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Article

Access_open The New Dutch Model Investment Agreement: On the Road to Sustainability or Keeping up Appearances?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden Dutch model BIT, foreign direct investment, bilateral investment treaties, investor-to-state dispute settlement, sustainable development goals
Auteurs Alessandra Arcuri en Bart-Jaap Verbeek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2019, the Dutch government presented a New Model Investment Agreement that seeks to contribute to the sustainability and inclusivity of future Dutch trade and investment policy. This article offers a critical analysis of the most relevant parts of the revised model text in order to appraise to what extent it could promote sustainability and inclusivity. It starts by providing an overview of the Dutch BIT (Bilateral Investment Treaty) programme, where the role of the Netherlands as a favourite conduit country for global FDI is highlighted. In the article, we identify the reasons why the Netherlands became a preferred jurisdiction for foreign investors and the negative implications for governments and their policy space to advance sustainable development. The 2019 model text is expressly set out to achieve a fairer system and to protect ‘sustainable investment in the interest of development’. While displaying a welcome engagement with key values of sustainable development, this article identifies a number of weaknesses of the 2019 model text. Some of the most criticised substantive and procedural provisions are being reproduced in the model text, including the reiteration of investors’ legitimate expectation as an enforceable right, the inclusion of an umbrella clause, and the unaltered broad coverage of investments. Most notably, the model text continues to marginalise the interests of investment-affected communities and stakeholders, while bestowing exclusive rights and privileges on foreign investors. The article concludes by hinting at possible reforms to better align existing and future Dutch investment treaties with the sustainable development goals.


Alessandra Arcuri
Alessandra Arcuri is Professor of Inclusive Global Law and Governance, Erasmus School of Law (ESL), Erasmus Initiative Dynamics of Inclusive Prosperity, Erasmus University Rotterdam, arcuri@law.eur.nl.

Bart-Jaap Verbeek
Bart-Jaap Verbeek is Researcher at Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen (SOMO) and PhD Candidate Political Science at the Radboud University.
Article

Access_open Waste Away. Examining Systemic Drivers of Global Waste Trafficking Based on a Comparative Analysis of Two Dutch Cases

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden environmental crime, waste industry, shipbreaking, waste trafficking, environmental enforcement
Auteurs Karin van Wingerde en Lieselot Bisschop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The increasing volume of waste generated globally is one of the most prominent environmental issues we face today. Companies responsible for the treatment or disposal of waste are therefore among the key actors in fostering a sustainable future. Yet the waste industry has often been characterised as a criminogenic one, causing environmental harm which disproportionately impacts the world’s most vulnerable regions and populations. In this article, we illustrate how companies operating in global supply chains exploit legal and enforcement asymmetries and market complexities to trade waste with countries where facilities for environmentally sound treatment and disposal of waste are lacking. We draw on two contemporary cases of corporate misconduct in the Global South by companies with operating headquarters in the Global North: Seatrade and Probo Koala. We compare these cases building on theories about corporate and environmental crime and its enforcement. This explorative comparative analysis aims to identify the key drivers and dynamics of illegal waste dumping, while also exploring innovative ways to make the waste sector more environmentally responsible and prevent the future externalisation of environmental harm.


Karin van Wingerde
Karin van Wingerde is Associate Professor, Department of Criminology, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

Lieselot Bisschop
Lieselot Bisschop is Associate Professor, Department of Criminology and Erasmus Initiative on Dynamics of Inclusive Prosperity, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Due Diligence and Supply Chain Responsibilities in Specific Instances

The Compatibility of the Dutch National Contact Point’s Decisions With the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises in the Light of Decisions Made by the UK, German, Danish and Norwegian National Contact Points

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden due diligence, supply chain, OECD, NCP, specific instance
Auteurs Sander van ’t Foort
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the introduction of a human rights chapter in the 2011 OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, National Contact Points (NCPs) have been increasingly dealing with specific instances referring to human rights violations by companies. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the human rights provisions are the most cited provisions of the Guidelines. Specific instances include allegations such as a company’s failure to implement human rights due diligence, to apply the principles of free, prior and informed consent, to take supply chain responsibility, and/or to comply with the right to cultural heritage. Of all topics, human rights due diligence and human rights supply chain responsibilities are most commonly referred to in complaints based on the Guidelines. This article focuses on how NCPs have handled these topics of human rights due diligence and supply chain responsibility in specific instances. The Dutch NCP has been selected because it is celebrated in literature as the ‘gold standard’ because of its composition including independent members, its forward-looking approach, and because it is one of the most active NCPs in the world. All decisions of the Dutch NCP concerning these two topics are analysed in the light of the decisions of four other NCPs (UK, Denmark, Germany and Norway). A doctrinal methodology is used to analyse similarities and differences between the argumentations of the five NCPs.


Sander van ’t Foort
Dr. Sander van ’t Foort is Lecturer at the Nyenrode Business Universiteit in the Netherlands.
Introduction

Access_open Towards Responsible Business Conduct in Global Value Chains: Relevant Legal Developments in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden responsible business conduct, business and human rights, corporate social responsibility, sustainable development, the Netherlands
Auteurs Liesbeth Enneking en Jeroen Veldman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The past few decades have seen an increasing scrutiny of the impacts – both positive and negative – that companies have on the societies in which they operate. The search for adequate responses to such scrutiny is reflected in developments in the societal, political and academic debate on three separate but interrelated concepts: corporate social responsibility, business and human rights and responsible business conduct. The focus in this Special Issue will be on law and policy relating to responsible business conduct in global value chains. The contributions in this Special Issue identify relevant developments and institutions in the Netherlands, including rules and regulations related to trade, investment and corporate governance as well as cases related to corporate and consumer responsibilities, and assess their role in relation to the potential to provide a positive response to the concern about the human and environmental impacts of business activities. Together, they provide a multi-perspective view of relevant gaps and/or best practices with regard to regulatory governance in the Netherlands while at the same time enabling a comparative debate on the extent to which these diverse developments and institutions are in line with stated policy goals in this context both at national and EU levels. In doing so, this Special Issue aims to contribute to further coherence between national and EU policies with regard to RBC in global value chains and sustainable development.


Liesbeth Enneking
Liesbeth Enneking is Professor of Legal Aspects of International Corporate Social Responsibility at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Jeroen Veldman
Jeroen Veldman is Visiting Professor at the Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation at Mines ParisTech in Paris, France and Honorary Senior Visiting Fellow at Cass Business School in London, UK.
Article

Access_open The Potential of the Dutch Corporate Governance Model for Sustainable Governance and Long Term Stakeholder Value

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2019
Trefwoorden corporate governance, company law, stakeholders, Dutch Corporate Governance Code, long-termism
Auteurs Manuel Lokin en Jeroen Veldman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses the question of how the Dutch regulatory and institutional setting enables policy coherence, specifically with regard to safeguarding stakeholders’ interests and promoting sustainable governance. To address this question, we engage with idiosyncratic theoretical notions in the Dutch corporate governance model. We follow the evolution of these notions in statutory company law and case law, their development in the Dutch Corporate Governance Code and their relation to the Enterprise Chamber as a unique institution. We establish how these theoretical views and practical institutions present significant means by which stakeholder concerns may be represented in the operation of company law and corporate governance more broadly and provide a number of ways in which these institutions and their operation can be further developed.


Manuel Lokin
Manuel Lokin is Professor of Company Law at the University of Utrecht and lawyer at Stibbe, Amsterdam.

Jeroen Veldman
Jeroen Veldman is Visiting Professor at the Interdisciplinary Institute for Innovation at Mines ParisTech in Paris, France and Honorary Senior Visiting Fellow at Cass Business School in London, UK.
Artikel

Access_open Verslag MvO-symposium van 29 mei 2019

Een blik op het verleden en de toekomst van het ondernemingsrecht

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2019
Trefwoorden economisch marktdenken, social entrepreneurship, externaliteiten, BVm
Auteurs Mr. J.E. Devilee
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Verslag van het MvO-symposium van 29 mei 2019, met lezingen over hoe het economisch marktdenken het sociale in het ondernemingsrecht in de verdrukking heeft gebracht, social entrepreneurship en tot slot de rol van het vennootschapsrecht in relatie tot externaliteiten.


Mr. J.E. Devilee
Mr. J.E. Devilee is promovenda ondernemingsrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

‘Ernstig verwijt’ en selectieve betalingen

Enkele beschouwingen naar aanleiding van HR 12 april 2019, ECLI:NL:HR:2019:576

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Ondernemingsrecht, Aflevering 8-9 2019
Trefwoorden bestuurdersaansprakelijkheid, ernstig verwijt, selectieve betalingen, insolventie, kennelijk onbehoorlijk bestuur
Auteurs Mr. A. Karapetian
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt aan de hand van rechtspraak van de Hoge Raad ingegaan op het ‘ernstig verwijt’ als maatstaf voor de beoordeling van de aansprakelijkheid van bestuurders en wordt aandacht besteed aan het leerstuk van selectieve betalingen. De auteur reflecteert op het nut en de noodzaak van het ‘ernstig verwijt’ bij de verschillende grondslagen van bestuurdersaansprakelijkheid en bespreekt de verwikkelingen rondom de (on)geoorloofdheid van selectieve betalingen.


Mr. A. Karapetian
Mr. A. Karapetian is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Privaatrecht en Notarieel Recht van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

    This article focusses on the question whether quantitative modelling and simulation is useful for judicial forecasting, ex-ante testing of judicial policies, and (re)designing chains of organisations like the judicial chain. Specific attention is given to methods that can be used in the face of complexity and deep uncertainty. That is, when facing many substantial uncertainties. Complexity and uncertainty are first of all focused on. Subsequently, modelling methods for dealing with complexity and uncertainty are discussed in more detail, examples are given, and the process needed to build such models in a participatory way is discussed.


Dr. Erik Pruyt
Dr. E. Pruyt is als universitair hoofddocent Policy Modelling verbonden aan de Technische Universiteit Delft. Hij is tevens founding partner van het Center for Policy Exploration Analysis and Simulation en directeur van het Institute for Grand Challenges.
Artikel

Waarom is er verschil in jeugdoverlast tussen buurten?

Een ‘mixed method’-onderzoek naar de voorspellende waarde van buurtkenmerken in relatie tot jeugdoverlast

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden sociale desorganisatie, Jeugdoverlast, Hangplek, vrije tijd
Auteurs Floris Bots MSc en Dr. Joris Beijers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The matter for this research is the request from the municipality of Eindhoven to map youth nuisance in the city of Eindhoven and to find explanations for differences between neighborhoods in order to provide policy makers with guidance. Quantitative and qualitative methods tested the social disorganization theory. Factors that may explain youth nuisance are a high degree of ethnic heterogeneity, low neighborhood participation and a high level of physical deterioration. In addition, youngsters who have unstructured leisure time prefer a place to hang out where there is no social control. Policy makers can use these insights to design their neighborhoods.


Floris Bots MSc
Floris Bots MSc is afgestudeerd in de master Sociology: Contemporary Social Problems.

Dr. Joris Beijers
Dr. Joris Beijers is docent bij de afdeling Sociologie van de Universiteit Utrecht.

Mr. H.A.J. (Henk) Gierveld
Mr. H.A.J. Gierveld is voorzitter van de redactie van het Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht.

Bert Keirsbilck
B. Keirsbilck is hoofddocent aan de KU Leuven, co-directeur van het Instituut voor Consument, Concurrentie en Markt (CCM), en campusdecaan in Brussel.

Evelyne Terryn
E. Terryn is gewoon hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven en co-directrice van CCM.

Elias Van Gool
E. Van Gool is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan de KU Leuven en lid van CCM.

Frederik Vandendriescche
Prof. dr. Frederik Vandendriessche is gastprofessor aan de Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Europees, Publiek- en Internationaal Recht, Vakgebied Bestuursrecht.

Brecht Warnez
Dr. Brecht Warnez is gastdocent aan de Universiteit Gent, Vakgroep Europees, Publiek- en Internationaal Recht, Vakgebied Bestuursrecht.

Vanessa Mak
Prof. mr. Vanessa Mak is hoogleraar privaatrecht aan Tilburg University.
Digitale markten

Een gelijk speelveld in de online platformeconomie?

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2019
Trefwoorden online platforms, digitale interne markt, schadelijke handelspraktijken
Auteurs Mr. L.E. Felderhof en Mr. M.P.C. Rozenbroek
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De Verordening ter bevordering van billijkheid en transparantie voor zakelijke gebruikers van onlinetussenhandelsdiensten heeft het doel te zorgen voor een eerlijke, transparante en voorspelbare bedrijfsomgeving voor ondernemers (met name het midden- en kleinbedrijf) die online platforms gebruiken om hun goederen en/of diensten aan te bieden aan consumenten.
    In dit artikel bespreken wij dat het wenselijk is dat door middel van deze verordening ex ante regels worden gesteld aan aanbieders van online platforms, met name omdat het huidige mededingingsinstrumentarium in de veranderende (digitale) economie niet altijd toereikend blijkt. Ook plaatsen wij enkele kanttekeningen bij de uitvoerbaarheid en het effect van de verordening in de praktijk, welke aspecten volgens ons niet voldoende geadresseerd zijn in de verordening.
    Verordening (EU) 2019/1150 van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van 20 juni 2019 ter bevordering van billijkheid en transparantie voor zakelijke gebruikers van onlinetussenhandelsdiensten, PbEU 2019, L 186.


Mr. L.E. Felderhof
Mr. L.E. (Laura) Felderhof is advocaat bij NautaDutilh N.V.

Mr. M.P.C. Rozenbroek
Mr. M.P.C. (Marieke) Rozenbroek is advocaat bij NautaDutilh N.V.
Jurisprudentie

Access_open Kroniek Ondernemingsstrafrecht

Eerste helft 2019

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 3 2019
Auteurs Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.), mr. A.A. Feenstra, mr. A.C.M. Klaasse e.a.
Samenvatting


Prof. mr. H.J.B. Sackers (red.)

mr. A.A. Feenstra

mr. A.C.M. Klaasse

prof. mr. M. Nelemans

mr. K.M.T. Helwegen

mr. dr. E. Sikkema

mr. dr. drs. B. van der Vorm

mr. dr. J.S. Nan
Artikel

The Imperfect International Sales Law

Time for a New Go or Better Keeping the Status Quo?

Tijdschrift Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht, Aflevering 9 2019
Trefwoorden CISG, imperfections of the current international sales law, reform, supplement, CISG 2.0
Auteurs Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen en N.G. Ahuja
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A series of imperfections in the CISG touching upon various areas are laid out thereby prompting the question of whether the Convention ought to be reformed. Two possibilities, namely supplementing the CISG with additional hard law instruments and drafting a new convention, i.e. CISG 2.0 are discussed and evaluated.


Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen
Prof. mr. A.U. Janssen is a Professor of Civil Law and European Private Law at the Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

N.G. Ahuja
N.G. Ahuja is a Doctorate Candidate in Law at City University of Hong Kong.

    The Latvian Supreme Court recently used the ECJ Max Planck and Kreuziger judgments to explain how an employer can escape its obligation to compensate an employee for unused leave at the end of the employment relationship. The employer must prove that (a) it was possible for the employee to use the leave, and (b) the employer has in good time informed the employee that leave, if not used, might be lost and will not be compensated.


Gautier Busschaert
Gautier Busschaert is an Attorney at Van Olmen & Wynant.

    The Luxembourg Court of Appeal (Cour d’appel de Luxembourg) confirmed that an employee dismissed with notice and exempted from performing their work during the notice period is no longer bound by the non-competition duties arising from their loyalty obligation and can therefore engage in an employment contract with a direct competitor of their former employer during that exempted notice period. However, the Court of Appeal decided that, even if the former employee is in principle entitled to use the know-how and knowledge they acquired with their former employer, the poaching of clients during the notice period must, due to the facts and circumstances and in the light of the rules applicable in the financial sector, be considered as an unfair competition act and therefore constitutes serious misconduct justifying the termination of the employment contract with immediate effect.


Michel Molitor
Michel Molitor is the managing partner of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.

Régis Muller
Régis Muller is partner within the Employment, Pension & Immigration department of MOLITOR Avocats à la Cour SARL in Luxembourg, www.molitorlegal.lu.
Case Reports

2019/29 Eweida versus Achbita: a storm in a teacup? (EU)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Religious discrimination
Auteurs Morwarid Hashemi LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Most scholars have argued that the Achbita judgment is not in line with the jurisprudence of the ECtHR, in particular with the Eweida judgment, and gives less protection to the employee than granted by the ECtHR. In this article, I provide a different perspective on the relation between both judgments and nuance the criticisms that followed the Achbita judgment.


Morwarid Hashemi LLM
Morwarid Hashemi LLM is a former student of Erasmus University Rotterdam

    The Italian Court of Cassation has interpreted a new provision referring to the obligations of the new service provider towards the employees of the former provider.


Caterina Rucci
Caterina Rucci is founding partner of Katariina’s Gild.
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