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Artikel

Access_open Strafvorderlijke normering van preventief optreden op basis van datakoppeling

Een analyse aan de hand van de casus ‘Sensingproject Outlet Roermond’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 4 2021
Trefwoorden datakoppeling, privacy, opsporing, preventief politieoptreden, dataprotectierecht
Auteurs Prof. mr. L. Stevens, Prof. mr. M. Hirsch Ballin, Mr. dr. M. Galič e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage doen wij onderzoek naar de vraag hoe preventief politieoptreden op basis van datakoppeling zou moeten worden genormeerd. Onze analyse is gebaseerd op het Sensingproject Outlet Roermond. Wij stellen dat bestaande wetgeving onvoldoende in staat is de privacy van burgers te beschermen als die burgers ten behoeve van preventief politieoptreden in een algoritmische risicogroep worden geplaatst. Om die reden moet nieuwe regelgeving mede worden gebaseerd op een nieuw concept: group privacy. Ook stellen wij dat een nieuwe wettelijke grondslag recht zal moeten doen aan strafvorderlijke basisbeginselen nu preventief optreden op grond van datakoppeling moet worden gezien als opsporing.


Prof. mr. L. Stevens
Prof. mr. L. Stevens is hoogleraar straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. mr. M. Hirsch Ballin
Prof. mr. M. Hirsch Ballin is hoogleraar straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. dr. M. Galič
Mr. dr. M. Galič is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman
Mr. dr. S.S. Buisman is universitair docent straf(proces)recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. B. Groothoff
Mr. B. Groothoff is docent/onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. Y. Hamelzky
Mr. Y. Hamelzky is docent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. C. Lucas
Mr. C. Lucas is PhD-onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. K. Rasul
Mr. K. Rasul is docent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. S. Verijdt
Mr. S. Verijdt is docent aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Rulings

ECJ 15 April 2021, Case C-511/19 (Olympiako Athlitiko Kentro Athinon), Age Discrimination

AB– v – Olympiako Athlitiko Kentro Athinon – Spyros Louis, Greek case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    Application of labour reserve system following the Greek financial crisis not found contrary to EU law. The difference in treatment on grounds of age established by that system pursues a legitimate labour-policy objective and the means of achieving that objective are appropriate and necessary.

Case Reports

Access_open 2021/13 Equal Treatment Authority’s decision does not bind the court (HU)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Race, Nationality Discrimination, Discrimination General
Auteurs Zsofia Olah
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This case involved an employee who claimed that her two consecutive employers breached the principle of equal treatment during their employment relationships in relation to her belonging to the Roma minority. The employee built her case on the decision of the Equal Treatment Authority, which declared that her employers discriminated against her. The Curia (the highest judicial authority in Hungary) found that the decision of another authority has no binding effect on a court according to Act III of 1952 on Civil Procedure and that in cases concerning equal treatment, the burden of proof lies on the defendant (employer) to prove that there is no link between the disadvantage suffered by the plaintiff (employee) and her protected characteristic. The Curia and regional courts also found that the employer fulfils this obligation if it successfully proves that it assessed the applicant’s qualifications, professional suitability and attitude towards work when it decided on the question of whom to employ.


Zsofia Olah
Zsofia Olah is a partner at OPL Law Firm.

    On 12 October 2020, the Labour Court of Appeal of Ghent ruled that there was no indirect discrimination in the case of Mrs. Achbita, because a policy of neutrality does not disadvantage Muslim women who want to wear a headscarf more than any other worker. The Labour Court of Appeal was also of the opinion that the employer should not examine alternative job positions.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an attorney-at-law at Van Olmen & Wynant.
Case Reports

2021/18 Fixed-term singers not comparable to permanent singers at the Royal Danish Theatre (DK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Fixed-Term Work, Other Forms of Discrimination
Auteurs Christian K. Clasen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a recent case, the Danish Supreme Court addressed the question of what constitutes a comparable permanent employee in relation to discrimination against fixed-term employees. The Supreme Court ruled that even though the two groups of fixed-term and permanent singers at the Royal Opera Chorus of the Royal Danish Theatre performed almost the same tasks, their positions were not comparable as the singers’ qualifications and skills were different and, for this reason, the difference in terms and conditions was not discriminatory.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen.
Rulings

ECJ 12 May 2021, Case C-130/20 (INSS (Complément de pension pour les mères – II)), Gender Discrimination, Pension

YJ – v – Instituto Nacional de la Seguridad Social (INSS), Spanish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Gender Discrimination, Pension
Samenvatting

    Directive 79/7 on equal treatment for men and women in matters of social security does not apply to national legislation which grants a pension supplement to women with at least two children who retire (early) on grounds of law but not in case of voluntary early retirement, as the Directive concerns discrimination between men and women.

    The Bulgarian Supreme Court of Cassation in a decision of 2 February 2021 has ruled that in cases where the selection process is not a mandatory part of the termination procedure it is entirely up to the employer to conduct the selection and base its termination decisions on the results of such selection.


Kalina Tchakarova
Kalina Tchakarova is a partner at Djingov, Gouginski, Kyutchukov and Velichkov.
Rulings

ECJ 3 June 2021, case C-914/19 (Ministero della Giustizia (Notaires)), Age Discrimination

Ministero della Giustizia – v – GN, Italian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination
Samenvatting

    Article 21 CFREU precludes regulations which limit the application procedure for being a notary at 50 years of age, as it does not appear to meet its objectives, which is for the referring court to verify.

Article

Access_open Invisible before the law

The legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd) in light of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Tijdschrift Family & Law, juni 2021
Trefwoorden dicrimination, guardianship, incapacitated adults, legal (in)capacity
Auteurs F. Schuthof LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the use of involuntary treatment in the mental health care sector is governed by the Dutch Care and Compulsion Act (Wzd). This study examines the legal position of persons with intellectual disabilities under this Act. The Wzd is analyzed in light of the human rights standards of Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The findings of this study show that the Wzd does not meet the standards of Article 12 in several cases. The Wzd does not recognize the legal capacity of persons with intellectual disabilities, it continues to allow for substituted decision-making and support measures are not complemented by adequate safeguards. From a theoretical point of view, an imbalance between the protection of and the respect for the autonomy of persons with intellectual disabilities can be observed. This article formulates several recommendations in order to restore this balance.
    ---
    De Nederlandse Wet zorg en dwang (Wzd) ziet toe op de rechten van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking bij onvrijwillige zorg of onvrijwillige opname. Dit artikel onderzoekt de juridische positie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking ten aanzien van deze wet. De Wzd wordt geanalyseerd in relatie tot artikel 12 van het Verdrag inzake de Rechten van Personen met een Handicap (VRPH). De bevindingen van dit onderzoek laten zien dat de Wzd in verschillende gevallen niet voldoet aan de normen van artikel 12 VRPH. Zo wordt onder andere de handelingsbekwaamheid, ofwel ‘legal capacity’, van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking niet erkend en blijft plaatsvervangende besluitvorming mogelijk. Vanuit theoretisch oogpunt is er sprake van een disbalans tussen de bescherming van en het respect voor de autonomie van mensen met een verstandelijke beperking. Dit artikel doet daarom meerdere aanbevelingen om dit evenwicht te herstellen.


F. Schuthof LLM
Fiore Schuthof conducts research into better empowerment and protection of the elderly as a PhD student at Utrecht University (UU).
Artikel

Access_open What does it mean to be ‘illiberal’?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Liberalism, Illiberalism, Illiberal practices, Extremism, Discrimination
Auteurs Bouke de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Illiberal’ is an adjective that is commonly used by scholars. For example, they might speak of ‘illiberal cultures’, ‘illiberal groups’, ‘illiberal states’, ‘illiberal democracies’, ‘illiberal beliefs’, and ‘illiberal practices’. Yet despite its widespread usage, no in-depth discussions exist of exactly what it means for someone or something to be illiberal, or might mean. This article fills this lacuna by providing a conceptual analysis of the term ‘illiberal practices’, which I argue is basic in that other bearers of the property of being illiberal can be understood by reference to it. Specifically, I identify five ways in which a practice can be illiberal based on the different ways in which this term is employed within both scholarly and political discourses. The main value of this disaggregation lies in the fact that it helps to prevent confusions that arise when people use the adjective ‘illiberal’ in different ways, as is not uncommon.


Bouke de Vries
Bouke de Vries is a postdoctoral research fellow at Umeå University and the KU Leuven.
Artikel

Climate Change Litigation: learning from the Urgenda case

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden climate litigation, Urgenda, green criminology, climate justice, climate victims
Auteurs Yanna Hoek, Daan van Uhm en Damián Zaitch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Climate litigation is an understudied phenomenon in criminology. In this article we will discuss the rise of climate change litigation and growing recognition of global environmental harms from a green criminological perspective. More specifically, we will discuss both the legal reasoning and the impact of the Urgenda case in the Netherlands in the context of environmental, ecological and climate justice. We will conclude with how this case contributes for the recognition of diverse climate victims and strengthening of climate justice in the near future.


Yanna Hoek
Yanna Hoek, MA, werkt als ‘verbindend’ strateeg bij projecten die bijdragen aan vernieuwende ideeën en waardeverandering binnen klimaat & vergroening.

Daan van Uhm
Dr. Daan van Uhm is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Hij onderzoekt en publiceert over groene criminaliteit. D.P.vanUhm@uu.nl

Damián Zaitch
Dr. Damián Zaitch is universitair hoofddocent bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. Hij onderzoekt en publiceert over drugshandel, drugsbeleid en georganiseerde misdaad in Nederland en Latijns-Amerika, en over diverse vormen van transnationale misdaad, globale criminele markten en organisatiecriminaliteit. D.Zaitch@uu.nl
Artikel

Access_open De ontwikkeling en implicaties van kinder- en mensenrechten op het gebied van klimaatverandering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Jeugdrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Klimaat, Kinderrechten/IVRK, Jeugdrecht, Mensenrechten, VN-Kinderrechtencomité
Auteurs Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh, Mr. J.A.M. Stein MSc en Prof. mr. J.E. Doek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Hoewel kinderen disproportioneel geraakt worden door klimaatverandering, is er tot op heden nog relatief weinig aandacht besteed aan de juridische kant hiervan. Dit artikel tracht bij te dragen door antwoord te geven op de vraag in hoeverre kinderen ‘klimaatrechten’ hebben op mensen- en kinderrechtelijk vlak. In dit kader worden de ontwikkelingen op het terrein van mensenrechten geschetst. Ook wordt ingegaan op de belangrijkste juridische implicaties van kinderrechten zoals neergelegd in het IVRK. Hiervoor zijn ook alle Concluding Observations uit 2019 op dit onderwerp bestudeerd. Bovendien wordt het analytisch rapport van de OHCHR over klimaat en kinderrechten besproken. Tot slot wordt ingegaan op de klimaatklacht die momenteel voorligt bij het VN-Kinderrechtencomité en de mogelijkheden van kinderen in Nederland voor de effectuering van hun rechten op dit vlak.


Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh
Dr. M.J. Wewerinke-Singh is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies in Leiden.

Mr. J.A.M. Stein MSc
Mr. J.A.M. Stein is lid van de werkgroep Jeugd- en Gezondheidsrecht van het Nederlands Juristen Comité voor de Mensenrechten (NJCM). Dit artikel vloeit voort uit de door het NJCM georganiseerde seminar ‘Kinderrechten & klimaat’ gehouden in februari 2020 te Den Haag.

Prof. mr. J.E. Doek
Prof. mr. J.E. Doek is Emeritus hoogleraar familie en jeugdrecht bij de VU Amsterdam en gastmedewerker bij de afdeling jeugdrecht van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Dismissal protection in Germany

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Ontslagrecht, Aflevering 2 2021
Trefwoorden Statutory and judge-made dismissal protrection in germany, Dismissal protection and constitutional law, The importance of the case law, Legal principles, Payments during sickness
Auteurs dr. Bernd Waas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides overview of the main elements of protection against dismissal in germany. In particular, the possible reasons for dismissal and the substantive requirements are discussed. The procedural aspects and remedies are also dealt with. Finally, it is explained, how the payment during sickness is organized.


dr. Bernd Waas
Bernd Waas is Chair of Labour Law and Civil Law under consideration of European and International Labour Law at Goethe-Universität.
Article

Access_open Text-mining for Lawyers: How Machine Learning Techniques Can Advance our Understanding of Legal Discourse

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden text mining, machine learning, law, natural language processing
Auteurs Arthur Dyevre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Many questions facing legal scholars and practitioners can be answered only by analysing and interrogating large collections of legal documents: statutes, treaties, judicial decisions and law review articles. I survey a range of novel techniques in machine learning and natural language processing – including topic modelling, word embeddings and transfer learning – that can be applied to the large-scale investigation of legal texts


Arthur Dyevre
Arthur Dyevre is Professor at the KU Leuven Centre for Empirical Jurisprudence, Leuven, Belgium. arthur.dyevre@kuleuven.be.

    In 2014, the ECJ was presented with a preliminary reference from the District Court in Kolding on the matter of whether EU law provides protection against discrimination on grounds of obesity with regard to employment and occupation. Following the ECJ’s ruling, first the District Court and later the High Court found that an employee’s obesity as such did not constitute a disability within the meaning of Directive 2000/78/EC establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation since his obesity had not constituted a limitation or inconvenience in the performance of his job.


Christian K. Clasen
Christian K. Clasen is a partner at Norrbom Vinding.

    On 16 December 2020, the Supreme Court of Lithuania (Cassation Court) delivered a ruling in a case where an employee claimed that the employer, JSC ‘Lithuanian Railways’, did not apply the regulations of the company’s employer-level collective agreement and did not pay a special bonus – an anniversary benefit (i.e. a benefit paid to employees on reaching a certain age) – because the employee was not a member of the trade union which had signed the collective agreement. According to the employee, she was discriminated against because of her membership of another trade union, i.e membership of the ‘wrong’ trade union.
    The Supreme Court held that combatting discrimination under certain grounds falls within the competence and scope of EU law, but that discrimination on the grounds of trade union membership is not distinguished as a form of discrimination. Also, the Court ruled that in this case (contrary to what the employee claimed in her cassation appeal) Article 157 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) is not applicable because it regulates the prohibition of discrimination on other (sex) grounds. Moreover, the Court found that there was no legal basis for relying on the relevant case law of the ECJ which provides clarification on other forms of discrimination, but not on discrimination based on trade union membership.


Vida Petrylaitė
Vida Petrylaitė is an associate professor at Vilnius university.
Rulings

ECtHR 17 December 2020, application no. 73544/14 (Novaković), Age Discrimination, Race, Nationality Discrimination, Other Fundamental Rights

Mile Novaković – v – Croatia

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Age Discrimination, Race, Nationality Discrimination, Other Fundamental Rights
Samenvatting

    Unjustified dismissal of Serbian ethnic origin teacher for failing to use standard Croatian in class, considered unable to adapt due to pre-retirement age.

Case Reports

2021/4 Budget considerations can justify indirect discrimination (UK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Trefwoorden Discrimination General, Age Discrimination
Auteurs Carolyn Soakell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    If an employer has a policy which is indirectly discriminatory and the employer’s aim is no more than saving money, the Court of Appeal (CA) has ruled that this cannot justify the discrimination. However, needing to balance the books can potentially be a valid justification for indirect discrimination.


Carolyn Soakell
Carolyn Soakell is a partner at Lewis Silkin LLP.
Case Law

Access_open 2021/1 EELC’s review of the year 2020

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2021
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Daiva Petrylaitė, Marianne Hrdlicka e.a.
Samenvatting

    Various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Daiva Petrylaitė

Marianne Hrdlicka

Attila Kun

Luca Calcaterra

Francesca Maffei

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Niklas Bruun

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Andrej Poruban

Anthony Kerr

Filip Dorssemont

    An adjudication officer of the Irish Workplace Relations Commission has ruled that an upper age limit for entrance to An Garda Síochána (the national police force) was discriminatory on the grounds of age.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Learny is a Senior Associate at Mason, Hayes & Curran.
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