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Artikel

Access_open ‘Dissenting opinions’ in religiezaken voor het Europees Hof (II)

De gewone kamer

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden dissenting opinions, Godsdienstvrijheid, margin of appreciation, EVRM
Auteurs Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What divides the ECtHR in religion cases? Study of dissenting opinions in religion cases of the ECtHR sheds a light on dividing lines within the ECtHR and deepens our understanding of the methods of reasoning of the ECtHR itself. Following an analysis of dissenting opinions in religion cases in the rulings of the Grand Chamber of the ECtHR, this article focuses on the Chamber. As in the previous analysis, a clear pattern in the dividing lines is brought to light. This article discusses and evaluates this finding.


Prof. dr. Sophie van Bijsterveld
Prof. dr. S.C. van Bijsterveld is hoogleraar Religie, recht en samenleving aan de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.

    This paper provides a dialectical-historical description of the EU's constitutional discourse. It is argued that the early Community's member state blind principle of justice implied the notion of a European political community and led to the establishment of fair procedures for decision making. This coming of age of an encompassing European constitutional narrative of justice and fairness prompted the question of the demarcation between the political role of the European political community and that of member states' political communities. The answer proved to be subsidiarity. However, subsidiarity has introduced national conceptions of justice in the Union's constitutional discourse, at the risk of making European justice dependent on national conceptions of justice.


Dries Cools
Dries Cools works at the National Bank of Belgium and holds a Master of Laws and a Master in Philosophy of the KU Leuven and an LL.M. of Harvard Law School.

    With more and more information disclosed online and with open-access policies on the rise, legal academic research is becoming more accessible. The potential impact of this development is enormous, particularly in areas or jurisdictions where offline information is scarce and where access to subscription-based journals or books is limited or non-existing. Because the current literature lacks materials that guide researchers who conduct legal research while relying on open access, this article discusses where and how to find and select relevant academic books, journal articles, and working papers in the open access world. The resources, selection tools, and search strategies explained in this article particularly focus on finding open access sources in English. Consequently, this article assists researchers who rely on materials that are freely accessible because they lack access to books and to subscription-based journals outside of their own jurisdiction. The section on search strategy is relevant for researchers who aim to identify sources in an effective and efficient way.


Gijs van Dijck
Tilburg University. The author thanks Lukas Dziedzic, Marie-Claire Menting, Zihan Niu, Marnix Snel, Eric Tjong Tjin Tai and three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on a previous version of this article.Parts of section 2 and section 3 can also be found in Gijs van Dijck, ‘Eerste hulp bij juridisch bronnenonderzoek: waar te zoeken en hoe relevante bronnen te selecteren op het internet?’ (2015) Surinaams Juristenblad 29 (in Dutch). For a general overview of research strategies, see https://olinuris.library.cornell.edu/content/skill-guides (last accessed 26 April 2016).
Artikel

Regels voor de digitale deeleconomie, oftewel ‘uber-regulering’

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden deeleconomie, experimenteerbepaling, innovatie
Auteurs Sofia Ranchordas
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De zogenoemde ‘deeleconomie’ wordt steeds populairder en steeds meer elektronische platformen bieden goederen en diensten aan die niet door professionals, maar door gewone burgers geleverd worden. Dit levert kansen op, maar er zijn ook risico’s aan verbonden. Omdat de deeleconomie gebaseerd is op gedeelde consumptie, kunnen deze initiatieven in principe leiden tot een lager verbruik van hulpbronnen, minder CO2-uitstoot en een grotere vraag naar duurzamere producten van goede kwaliteit. Als nadelen worden vaak genoemd een gebrek aan regels, arbeidsonzekerheid, gevaren voor de veiligheid van de gebruikers en schending van de privacy van consumenten. Dit alles werpt de vraag op hoe de wetgever met de opkomst van de deeleconomie moet omgaan: moet hij maatregelen nemen om de deeleconomie te bevorderen of bestaande regelgeving toepassen? De auteur neemt het standpunt in dat, omdat de deeleconomie nog in grote beweging is, er een voorlopige oplossing moet worden gevonden waarbij de voordelen van de deeleconomie afgewogen worden tegen de publieke belangen die op dit moment onbeschermd blijven. Deze derde weg kan worden bewandeld door de invoering van afwijkende regels of via experimenten. De wijze waarop de gemeente Amsterdam omgaat met Airbnb is volgens de auteur hiervan een goed voorbeeld.


Sofia Ranchordas
Mr. dr. Sofia Ranchordas is universitair docent aan de Tilburg Law School en Resident Fellow aan de Yale Law School, Information Society Project.
Artikel

Becker’s theory on crime and punishment, a useful guide for law enforcement policy in The Netherlands?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Economics of crime, law enforcement policy, Gary Becker
Auteurs Ben van Velthoven en Peter van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Becker’s theory on crime and punishment provides guidelines for designing an optimal law enforcement policy. In designing such a policy the costs of law enforcement should be traded-off against the benefits that originate in deterring criminal acts. We investigate whether law enforcement policy in the Netherlands is consistent with this guidelines. Since policy makers are not very precise on the goals of law enforcement policy and hardly anything is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of instruments, it turns out to be impossible to say whether law enforcement policy actually contributes to social welfare. This is not necessarily problematic if, in line with the efficient law hypothesis, law enforcement automatically converges to an efficient outcome. Furthermore, Becker’s theory appears to miss a crucial element by not taking account of existing preferences for retribution. If utility is derived from seeing that justice is done, this should be included in the welfare criterion. Assuming policy makers prefer welfare enhancing law enforcement, they would be well-advised to start systematically collecting information on the effectiveness and efficiency of instruments of law enforcement policy.


Ben van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

Peter van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is universitair hoofddocent Rechtseconomie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

    In the theory, legislation and practice of regulation and conduct of administrative procedures, trends towards the concept of good administration can be detected at both supra- and national levels. Based on normative and comparative-legal analyses of Slovene (1999), Croatian (2009) and the EP Resolution (2013) administrative procedure acts (APAs), the article identifies user-oriented institutions that pursue the principles of good administration. Furthermore, it examines acceleration and braking mechanisms that influence the duration of procedures (e.g. setting and shortening time limits, positive fiction, preclusions, and enforcement of procedural errors, broader participation of affected parties, legal protection). Timely and efficient decision-making viewed as a human right with balanced protection of public and private legal interests is in fact crucial for achieving good administration. Hence, in conclusion, the authors propose selected changes de lege ferenda for the reregulation of APAs in Slovenia and beyond, in support of less excessive length of procedures.


Tina Sever

Polonca Kovac
Artikel

Big Data in wetenschappelijk onderzoek

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, datafication, data mining, research data, Internet of Things
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Big Data offers a plethora of promising opportunities in different areas of society. This introductory article focuses on the opportunities of Big Data in scientific research. The central question addressed in this article is: ‘What can Big Data offer in the context of scientific research?’ In order to answer this question, the following topics are discussed: what is Big Data, what is new about Big Data, which applications are there for Big Data in scientific research, and what are the pros and cons of the use of Big Data in scientific research? The conclusion is that Big Data offers some opportunities for scientific research that were previously impossible and, therefore, can be useful for researchers. However, the use of Big Data also has its limitations and the added value may depend on the research questions that are addressed.


Mr. dr. ir. B.H.M. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC. Daarnaast is hij als onderzoeksmanager werkzaam voor eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Case Reports

2016/3 Supreme Court allows transferee to differentiate between ‘own’ and acquired employees (PL)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Differing the monthly wages after the workplace has been moved on to another employer
Auteurs Ph.D Marcin Wujczyk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Paying employees acquired by way of the transfer of an undertaking less than the transferee’s original staff not discriminatory. The Supreme Court recently came to this conclusion based on a rather daring interpretation of a provision of national law aimed at transposing an EU directive. Although Polish law obligates employers to treat employees who perform the same work equally regardless of personal characteristics, the provision at issue should be read more narrowly.


Ph.D Marcin Wujczyk
Marcin Wujczyk, Ph. D., is a partner with Ksiazek & Bigaj in Krakow, www.ksiazeklegal.pl.
ECJ Court Watch

Case C-539/15. Age Discrimination

Daniel Bowman –v– Pensionsversicherungsanstalt, reference lodged by the Austrian Oberster Gerichtshof on 15 October 2015

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden age discrimination
ECJ Court Watch

Opinion of Advocate-General Bot of 25 November 2015 in case C-441/14. (Ajos), Age Discrimination

Dansk Industri, acting on behalf of Ajos A/S –v– Estate of Karsten Eigil Rasmussen, Danish case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden age discrimination

    Mr Abrams was a member of a limited liability partnership (LLP) and was due to retire. For tax reasons, shortly before retirement Mr Abrams decided to set up a limited company to take his place as a member of the LLP. This was accepted by the LLP. Mr Abrams’s employment by the LLP was stopped and he no longer had a continuing contractual relationship with it. The limited company, as a member of the LLP, was entitled to receive the profit share that Mr Abrams would have received had he continued as a member. It was also agreed that this limited company would supply the services of an appropriate fee-earner to the LLP (which was, in practice, Mr Abrams).
    When Mr Abrams reached retirement age, the LLP tried to terminate his services on the basis that he had reached retirement age and the LLP objected to Mr Abrams’s limited company continuing to be a member of the LLP.
    Mr Abrams and his company brought a claim of age discrimination against the LLP at the Employment Tribunal (ET) and the ET had to decide if a limited company could bring such a claim, which was effectively that it had suffered detrimental treatment because of a protected characteristic of someone with whom it was associated. The ET decided it could and the respondent appealed to the Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT).


Florence Chan
Florence Chan is a Legal Assistant at Lewis Silkin Hong Kong: www.lewissilkinemployment.com.

    The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has recently ruled on a Hungarian law suspending payment of civil servants’ pensions for the period during which they are employed in certain areas of the public sector. The ECtHR found this law to be discriminatory as it breaches Article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) read in conjunction with Article 1, Protocol 1. Hungary, as the respondent State, is to pay pecuniary and non-pecuniary damages and procedural costs and expenses to the applicant, Mr Gyula Fábián. The judgment was delivered on 15 December 2015 and, if not appealed to the Grand Chamber, will cease to be appealable on 15 March 2016.


Dr. Ildiko Ratkai
Dr. Ildiko Ratkai is a lawyer with Ratkai Law Firm, www.ratkai.com in Budapest.

    In accordance with EU law, the prohibition against gender-based discrimination (in this case: dismissal relating to pregnancy) cannot be limited to employment relationships as defined in national law: it must also apply to other types of legal relationship, where one party provides services to another party for consideration, for an open-ended period of time under the supervision of a principal.


Gabriella Ormai
Gabriella Ormai is a partner and

Péter Bán
Péter Bán is senior counsel with CMS Cameron McKenna LLP, www.cms-cmck.com.

    The employer may unilaterally stipulate or agree a salary with an employee that goes beyond the equal treatment standards, to the employee’s benefit if there is a material reason. The reason must either represent a competitive advantage compared to other employees, or the unequal treatment must be a substantial requirement necessary for the particular work.


Nataša Randlová
Nataša Randlová is a lawyer with the Prague firm Randl Partners, www.randls.com.
Artikel

Moving beyond the other

A critique of the reductionist drugs discourse

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden drug use, drug users, drug policy, drug reform, media, discourse, the other
Auteurs Stuart Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper uses the UK as a vehicle through which to argue that a dominant reductionist drugs discourse exists which simplifies understandings of drug use and drug users leading to socio-cultural misrepresentations of harm, risk and dangerousness. It contends that at the centre of this discourse lies the process of othering – the identification of specific substances and substance users as a threat to UK society. Interestingly, within the wider context of global drug policy reform this othering process appears to be expanding to target a wider variety of factors and actors – those policies, research findings and individuals which contest normative notions, resulting in the marginalisation of ‘alternative voices’ which question the entrenched assumptions associated with drug prohibition. The paper concludes that there is a need for collective action by critical scholars to move beyond the other, calling for academics to be innovative in their research agendas, creative in their dissemination of knowledge and resolute despite the threat of being othered themselves.


Stuart Taylor
Stuart Taylor is senior lecturer in criminal justice in the School of Law at Liverpool John Moores University, UK.
Artikel

Can I sit?

The use of public space and the ‘other’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden public space, built environment, other, social control
Auteurs CalvinJohn Smiley PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Newark Penn Station is the most frequented train station in New Jersey, United States. Two distinct groups occupy this public space. First are the commuters who travel by the trains to reach destinations for work or pleasure. Second are the transient who do not use the trains but instead remain in and around the station for various reasons, otherwise known as the ‘other.’ The latter population is closely monitored and controlled by law enforcement through a variety of written and unwritten laws and codes of conduct, which are based on broken windows theory and crime prevention through environment design (CPTED). The primary focus is how the ‘other’ seemingly navigates and occupies public space. Through ethnographic research, this paper reflects and reveals the ways in which the station is a living social organism that simultaneously marginalizes and incorporates those defined as the ‘other’ into this space. This complex and contradictory dynamic illustrates the interactions between public spaces and its occupiers and regulators.


CalvinJohn Smiley PhD
Dr CalvinJohn Smiley is currently working at the Sociology Department of Hunter College at the City University of New York.
Artikel

Systeemmishandeling: recht doen aan de zienswijzen van ouderen zelf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2015
Trefwoorden Definitions of elder abuse, System abuse, Societal norms, Institutional reforms, Discrimination of the elderly
Auteurs Dr. J. Lindenberg, Dr. Y. Mysyuk en Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Two approaches have dominated the way elder abuse is explained and defined: the intrapersonal and interpersonal approaches. More recently, an environmental approach is emerging that takes into account contextual factors. This approach also meets the perspectives of older individuals themselves better. They describe how they feel abused or neglected by the system – by the way in which we organize our institutions. Institutions mirror our society and are shaped in interaction with societal norms and expectations. This influences the way in which older individuals are looked upon, are being approached, and how they see themselves within these institutions. This system abuse is currently beyond the scope of the most commonly used definitions and approaches of elder abuse. However, it is important to acknowledge system abuse, because it makes explicit how older individuals feel abused by and within our institutions. The distress and harm that they experience can therewith be acknowledged and prevented.


Dr. J. Lindenberg
Dr. Jolanda Lindenberg is wetenschappelijk stafmedewerker bij de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).

Dr. Y. Mysyuk
Dr. Yuliya Mysyuk is recent gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift over perspectieven op ouderenmishandeling in Nederland en verbonden aan de Leyden Academy on Vitality and Ageing.

Prof.dr. R.G.J. Westendorp
Prof. dr. Rudi Westendorp is hoogleraar ouderengeneeskunde aan de afdeling publieke gezondheidszorg van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen en tevens verbonden aan het Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC).
Artikel

De epidemiologie van kinderdoding in Nederland, 2009-2014

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Child homicide, Filicide, The Netherlands, Epidemiology, Copycat
Auteurs Marieke Liem en Stephanie Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Child homicide is a phenomenon that not infrequently leads to shock and societal unrest. However, the precise nature and scope of child homicide in the Netherlands remains unknown. This article attempts to fill the gap in our current knowledge by reporting descriptive research on child homicide in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2014. Further, this article aims to assess if media attention regarding child homicide brings about a so-called copycat-effect. By means of descriptive statistics, case, victim and perpetrator characteristics of 74 cases of filicide are assessed.


Marieke Liem
Marieke Liem is universitair docent en senior onderzoeker voor het Violence Research Initiative, bij Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism, verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Stephanie Haarhuis
Stephanie Haarhuis is in 2015 afgestudeerd in de forensische criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Article

Access_open The Impact of the Economic Downturn in the Spanish Civil Justice System

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden judiciary, judge-made justice, court fees, legal aid, ADR-methods
Auteurs Laura Carballo Piñeiro en Jordi Nieva Fenoll
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Spanish justice system has been shaken by the economic downturn as many other institutions have. This article addresses in the first place some statistical data that shed light as regards to the number of judges and the costs and length of the procedure in Spain. These figures help to understand, in the second place, the impact of austerity measures on the judiciary, namely, the freeze on the hiring of judges and the establishing of high court fees. While they mainly concern the supply side of justice services, others such cost reductions in legal aid have had, in the third place, an impact on the demand side, driving many citizens to social exclusion and to resorting to self-defence mechanisms. The final part of this article addresses some remedies that may alleviate judiciary’s workload, but that fall short of doing it. All in all, the Spanish justice system seems to require a holistic approach to patch up edges, but one in which the role of judge-made justice in a democratic society has to be central again.


Laura Carballo Piñeiro
Laura Carballo Piñeiro is Associate Professor of Private International Law at the Common Law Department of the University of Santiago de Compostela.

Jordi Nieva Fenoll
Jordi Nieva Fenoll is Professor of Procedure Law at the Administrative and Procedure Law Department of the University of Barcelona.
Article

Access_open A View from the Sky

A General Overview about Civil Litigation in the United States with Reference to the Relief in Small and Simple Matters

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden civil procedure, United States, small and simple matters
Auteurs Manuel Gomez en Juan Carlos Gomez
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article, which is based on the research conducted for the General Report ‘Relief in Small and Simple Matters in an Age of Austerity’ presented at the XV World Congress of Procedural Law, provides a contextualised and broad overview of these phenomena in the United States. After describing the general features of the federal and state judiciaries, including its adversarial model of judging, and the importance of the jury system, the article turns its attention to discuss the factors that affect the cost of litigation in the United States, the different models of litigation funding, the available legal aid mechanisms, and the procedural tools available for handling small and simple disputes. Furthermore, this article briefly revisits the discussion about the effect of austerity on the functioning of the United States legal system on the handling of small and simple matters and ends with a brief conclusion that summarises its contribution and sketches the points for future research on this important topic.


Manuel Gomez
Manuel Gomez is Associate Professor of Law and Associate Dean of International and Graduate Students at the Florida International University College of Law.

Juan Carlos Gomez
Juan Carlos Gomez is Director of the Carlos A. Costa Immigration and Human Rights Clinic at the Florida International University College of Law.
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