Zoekresultaat: 243 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open The Collapse of the Rule of Law

The Messina Earthquake and the State of Exception

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Messina, earthquake, state of exception, rule of law, progress
Auteurs Massimo La Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Messina, a Sicilian town, was devasteted by an earthquake in1908. It was an hecatomb. Stricken through this unfathomable disgrace Messina’s institutions and civil society collapsed and a sort of wild natural state replaced the rule of law. In this situation there was a first intervention of the Russian Czarist navy who came to help but immediately enforced cruel emergency measures. The Italian army followed and there was a formal declaration of an ‘emergency situation.’ Around this event and the several exceptional measures taken by the government a debate took place about the legality of those exceptional measures. The article tries to reconstruct the historical context and the content of that debate and in a broader perspective thematizes how law (and morality) could be brought to meet the breaking of normality and ordinary life by an unexpected and catastrophic event.


Massimo La Torre
Massimo La Torre is Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Catanzaro in Italy and visiting Professor of Law at the University of Hull in England.
Artikel

Crimineel gedrag in de jongvolwassenheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden developmental and life course criminology, emerging adulthood, criminal careers
Auteurs Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland, Dr. Hanneke Palmen en Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Much of developmental and life course criminological research addresses either the onset and escalation of antisocial behavior in childhood and adolescence, or the desistance from crime during the adult years. Far less attention has been paid to the years in which adolescents first make the transition to adulthood. Over the last 50 years due to increased educational demands this transition period has become prolonged and increasingly deinstitutionalized, resulting in a new life stage denoted as the emerging adult period. This introductory paper describes the ways in which this newly formed life stage between ages 18 and 28 is relevant for criminology, questions our knowledge on criminal career development during this period and explores new research avenues that may contribute to a full-fledged criminology of the emerging adulthood.


Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. H. Palmen is postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is senior onderzoeker bij RISBO (Erasmus Universiteit) en wetenschappelijk docent aan de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit.
Artikel

Huiselijk geweld samen geweldloos de baas

Herstel van verbindingen en (her)nemen van regie met een Eigen Kracht-conferentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden empowering victims, domestic violence, Family Group Conference
Auteurs Hilleke Crum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rooted in forty years of history and experience a new concept is developed in empowering victims of domestic violence. Sheltering is not the solution to stop the violence; domestic violence is a social problem instead of an individual issue. The Orange Houses is a Dutch women’s refuge shelter with a new approach: ‘sheltered in the open’. The Orange House is visible and recognisable and one of the consequences is working with all family members in order to stop the violence.Family Group Conference as a decision making model appears to be effective for families to make their own plans. When given responsibility of the situation and the solution, families, also in situations of domestic violence, create, according to themselves and professionals as well, safe and creative plans that fit.Illustrated by a personal story it becomes clear that family can and will make the positive difference for members of them in trouble.Research is an important key to ensure that civilians in comparable situations – for instance elderly abuse, abuse by professionals, divorce – do have the choice of making their own plans and decisions before or instead of professional intervention.


Hilleke Crum
Hilleke Crum is regiomanager Eigen Kracht Centrale Noord-Holland.
Artikel

Access_open What Epistemology Would Serve Criminal Law Best in Finding the Truth about Rape?

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden epistemology (‘scientific’ versus ‘critical’), rape in criminal law, normative classification, empirical evidence
Auteurs Nicolle Zeegers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article answers the question of why and in what respects a ‘critical epistemology’, compared to a ‘scientific epistemology’, offers the better alternative for criminal law investigations into rape. By resuming the recent debate concerning the importance of scientific truth in criminal law investigations the author shows that this debate overlooks the cultural values that are necessarily involved in many criminal law cases. Such involvement of cultural values will be illustrated with a historical overview of law cases concerning rape in the context of a heterosexual relationship. Whereas value-free knowledge is the ideal strived for by a ‘scientific epistemology’, the basic idea of a critical epistemology is that knowledge is theory dependent and not free of values. Therefore this epistemology offers the best guarantees for acknowledging the values that are necessarily involved in many criminal law inquiries.


Nicolle Zeegers
Dr. Nicolle Zeegers is universitair docent Politieke Wetenschappen aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Veit Bader
Professor emeritus of Social and Political Philosophy and of Sociology, University of Amsterdam.
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Socio-legal Studies in a Transnational World

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Jaap Van der Kloet, Betty De Hart en Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of transnationalism refers to border-crossing activities and social relations, such as family relations, migration, international trade and international organisations. It is argued that transnationalism is an important topic in the sociology of law for three reasons: the transnationalisation of law (laws travel across borders), the law under transnationalism (transnational processes affect law) and classic socio-legal themes may gain a new and exciting lease of life when used in a transnational context. Transnationalism touches on the core of the sociology of law: studying the relation between law and society and the social working of law. Socio-legal scholars should look beyond the national borders, include non-state actors in their analysis and take notice of how rules are used in different localities.


Jaap Van der Kloet
Jaap Van der Kloet is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. His PhD research focuses on comparing the social working of transnational private food safety standards between local farmers in the Netherlands and Kenya. He has a Master’s degree in International Development Studies. He worked as junior researcher at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and as project leader at the Dutch NGO Fairfood.

Betty De Hart
Betty De Hart is associate professor at the Institute for Sociology of Law and the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. She gained her PhD in 2003 with a socio-legal study of Dutch nationals with a migrant partner. She has published widely on family law, migration law and nationality law. Her interest is in the meaning of law in everyday life and in gender, ethnicity and diversity issues. In 2008, she received a personal VIDI grant for excellent researchers from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for the international comparative research programme ‘Transnational Families between Dutch and Islamic Family Law’.

Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is associate professor of sociology of law at the Radboud University Nijmegen. She publishes on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, experiences of large companies with specialised courts, equal opportunities law, and migration. She is particularly interested in relations between industry and law related to the public interest.

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is a senior lecturer at the Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Development of Leiden University. Most of his research has been on law in Indonesia, with a particular focus on access to justice, dispute resolution and the judiciary. He has also done work of a more theoretical and comparative nature, notable on rule of law and access to justice.

    This paper presents a reflection on the theoretical work on the social working of law of the past two decades. It is argued that early assumptions, that legal models were becoming increasingly globalised, creating an increasingly uniform body of law, have not come true. The global spread of neo-capitalism has not only given rise to de-juridification, it has also engendered juridification in which ever more sectors of social life, from small scale to global, are being colonised by law. This development is initiated from above and below in equal measure, and concerns not only the law of nation states, but also law created by other actors, including religious law of various provenance. The paper argues that great progress has been made in understanding how transnational law is generated and how law is transnationalised, but that the ways in which these processes work when actors actually use this transnationalised law in contexts of legal pluralism are not yet adequately understood. The paper presents a perspective on transnationalisation of law that is grounded in space, a perspective that may aid our understanding of the social working of law in transnational contexts. The first section provides a brief survey of some of the main academic approaches to processes of transnationalisation. The second section addresses the issue of location and considers what happens in settings where actors use transnationalising law. The conclusions discuss the value of transnational space and transnational legal space as concepts for the analysis of transnationalising law.


Keebet von Benda-Beckmann
Keebet von Benda-Beckmann is head of the Project Group Legal Pluralism at the Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology in Halle. She also holds honorary chairs in social anthropology and legal pluralism at the Universities of Leipzig and Halle. She has carried out research on dispute management, social security, natural resources in West Sumatra, the Moluccas, and in the Netherlands. She has been conducting field research on the effects of decentralisation and reforms of local government in West Sumatra since the fall of the Suharto regime. She has widely published on dispute management, resources, social security, and on theoretical issues of legal pluralism.
Discussie

Access_open Hybrid Constitutionalism, Fundamental Rights and the State

A Response to Gunther Teubner

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden societal constitutionalism, Gunther Teubner, system theory, fundamental rights
Auteurs Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores how much state is necessary to make societal constitutionalism work. I first ask why the idea of a global societal constitutionalism ‘beyond the state-and-politics’ might be viewed as a significant and controversial, but nonetheless justified innovation. In the second part I discuss what Teubner calls ‘the inclusionary effects of fundamental rights’. I argue that Teubner underplays the mediating role of the state in guaranteeing inclusion or access, and in a way presupposes well-functioning states in the background. In areas of limited statehood there is a problem of enforcing fundamental rights law. It is an open question whether, and under which conditions, constitutional norms within particular global social spheres can provide enough counter-weight when state constitutional norms are lacking.


Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is Assistant Professor of Theoretical Sociology at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Artikel

Access_open Transnational Fundamental Rights: Horizontal Effect?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden fundamental rights, societal constitutionalism, inclusionary and exclusionary effects, anonymous matrix
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Violations of human rights by transnational corporations and by other ‘private’ global actors raise problems that signal the limits of the traditional doctrine of ‘horizontal effects’. To overcome them, constitutional law doctrine needs to be complemented by perspectives from legal theory and sociology of law. This allows new answers to the following questions: What is the validity basis of human rights in transnational ‘private’ regimes – extraterritorial effect, colère public or external pressures on autonomous law making in global regimes? Do they result in protective duties of the states or in direct human rights obligations of private transnational actors? What does it mean to generalise state-directed human rights and to respecify them for different social spheres? Are societal human rights limited to ‘negative’ rights or is institutional imagination capable of developing ‘positive’ rights – rights of inclusion and participation in various social fields? Are societal human rights directed exclusively against corporate actors or can they be extended to counteract structural violence of anonymous social processes? Can such broadened perspectives of human rights be re-translated into the practice of public interest litigation?


Gunther Teubner
Gunther Teubner is Professor of Private Law and Legal Sociology and Principal Investigator of the Excellence Cluster ‘The Formation of Normative Orders’ at the Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main. He is also Professor at the International University College, Torino, Italy.
Diversen

Access_open Elusive normativity

Stefano Bertea, The Normative Claim of Law

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2011
Auteurs Jaap Hage
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Book review of Stefano Bertea, The Normative Claim of Law


Jaap Hage
Jaap Hage holds the Chair of Jurisprudence at Maastricht University.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    There are two conflicting viewpoints about partner violence: either that it involves a considerable degree of mutual combat or that it generally involves male perpetrators and female victims. In general, results supporting the former viewpoint are usually reported in studies of general population samples, while data that supports the latter viewpoint is usually collected in samples that were recruited in shelters, through victim support, or that was studied through police and court data. This article describes results from a Dutch study that investigated two different research groups: a sample of respondents from the general population and a group of offenders who had been in contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. In line with the literature on this topic, one of the most striking differences between the research groups from the general population and the judicial population is the fact that the former group consisted of more women than men (57.8% versus 42.2%), whereas the second group consisted nearly only of men (93.1% were men). This article explores a number of possible explanations for the strongly divergent proportion of men and women in the two research groups. The most probable explanation seems to be that, although both men and women commit domestic violence, the more serious types of injury are caused more often by men, as a result of which predominantly men come into contact with the police and the law for domestic violence. Moreover, there are some indications in the literature that male victims are less likely to report domestic violence to the police.


L.M. van der Knaap
Dr. Leontien van der Knaap is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute van de Faculteit Rechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

S. Bogaerts
Prof. dr. Stefan Bogaerts is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychologie en Victimologie eveneens verbonden aan dit instituut.
Artikel

Het effect van arbeidsmarktafwezigheid op baankansen

Een vergelijking van baankansen tussen ex-gedetineerden en werkloze toekomstig gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden incarceration, employment opportunities, quasi-experimental design, ex-prisoner
Auteurs Anke Ramakers, Johan van Wilsem, Maria Fleischmann e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A period of labor market absence decreases the chance to get a job. Previous research showed that labor market positions of both incarcerated and temporarily unemployed people are worse after compared to before the (forced) time out of the labor market. It remains uncertain which mechanisms cause the negative association between labor market absence and employment outcomes. In this paper we investigate whether incarceration affects the time to employment differently than regular unemployment. Using an unique quasi-experimental design we conduct event history analyses in order to estimate to what extent job opportunities differ for a group of ex-prisoners (N=1,790) and a group of unemployed future prisoners (N=266). The results show that ex-prisoners find a job more quickly than unemployed future prisoners. Possibly, training, aftercare and the prison experience (deterrence) have a positive effect in the period right after release.


Anke Ramakers
A.A.T. Ramakers, MSc is als promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden, a.a.t.ramakers@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. van Wilsem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden, ilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Maria Fleischmann
M.S. Fleischmann, MSc is als promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, fleischmann@fsw.eur.nl.

Robert Apel
Dr. R. Apel is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de School of Criminal Justice van de University at Albany, rapel@uamail.albany.edu.

Heike Goudriaan
Dr. H. Goudriaan is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Rechtsbescherming en Veiligheid van het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, h.goudriaan@cbs.nl.

Karin Beijersbergen
Drs. K.A. Beijersbergen is als promovendus verbonden aan het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR), kbeijersbergen@nscr.nl.
Artikel

Familierelaties en het stoppen met misdaad

Aangrijpingspunten voor het reclasseringswerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs B. Vogelvang
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various criminologists describe family and partner relationships as forms of social capital. Also research shows that many delinquents say they have generally good relations with their family. Instead of focusing only on the delinquent's individual responsibility and risk factors, probation work should pay more attention to the protective aspects of the former convict's social environment. The author presents a framework, based on the work of the family therapist Nagy, that provides probations workers with the tools to involve the delinquent's family members in the process towards desistance.


B. Vogelvang
Dr. Bas Vogelvang is als lector Reclassering en Veiligheidsbeleid verbonden aan het Expertisecentrum Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool te Den Bosch. Hij is tevens als expertadviseur werkzaam bij Adviesbureau Van Montfoort. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op het hoofdstuk ‘Justice for all: Family matters in offender supervision’ (Vogelvang en Van Alphen, 2011).
Artikel

Dienstbodes in Saoedi-Arabië; intersectionaliteit en toegang tot het recht

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden domestic workers, Saudi Arabia, patriarchy, access to justice
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Domestic workers in Saudi Arabia suffer from severely limited access to justice, which affects the conflicts they may have with their employers. As there is no bargaining in the shadow of the law, the more powerful party, employer, can usually enforce their preferred outcome. This article focuses on the question of why domestic workers’ access to justice is so limited; are the underlying causes comparable to the ones in other countries, or does it concern an issue specific to Saudi Arabia? Literature on domestic workers points at both gender and citizenship as factors that weaken the position of these female migrant workers in many societies. This article discusses to what extent these two factors limit access to justice in Saudi Arabia and concludes with some critical remarks concerning the concept of intersectionality.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is docent-onderzoeker aan de juridische faculteit van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. De afgelopen vijf jaar deed zij onderzoek naar conflicten tussen dienstbodes en hun werkgevers in Saoedi-Arabië en de Verenigde Arabische Emiraten. Op 21 december aanstaande zal zij haar proefschrift hierover verdedigen. Zij heeft lesgegeven in verschillende juridische en metajuridische vakken. Hierna hoopt zij nieuw onderzoek te doen, bijvoorbeeld naar de vraag wat de verschillende relaties zijn tussen olie, migratiestromen en de ontwikkeling van arbeidsrecht. Ook hoopt zij te kunnen bijdragen aan de verbetering van de positie van met name vrouwen en migranten in het Midden-Oosten.
Artikel

Wetgeving en de positie van de patiënt: instrument voor verandering of terugvaloptie?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden impact of health law, evaluation of health law, patient empowerment, patient rights
Auteurs Roland Friele en Remco Coppen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical research on the practice of ‘informed consent’ and the right of complaint of patients shows that these rights are important as guarantees for carefulness and legal certainty. However, at the same time these rights seem to have hardly any effect on the position of the patient in the daily interactions with doctors and other medical personnel. Rather, they seem to have led to a formalization of institutional relations with patients. At the same time, in practice especially hospitals seem to aim at an informal and varied way of dealing with these patient’s rights.


Roland Friele
Roland Friele is adjunct-directeur van het NIVEL (Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg) en bijzonder hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij doet onderzoek naar de sociaalwetenschappelijke aspecten van wet- en regelgeving in de gezondheidszorg. Wetsevaluaties in de gezondheidszorg vormen de hoofdmoot.

Remco Coppen
Remco Coppen is onderzoeker bij het NIVEL (Nederlands instituut voor onderzoek van de gezondheidszorg). Zijn onderzoek richt zich met name op sociaalwetenschappelijke aspecten van wet- en regelgeving. Hij is betrokken geweest bij verschillende wetsevaluaties, zoals de tweede en derde evaluatie van de Wet op de orgaandonatie, de tweede evaluatie van de Wet inzake bloedvoorziening, de evaluatie van de Wet marktordening gezondheidszorg en de Zorgverzekeringswet. In 2010 is hij gepromoveerd op een proefschrift over de effecten van de Wet op de orgaandonatie.

V. van den Eeckhout
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