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Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht x Jaar 2010 x

Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Ethiek van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en redactiesecretaris van Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.
Artikel

Wettelijke bepalingen voor herstelgerichte afdoeningen

Niet te weinig, niet te veel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bemiddelingsdiensten, wetgeving, preventie, strafproces
Auteurs Martin Wright
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legislation affects restorative justice in four ways: existing legislation may allow it, new laws may enable it, laws may limit it, or restorative justice may be the norm. Examples from different countries are given and specific questions about the relationship of restorative justice to the criminal justice system discussed. It is suggested that, broadly speaking, safeguards should be legislated and practice regulated by an independent body. It is concluded that restorative practices, have the potential to transform society’s response to harmful behaviour.


Martin Wright
Martin Wright is senior onderzoeker aan De Montfort Universiteit in Leicester, Engeland.
Artikel

Jeugdstrafrecht naar Nieuw-Zeelands model

Een door herstelrecht geïnspireerde benadering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden jeugdsanctiemodel, Nieuw-Zeeland, family group conferencing
Auteurs Robert Ludbrook
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Due to immigration the Dutch have made a significant contribution to the development of New Zealand, especially in the field of juvenile justice and adoption. As for New Zealand’s Youth Justice Service, the introduction of the Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act in 1989 has been a landmark in New Zealand’s history of dealing with juvenile delinquency. While it was not designed as a restorative justice system, the current system is tuned towards restorative justice. Until then, New Zealand had a shameful history as far as the handling of juvenile delinquency is concerned. The Maori, whose youngsters were – and still are – overrepresented in juvenile statistics, heavily criticized this model, emphasizing the need to strengthen the bond between the (extended) family and the juvenile offender, as well as the need to provide for redress. In the same period, the United Nations Convention on Children’s Rights (UNCROC) was introduced (1989), the Act of 1989 paying tribute to the UNCROC. As the national juvenile justice system to some extent does not live up to the standards of the UNCROC, there remains room for improvement. However, black clouds gather over New Zealand’s juvenile justice system, for the present government has announced to be in favor of a punitive oriented policy; there is a call to get ‘tough on juvenile crime’. This policy, however, implies setting back the clock and endangers the current orientation on restorative justice, as well as the legal values set out by the UNCROC.


Robert Ludbrook
Robert Ludbrook, een jurist woonachtig in Nieuw-Zeeland, zet zich al ruim dertig jaar in voor de verbetering van rechten van kinderen. Hij was in 1987 aanwezig bij de afsluitende sessie van de werkgroep die het IVRK voorbereidde. Van 1984 tot 1986 werkte hij voor de Children’s Legal Centre in Londen en in 1987 zette hij in Auckland een juridische actiegroep op, Youth Law. Daarnaast was hij oprichter en directeur van de Australian National Children’s and Youth Law Centre (1995-1997). Hij is (mede)auteur van een reeks boeken op het gebied van familierecht, kinderrecht en jeugdstrafrecht.
Casus

Tien jaar Suggnomè….het experiment voorbij

Enkele bedenkingen vanuit de praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden België
Auteurs Dirk Dufraing
Auteursinformatie

Dirk Dufraing
Dirk Dufraing is herstelbemiddelaar in Turnhout voor de Vlaamse organisatie Suggnomè – Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling.

Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

De ontwikkeling van herstelrechtelijke praktijken in Noord-Ierland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Noord-Ierland, Jeugdsanctiesysteem, Preventie, Jeugdrecht
Auteurs Martin McAnallen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides a perspective on the development of restorative justice practice in Northern Ireland. The island of Ireland has a standing history as to the use of restorative justice. In fact, the earliest restorative form of law dates from 2000 BCE, the so-called Brehon Laws. To date, Northern Ireland features as a divided society; over the past 35 years intercommunity conflict brought devastation and heartbreak to the health of the community. Nevertheless, initial soundings were heard as to how the practice of restorative justice might be re-introduced to Northern Ireland. Already in 1989, the Probation Board indicated its intention of piloting a Victim Offender Mediation Programme. From that time, serious attempts were undertaken to implement restorative justice within the North-Irish society. Initiatives were undertaken by Republican as well as Loyalist communities, both being eager to move away from violent community based justice. Special attention was given towards juvenile crime. In 2000 this interest in restorative justice led to a commitment from the North-Irish authorities to put restorative justice matters at the heart of the criminal justice system for young offenders. As a result, in the Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002 the Youth Conference Service was initiated. Between 2003 and the present, Youth Conference Orders or Plans have been the most common disposals for adjudicated offenders up to eighteen years of age. The focus is on the parties resolving how the young person can make amends to the victim and what can be done to prevent further offending. All Agencies linked into the Youth Justice system recognize the special needs of young people. Recent figures show the numbers of young people going into youth custody in Northern Ireland have decreased due to the use of restorative justice models.


Martin McAnallen
Martin McAnallen is ruim 35 jaar actief geweest in het reguliere strafrecht in Noord-Ierland. Sinds halverwege de jaren tachtig was hij nauw betrokken bij de ontwikkeling van de mediationpraktijk in Noord-Ierland en herstelrecht. In 1992 vervulde Martin een actieve rol bij de oprichting van wat nu heet Mediation Northern Ireland. Zijn speciale aandacht ligt bij slachtoffer-daderbemiddeling en in het bijzonder Family Group Conferencing met jonge daders. Hij is een ervaren trainer en publiceert in diverse tijdschriften.
Casus

Inzetten van conferenties bij ernstige misdaden

Seminar Verkenning mogelijkheden herstelgericht werken, 24 en 25 september 2010

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Casus

Lima Declaration on Restorative Juvenile Justice

Declaratie en actiepunten wereldcongres jeugdherstelrecht, Lima, 4-7 november 2009

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Redactioneel

Herstelrecht en mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis en Renée Kool
Auteursinformatie

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Renée Kool
Renée Kool is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Zij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.

Theo van Boven
Theo van Boven is emeritus hoogleraar Internationaal recht, Universiteit Maastricht. Voorts heeft Theo van Boven enige aan de Verenigde Naties verbonden functies bekleed, onder andere als directeur van de afdeling Mensenrechten, als speciaal rapporteur inzake het Recht op Reparatie voor Slachtoffers van Ernstige Schendingen van de Rechten van de Mens en als speciaal rapporteur inzake Martelingen.

    The author notes that the growth of restorative justice practices seems to be hampered by the consequences of the effective socialization into the ‘penal equation’ that presents punishment as the necessary consequence of criminal offending. Upbringing in a different conflict-culture may be a fundamental condition for creating more room for restorative justice in the formal sphere of criminal justice. The need for a different socialization is also noted and discussed in the movement for human rights and has resulted in an Action Plan for human rights education of UNESCO in 2005. A satisfactory implementation of this action plan seems to be absent in the Netherlands today and methods of human rights education do not refer at all to the potentials of restorative practices such as peer mediation in schools. On the other hand, authors in restorative justice do not often refer to human rights and how they are promoted. The author claims that it is plausible that making ample room for peer mediation and conferencing in schools can be an effective way, not only to address offending conduct that often implies a breach of basic human rights – the most basic values therein being human dignity and equality – but also to make new generations aware of the meaning of human rights in their daily interactions and the qualities of their own social life.


John Blad
John Blad is als hoofddocent Strafrechtswetenschappen verbonden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Naar een ‘rights based’ jeugdherstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderrechten, Internationale Verdrag inzake de Rechten van het Kind, Jeugdherstelrecht
Auteurs Annemieke Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution starts with an introduction of human rights, children’s rights and restorative justice. What are the links and differences between these concepts and how do they interrelate? An overview of human rights for children in international standards relevant to the discussion on juvenile justice, such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and additional instruments, is given. It is examined how restorative justice fits in this framework.
    Human rights are one of the main pillars of our modern society. General juvenile justice principles such as diversion, the use of detention only as a measure of last resort and focusing on re-integration give a clear basis for restorative justice practice. Recent international and European conventions, guidelines and recommendations dealing with juvenile justice explicitly recommend the use of restorative justice. It is actually seen as the main priority focus of the reaction to youth criminality. The Committee on the Rights of the Child declared in General Comment 10 that the best interests of the child imply that the traditional aims of criminal justice – repression and retribution – should make room for rehabilitation and reintegration. Today’s focus on youth delinquency should be a restorative one. But how to implement rather broad notions such as restorative justice in individual cases and to make them fulfil internationally accepted human rights standards. With the model of Mitchell and Moore it is explored how children’s rights (mainly article 40 and the main principles of the CRC) and restorative justice are connected and how they can use each other. The need is stressed and some tools are given to work towards a ‘rights based restorative justice’.


Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is onderzoeker aan de Open Universiteit en schrijft een proefschrift over jeugdherstelrecht en kinderrechten. Zij is tevens verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, waar zij bijdraagt aan maatschappelijk onderzoek, en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Praktijk

International seminar on penal mediation.

Korte impressie van een tweedaags seminar in Napels

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Auteurs Eric Wiersma
Auteursinformatie

Eric Wiersma
Eric Wiersma is werkzaam als beleidsconsulent bij Halt Nederland.

Gert Jan Slump
Gert Jan Slump (criminoloog) is zelfstandig gevestigd adviseur te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Een blik op herstelbemiddeling vanuit een sociaal werk-perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden sociaal werk, herstelbemiddeling, emancipatie, responsabilisering
Auteurs Lieve Bradt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author reports on the doctorate research that she presented in 2009. Restorative practices have not often been researched as a praxis of social work, on the interface between giving help and administering justice. The author situates restorative mediation as a form of social work on the threshold between the private and the public, a threshold that she considers to be of a social nature.Restorative mediation as social work should contribute to values such as human dignity and social justice. The author observed and studied restorative mediation in adult on the one hand and juvenile criminal cases on the other (in Flanders, Belgium) and found that these practices differ widely.Although in both kind of practices responsibility and restoration are central concepts, their meanings differ fundamentally: in youth cases the offer of restorative mediation departs from a critical pedagogy oriented at emancipation, holding on to protective arrangements at the same time. Societal developments changed the image of youngsters from victims of society into risks for society and this may have implied that social problems around criminality are now also by mediation transformed into individual problems for which juveniles should be held accountable.In adult criminal cases the approach was initially much more on civic responsibility for the harm done to victims and since mediation was only offered in serious cases the courts always had their say too.Reflecting upon her research the author questions whether dominant social norms can be and still are challenged in the praxis of mediation. Restorative mediation has become incorporated into the existing institutional arrangements relevant to juveniles and adults: with juvenile cases the logic of prevention seems to become dominant. The practices seem to become exercises in taking responsibility within the traditional normative framework. On the threshold between the private and the public restorative practices, with their self-image of being a more humane form of law enforcement, run the risk of becoming blind for the potential effect of criminalization of their clients.


Lieve Bradt
Lieve Bradt is als sociaal-agoog verbonden aan de Universiteit van Gent. Zij is in 2009 gepromoveerd op haar proefschrift met de titel Victim-offender mediation as social work practice. A comparison between mediation for Young and adult offenders in Flanders.
Artikel

De maximalistische visie op herstelrecht onder vuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden maximalisme, rechtsorde, slachtoffers, rehabilitatie
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The authors latest book on Restorative Justice, Self-Interest and Responsible Citizenship has been discussed in this journal in 2009 and the author now responds to the critiques, which came from three jurists and therefore had a predominantly juristic character. Themes discussed are ‘criminal justice and punishment’, ‘restorative justice and the law’, ‘restorative justice, the victim and public interest’, ‘restorative justice and the legal order’ and finally ‘restorative justice and offender rehabilitation’. Walgrave maintains and clarifies the views he developed in the book explaining why it is correct to claim that criminal justice can be identified as fundamentally punitive (although it does not always punish, as one critic has observed) and that it should be possible to elaborate restorative justice into a completely new legal system, offering legal guarantees fitting to what restorative justice is trying to achieve. Legal guarantees as they exist today in criminal procedure cannot be taken as the benchmark for restorative procedures in view of the totally different aims and procedures. Furthermore, it is not true that the victim gets too much power in restorative justice – as one critic stated – because restorative justice is and should be conceived as a system of public law, involving the legal agencies and authorities such as courts in a proper role as guardians of every citizin’s dominion. It is because of the safeguarding of dominion that the victim should have a key-role to play in restorative justice, although not obliged to participate.One critic has mentioned that Walgraves ideas seem to imply that the legal order is only something being imposed upon the citizens ‘top down’, while in many respects one could maintain that the law and the principles of the legal order have been produced ‘bottom-up’ or at least should be the result of democracy. The response is that restorative procedures offer more opportunities for citizens for this democratic participation in producing the norms of the law.Finally some have argued that the rehabilitative interests of the offender should have a more central place in the definition of restorative justice, more or less of the same importance as restoring the harms of the victim. Walgraves experiences with the Belgian model of juvenile protection made him cautious of the risks of doing so, not only in terms of serving the victims needs, but also in terms of the legal protection of the juvenile offender against arbitrary interventions.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Annemieke Wolthuis
Annemieke Wolthuis is als onderzoekster verbonden aan het Hilde Verweij-Jonker Instituut te Utrecht.

Jan van Lieshout
Jan van Lieshout is journalist en betrokken bij de Eigen Kracht Centrale te Zwolle.
Artikel

Reparatieve en herstelgerichte strafrechtspleging.

Een goed argument voor tweesporigheid in strafrechtelijk beleid?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden tweesporenbeleid, gevangenispopulaties, detentieregime, reparatief recht
Auteurs David J. Cornwell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Just over thirty years ago now, on 12th January 1977 to be precise, Sir Anthony Bottoms presented his Inaugural Lecture as Professor of Criminology at the University of Sheffield, UK. The full text of this almost prophetic Lecture was subsequently published in the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice and reached a much wider audience. One of its central themes was the emerging tendency within British criminal justice policy to treat really serious offenders in a significantly different manner from their less serious counterparts with whom a more lenient approach might be justified. This tendency he described as penal bifurcation.There were two reasons why such an apparently logical approach might be found exceptionable: the first relates to the general principal of treating like cases similarly, and the second that the practice was proposed on the basis of the relative extent of social risk that might be claimed to differentiate serious from less serious offending. Bifurcation in both of these forms is evident in the use within some jurisdictions of extended and indeterminate sentences for public protection, and in many respects also within parole release considerations.The central proposition in relation to bifurcation within this article is, however, of a somewhat different nature. Restorative justice places considerable reliance upon offenders accepting responsibility for their offences, showing remorse for the harm done to victims in the form of genuine apology, and then making reparation either to the victim(s) directly, or to victims of crime more generally. These principles apply equally to serious and less serious offenders, though the extent of reparation should logically be greater as the crime increases in gravity.In an era of widely increasing penal populations it is apparent that these escalations result from increased severity of sentencing on the one hand, and from wider use of custody and lower thresholds for imposing it on the other. Both forms of resort to custody in sentencing are increasingly justified on the basis of public protection, and to act otherwise is perceived (and often promoted in the media) as being ‘soft on crime’. Politicians anxious to retain electoral credibility do not wish to be labelled as soft on crime, and actively seek to avoid such accusations by supporting increasingly punitive measures against offenders.One of the reasons why restorative justice has attracted only limited acceptance in the world of adult criminal justice is that it is perceived as a less punitive response to offending than the more traditional retributive punishment mode or its ‘justice model’ desert-based counterpart. In the span of this article I shall attempt to describe how, with a respectable measure of bifurcation, a model of reparative and restorative justice can be presented as a viable and optimistic alternative to the penal politics of retributive punishment and social protection. That it might bring with it the potential for reduced use of custody will be left to the reader to decide.


David J. Cornwell
David J. Cornwell is criminoloog en consulent, gespecialiseerd in gevangenisvraagstukken. Hij heeft meerdere recente boeken op zijn naam staan, waarvan de laatste The penal crisis and the Clapham Omnibus in 2009 verscheen. Het (vertaalde) artikel in dit tijdschrift maakt deel uit van het genoemde boek.
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