the Second World War, almost the entire collection was found in the Moscow-Archive and subject to restitution.


Marc Cools
Prof. dr. Marc Cools is hoogleraar criminologie in de Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, vice-vakgroepvoorzitter in de Vakgroep Criminologie, Strafrecht en Sociaal Recht en werkzaam in het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy aan de Universiteit Gent en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Artikel

The Belgian debate on restitution since 2018

A perspective on the political acts shaping

Trefwoorden restitution of cultural heritage, Belgium, decolonisation, return
Auteurs Yasmina Zian
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses political discourses in the light of the vocabulary and suggestions contained in the parliamentary resolutions proposed in 2019 dealing with the restitution. It appears that the discourses are committed but the developed suggestions are mild. This apparent contradiction can be explained through Hanna Pitkin’s work on political representation. Using this analysis, two reflections are proposed in the conclusion: one on the Belgian case with regards to the European context and the other on the current expectations of society.


Yasmina Zian
Dr. Yasmina Zian is postdoctoral onderzoekster in de Faculté de Philosophie et Sciences sociales, Centre interdisciplinaire d’études des réligions et de la laïcité aan de Université Libre de Bruxelles en in het Swiss Forum for Migration aan de Université de Neuchâtel.
Artikel

Misdaad tegen de kunst?

De Russische avant-gardewereld

Trefwoorden avant-garde, art smuggling, clandestine collections, criminalisation, forgeries
Auteurs Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Russian avant-garde world serves as an empirical example of the embeddedness of criminal actors (fraudsters, smugglers, thieves) in the legal art market of curators, collectors and museum directors. The article discusses various dilemmas regarding the interpretation of criminal activities in the art world. Is the smuggling of ‘forbidden art’ from the Soviet Union a patriotic act or a crime? Why do world-famous museums exhibit forgeries? What are the financial and judicial consequences of a lack of consensus between art experts?


Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Essay

Voor roem of fortuin

Vervalsingen van archeologische objecten

Trefwoorden archaeological forgery, James Ossuary, Shroud of Turin, Piltdown Man Skull, Archaeoraptor Fossil
Auteurs Noah Charney
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper looks at a selection of famous forgeries of archaeological objects – the James Ossuary, the Shroud of Turin, the Piltdown Man Skull and the Archaeoraptor Fossil – to consider how these artefacts were falsified for personal benefit, whether in terms of fame or finance. The Shroud of Turin was identified as a forgery as early as 1389, and yet the value in terms of income from pilgrims was such that it continued to be displayed and venerated. The James Ossuary was forged for profit and notoriety, to gain renown and then to sell. The Piltdown Man Skull was one of many alleged forgeries by a man who sought renown by finding the ‘missing link’ that proved the Darwinian theory of evolution from ape to homo erectus. The same motivation drove the scientists who tried to pass off the Archaeoraptor Fossil as the ‘missing link’ that proved the relation of dinosaurs and birds.


Noah Charney
Dr. Noah Charney is professor in de kunstgeschiedenis en oprichter van ARCA, de Association for Research Into Crimes Against Art, (www.artcrimeresearch.org). Hij is de auteur van bestsellers zoals The Art of Forgery (Phaidon 2015) en hij is oprichter van The Journal of Art Crime.
Voorbij de horizon

Bauhaus, moderniteit en de Unrechtstaat

Trefwoorden Bauhaus, National Socialism, architecture, Bauhäusler
Auteurs Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article discusses the connection between Bauhaus, a modern art and architecture school founded in 1919, and National Socialism. The central question is to what extent modern ideas about art and culture, architecture and modern life went hand in hand with the emerging and assertive National Socialist ideas. In the review of an art and architecture collection, activities of famous Bauhaus figures are traced in order to discuss the Bauhaus myth. Accordingly, it must be concluded that neutrality of art and architecture does not exist and Bauhaus modernity was not incompatible with National Socialism.


Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is universitair hoofddocent criminologie in de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en redacteur van Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit.
Discussie

Het verdienmodel drugs en de vooruitziende blik van de commissie-Hulsman

Kort verhaal over een Inquisitie

Auteurs Peter Cohen
Auteursinformatie

Peter Cohen
Peter Donald Albert Cohen, PhD, was directeur van CEDRO, Centrum voor Drugs Onderzoek, Universiteit van Amsterdam.