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    A supplementary tax on retirement income falls outside the scope of Directive 2000/78.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 28 July 2016, case C-423/15 (Kratzer), Discrimination, abuse

Nils-Johannes Kratzer – v – R+V Allgemeine Versicherung AG

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Discrimination, abuse
Samenvatting

    Applying for a job for the purpose of claiming discrimination compensation after being turned down constitutes an abuse of right.

    If a collective agreement grants older employees a higher vacation claim solely because of their age, a younger employee is entitled to the same number of days of leave.


Paul Schreiner
Paul Schreiner and Jana Hunkemöller are, respectively, a partner in Essen and an associate in Düsseldorf with Luther Rechtsanwaltgesellschaft mbH, www.luther-lawfirm.com.

Jana Hunkemöller
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 16 June 2016, case C-159/15 (Lesar), Age discrimination

Franz Lesar – v – Telekom Austria AG

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Samenvatting

    National law that excludes civil servants’ pre-18 service for pension purposes is not age discriminatory.

ECtHR Court Watch

ECtHR 15 September 2016, application 44818/11. (Gurkha), Discrimination

British Gurkha Welfare Society and others – v – the United Kingdom

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Discrimination
Samenvatting

    The ECtHR found no violation of Article 14 of the Convention read together with Article 1 of Protocol 1, in the pension schemes applying to the Brigade of Gurkhas. Although Gurkha soldiers could be regarded as having been treated less favourably than other soldiers in the British army, any difference in treatment had been objectively and reasonably justified.

    A staffing agency rejected an application for an advertised job because the applicant refused to remove her hijab. The court of first instance saw no discrimination, the Court of Appeal did. The plaintiff was awarded €500 but had to bear her own legal expenses.


Caterina Rucci
Caterina Rucci is a partner at Bird & Bird in Milan, www.twobirds.com.

    The Danish Supreme Court has ruled that a provision in a collective agreement allowing employers to pay reduced allowances for working in the evenings, on nights and at weekends to employees under the age of 25 in full-time education and working no more than 15 hours a week was not in conflict with the Danish Anti-Discrimination Act since it was justified by a legitimate aim.


Mariann Norrbom
Mariann Norrbom is a partner of Norrbom Vinding, Copenhagen, www.norrbomvinding.com.
Article

Access_open ‘We Do Not Hang Around. It Is Forbidden.’

Immigration and the Criminalisation of Youth Hanging around in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Criminalisation of youth hanging around, culture of control, immigration and discrimination
Auteurs Thaddeus Muller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus in this article is the ‘criminalisation’ of youth hanging around with the emergence of bans on hanging around. A critical social constructivist approach is used in this study, which draws predominantly on qualitative primary data collected between the late 1980s and 2010s. The article compares indigenous with immigrant youth, which coincides with, respectively, youth in rural communities and youth in urban communities. This study shows that there is discrimination of immigrant youth, which is shaped by several intertwining social phenomena, such as the ‘geography of policing’ – more police in urban areas – familiarity, sharing biographical information (in smaller communities), and the character of the interaction, normalising versus stigmatising. In further research on this topic we have to study (the reaction to) the transgressions of immigrant youth, and compare it with (the reaction to) the transgressions of indigenous youth, which is a blind spot in Dutch criminology.


Thaddeus Muller
Thaddeus Muller, Ph.D., is senior lecturer at the Lancaster University Law School.
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.

    For the fourth time in seven years, an Austrian court has asked the ECJ for guidance on the subject of age discrimination in pay scales. In this latest case, the period required to progress from step 1 to step 2 on the pay scale was longer than the period needed to progress from step 2 to step 3 and beyond. Does that constitute age discrimination? The author argues that it does, and that the arguments advanced to justify it are not valid.


Dr. Marta J. Glowacka
Dr. Marta J. Glowacka, LL.M. is an assistant professor at the Institute for Austrian and European Labour Law and Social Security Law at Vienna University of Economics and Business, www.wu.ac.at.
Case Reports

2016/24 Claimant required to show the ‘reason why’ the underlying reason behind a practice was indirectly discriminatory (UK)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Race discrimination, Discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief, Indirect discrimination, Underlying reason for PCP
Auteurs Anna Bond
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Court of Appeal (‘CoA’) has held that there was no indirect discrimination where the underlying reason behind a ‘provision, criterion or practice’ (‘PCP’) operated by an employer was not discriminatory. The claim of indirect discrimination was brought by Mr Naeem, who is employed by the Prison Service as a full-time imam at HMP Bullingdon. Until 2002, the Prison Service employed only Christian chaplains full-time due to a lack of demand for chaplains of other faiths (who were employed on a sessional basis only). From 2002, it started to hire full-time Muslim as well as Christian chaplains due to an increase in the number of Muslim prisoners.
    The prison system’s pay scale rewards length of service and pay rises are linked to both performance and length of full-time service. Mr Naeem argued that this had a disproportionate negative effect on Muslims, as they could not have been employed for as long as Christians. The CoA rejected this claim, based on the fact that the underlying reason for the difference was the lack of demand for Muslim chaplains before 2002, and that this was not discriminatory.
    This case follows the 2015 CoA case of Essop v Home Office [2015] EWCA Civ 609, which was the first case to add in this extra layer to the indirect discrimination test. According to these cases, a claimant must now show not only that a particular practice particularly disadvantaged them, but also why this is the case. In both cases, appeals have been made to the Supreme Court and these are expected to be heard together later this year.


Anna Bond
Anna Bond is an associate at Lewis Silkin LLP: www.lewissilkin.com.
ECJ Court Watch

Case C-548/15. Age discrimination

J.J. de Lange – v – Staatssecretaris van Financiën, reference lodged by the Dutch Hoge Raad on 21 October 2015

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Age discrimination

    In businesses employing fewer than ten employees, the rules on unfair dismissal do not apply. However, those on discrimination do. This fact made it possible for the 63 year-old employee in this case to claim damages, effectively for unfair dismissal. She had been dismissed following a reduction in the available work. She was selected for redundancy because she was less qualified than her colleagues. However, her termination letter mentioned that she had become “eligible for retirement”. This remark created a presumption of age discrimination, which the employer was not able to rebut.


Paul Schreiner

Dagmar Hellenkemper
Paul Schreiner and Dagmar Hellenkemper are lawyers with Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH, www.luther-lawfirm.com.

    Following a restructure of his employer, an over 50 year old employee was deprived of the opportunity to apply for voluntary redundancy, compared to his under 50 year old colleagues, because it would have triggered early retirement resulting in a higher redundancy package. The Employment Tribunal (‘ET’) held that the use of under 50 year old comparators was not appropriate because the comparators were not entitled to early retirement and were therefore in materially different circumstances compared to the claimant. On appeal to the Employment Appeal Tribunal (‘EAT’), the EAT held that the fact that the comparators were not entitled to early retirement was not a “relevant circumstance” making the comparators invalid. A prima facie case of direct age discrimination was therefore made out. The EAT remitted the case back to the original ET to determine if the employer’s direct discrimination could be justified.


Sarah O’Brien
Sarah O’Brien is a trainee solicitor at Lewis Silkin LLP.
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ (Grand Chamber) 19 April 2016, case C-441/14 (Ajos), age discrimination

Dansk Industri (DI), acting on behalf of Ajos A/S – v – Estate of Karsten Eigil Rasmussen, Danish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Samenvatting

    A court applying national law that is at odds with the principle of non-discrimination on grounds of age must disapply that law, even if it is unequivocal and even where the dispute is between private parties.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 2 June 2016, case C-122/15 (C), age discrimination

C – v – Finland, Finish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Age discrimination
Samenvatting

    National tax law (which the claimant in this case considered to be age discriminatory) does not fall within the scope of Directive 2000/78.

Case Reports

2016/33 Supreme Court clarifies rules on redundancy selection methods (NO)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Redundancy selection
Auteurs Tore Lerheim en Ole Kristian Olsby
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The basic rule in Norwegian law is that an employer planning to reduce headcount must apply the rules for selecting those to be dismissed (based on seniority, qualifications, personal circumstances, etc.) to the entire workforce within the relevant legal entity. However, there are circumstances under which the employer may limit the pool of employees within which to apply those rules. In this case, the employer was justified in limiting that pool to one employee, thereby avoiding the need to make a selection.


Tore Lerheim
Tore Lerheim and Ole Kristian Olsby are partners with Homble Olsby advokatfirma in Oslo, www.Homble-olsby.no.

Ole Kristian Olsby
Artikel

Triggerfactoren in het radicaliseringsproces

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden radicalization, trigger factors, cognitive opening, personal characteristics, types of motivation
Auteurs Dr. A.R. Feddes, Drs. L. Nickolson en Prof. dr. B. Doosje
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to understand why people can turn to violence to achieve political or societal changes, it is important to examine factors that can trigger a process of radicalization. In this article the authors outline such a model of trigger factors. In this model they specify trigger factors at the micro level (individual level), meso level (group level), and macro level (societal level). In addition, the authors argue that it is important to take into account personal characteristics, such as age, gender, and the type of motivation, behind a radicalization process. With respect to these types of motivation, the authors distinguish between sensation seekers, justice seekers, identity seekers, and meaning seekers. This model enables to discern triggers in the radicalization process of specific people in specific contexts.


Dr. A.R. Feddes
Dr. Allard Feddes is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Afdeling Psychologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. www.uva.nl/over-de-uva/organisatie/medewerkers/content/f/e/a.r.feddes/a.r.feddes.html.

Drs. L. Nickolson
Drs. Lars Nickolson is als senior adviseur verbonden aan de Expertise-unit Sociale Stabiliteit van het ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid.

Prof. dr. B. Doosje
Prof. dr. Bertjan Doosje is hoogleraar Radicalisering studies (Frank Buijs-leerstoel vanwege het Verwey-Jonker Instituut) aan de afdelingen Politicologie en Psychologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. www.uva.nl/over-de-uva/organisatie/medewerkers/content/d/o/e.j.doosje/e.j.doosje.html.
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