Zoekresultaat: 35 artikelen

x
De zoekresultaten worden gefilterd op:
Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Rubriek Artikel x

    This paper focuses on how organized crime in Bulgaria uses political corruption to achieve its goals. It focuses, though, on one specific type of criminal structures, the ones controlled by former security officers. More specifically it analyzes the criminal careers of two well known Bulgarian crime figures and former security officers. The way they use the instrument of corruption changes though the years when they evolve from relatively unimportant racketeers into powerful local oligarchs.


P. Gounev
Philip Gounev (philip.gounev@online.bg) is als research fellow verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen. De auteurs bedanken Ruth van Leeuwen voor de vertaling van dit artikel en voor haar bijdrage aan het onderzoek.

T. Bezlov
Tihomir Bezlov (tiho@online.bg) is als senior analyst verbonden aan het Center for the Study of Democracy in Londen.

    Charles Kindleberger unravelled the anatomy of a typical financial crisis in his famous book Manias, panics and crashes (1978). He stresses that during a boom the tendency to swindle and be swindled runs parallel to the tendency to speculate. In this article five famous and non-famous swindles over the past ninety years are analyzed. Each financial boom, and each financial crisis during this period of modern capitalism experienced at least one famous financial swindle, which is to be seen as typical for the boom and the subsequent deception. The five swindlers described are Charles (Carlo) Ponzi in the 1920s, Ivar Krueger around 1930, Bernie Cornfeld in the 1960s/1970s, Michael Milken in the 1980s and - very recently - Bernard Madoff. His 65 billion dollar fraud is to be seen as the first worldwide Ponzi scheme - a fraud that lasted longer, reached wider and cut deeper than any similar scheme in history. An analysis of these five cases yields several striking similarities. It is concluded that financial swindles are no random events, but the result of both structural changes and circular waves of economic and financial boom and bust.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is beleidsmedewerker bij de Directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

    Many actors have been blamed for the financial crisis: Greenspan, banks, rating agencies, careless mortgage takers and incompetent mainstream economists. This paper however focusses on other explanations for the crisis which are usually neglected in mainstream economics. The imbalances in the income and wealth distribution worldwide have become so large, that the poor cannot buy the goods produced by rich countries anymore, while the rich have become so rich that they cannot spend all their income anymore in the real sector. This lack of demand for goods has artificially been filled by unsecured debts given to the poor, but eventually led to a taking off of financial markets, and to a crisis. When imbalances are too large, this backfires. Government packages aimed at stabilizing the economy should therefore not forget the income and wealth distribution in order to be successful in the long run.


B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is hoogleraar economie van de publieke sector bij de Utrecht School of Economics.

    In recent years there is an increasing trend towards semi-public space. This article seeks to explain this trend. As the heterogeneity of society grows, it becomes more difficult to deal with different groups within one's living environment. Residents prefer a sheltering living environment that attracts similar groups and excludes those they would rather avoid. Social engineering through architecture has a long history: municipalities used to combine the design of neighbourhoods and public spaces with a social agenda of community building. Later, as society evolved, the prevention of friction between people and the creation of public meeting places became leading principles, but never exclusion. However, public housing associations and developers are increasingly accommodating preferences for sheltered living environments by the creation of collective space, appropriating public space and the temporary use of undeveloped space. Three cases illustrate this.


L. Bijlsma
Drs. Like Bijlsma is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

M. Galle
Drs. Maaike Galle is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.

J. Tennekes
Drs. Joost Tennekes is verbonden aan het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving in Den Haag.
Artikel

Bedrijfsverbetergebieden

Een verkennend onderzoek naar de veiligheidszorg in winkelcentrum Alexandrium

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2010
Auteurs P. Van Calster, M.B. Schuilenburg en R. Guitjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Where formerly the government had the monopoly on the governing of security, it seems that there has been a shift taking place towards a more horizontal security care. The government has stopped being the only organizer and executor of issues of security. Private companies increasingly take over the government's responsibilities. This is also the case in the Dutch shopping centre Alexandrium. Alexandrium is one of the first examples in the Netherlands of a Business Improvement District. Nowadays entrepreneurs decide which activities are organized and which projects are being set up in order to keep the area ‘clean and safe’. On the basis of 43 in-depth interviews the authors show that not all parties involved are optimistic about this development. Main point of attention is the lack of cooperation between the entrepreneurs and the police. Moreover, they express the feeling that the shopping area has become less safe in the past years.


P. Van Calster
Dr. Patrick Van Calster doceert aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en de Universiteit Leiden.

M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

R. Guitjens
Renate Guitjens MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

De opbouw van de rechtsstaat in Afghanistan

Een bezinning op tien jaar buitenlandse hulp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs V.L. Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this essay the author looks back at ten years of rule of law foreign assistance in Afghanistan. She first surveys the elements that make Afghanistan particularly challenging as a development. This is followed by a brief outline of foreign donor-assisted efforts at rule of law reform in the last decade. The features of law and legal systems in Afghanistan that are salient for would-be foreign reformers are analyzed. The concept of judicial independence serves as example of well-intentioned rule of law interventions that have not fared well in this complex environment. The author argues that better prepared international advisors with a better grasp of legal history and comparative law may have produced stronger outcomes. Ultimately, however, a pre-post-conflict setting constrains conventional rule of law programs in important ways and calls for more realism about what can be achieved, within what time frame and with what degree of sustainability.


V.L. Taylor
Prof. Veronica Taylor is als hoogleraar en directeur verbonden aan de School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy van de Australian National University. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de Van Vollenhoven Lezing die zij op 20 mei 2010 uitsprak ter gelegenheid van haar benoeming als The Hague Visiting Professor of Rule of Law aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Leren van Vlaanderen

Kenmerken van de Vlaamse burgemeester ter inspiratie voor het Nederlandse debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs J. van Ostaaijen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the role and functioning of the Flemish mayor is analysed from a Dutch perspective. Three observations are considered noteworthy and discussed elaborately: the role of the mayor in internal local politics, the mayor's relationship with the local community, and the possible combination of several political mandates. The article shows that mayors can be more political without being directly elected (which is the case both in Flanders and the Netherlands) and that there is considerable room for mayors to give meaning to their job. In showing the similarities and differences between Dutch and Flemish mayors, this article is meant to inspire both policy makers and Dutch mayors and to contribute to the debate about the future of the Dutch mayor.


J. van Ostaaijen
Dr. Julien van Ostaaijen (j.j.c.vanostaaijen@uvt.nl) is onderzoeker aan de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur, Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij heeft een proefschrift geschreven over de impact van Leefbaar Rotterdam op het Rotterdamse lokaal bestuur en werkte onder meer bij de gemeente Antwerpen (als stagiair) en het Kenniscentrum Grote Steden (thans NICIS). In 2005 was hij betrokken bij de visitatie van het Vlaamse Stedenfonds (onder voorzitterschap van Filip De Rynck en Pieter Tops).
Artikel

De verhouding politie-bevolking in historisch perspectief

Wederzijdse afhankelijkheid en stilzwijgende contracten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2010
Auteurs M. De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores police-citizens relations in the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries and attempts to demonstrate that these were not as unequivocal as is commonly assumed. While historians approach the modern police as an instrument of coercive state control imposed ‘from above’ onto a passive population, current policy debates tend to assume that police-citizen relations were friendly and that cops learned from citizens, leading to well-informed and neighbourhood-sensitive policing. The author argues that police-citizen relations were not friendly, but all about the negotiation of ‘tacit contracts’ between both parties, that allowed the police to carry out their duties within the boundaries of public tolerance, and the public to take all sorts of small conflicts and demands for aid and assistance to the police. This explains why police intervention was never merely repressive: in order to preserve these precious ‘contracts’, the police operated selectively, acting only against certain groups and offences, and watching particular city areas.


M. De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is post-doctoraal onderzoeker aan de Université catholique de Louvain (Centre d'histoire du droit et de la justice) en universitair docent Historische criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam (afdeling Strafrecht en criminologie).

    This article describes the development of the Dutch bar, which seems to follow the international trends, the Anglo-Saxon trends in particular. These trends are internationalization, commercialization, organizational professionalization, specialization and differentiation. The Dutch bar nowadays consists of approximately 15.000 advocates, working in approximately 3.800 law firms. Approximately 3.500 advocates work in the Top 30 law firms, whereas the firms consisting of one advocate form the majority of the bar. Particularly during the last decade the bar has grown tremendously due to an increase in demand for specialistic legal service and advice. Due to new developments the client has become more prominent when it comes to determining the quality of the legal service, a phenomenon also known as ‘simultaneity’.


R. van Otterlo
Prof. mr. dr. Rob van Otterlo is als bijzonder hoogleraar organisatie van de juridische dienstverlening verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij is tevens werkzaam bij de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten in Den Haag.

    The world is in the throes of the deepest economic depression since the 1930s. Worst is yet to come. The financial crisis has spread to the real economy on a global scale. A global recession combined with the current credit crunch is a rare, but a deadly cocktail. This will lead to a recession of unimaginable magnitude - a deflationary depression. This doom scenario is based on the conjuncture waves of the Russian economist Nikolai Dimitrievitsj Kondratieff (1892-1938) and the strong similarities between 1920-1929 and 1980-2000, both autumn seasons in the Kondratieff cycle. Soon it will become clear that all measures taken by governments have had only a little, temporary positive effect. The stock markets, housing markets and world economy will reach new depths in the coming decade. Social chaos will be the result. The history of the 1930s could serve as our guide here.


E. Mecking
Drs. Eric Mecking studeerde geschiedenis aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam en werkt in het bedrijfsleven als informatiespecialist. Hij is auteur van Deflatie in aantocht De historische achtergronden van de kredietcrisis en de komende grote depressie (2005, uitg. Mets & Schilt). Ook publiceerde hij in 2006 het boek Het drama van 1918. Over de Spaanse griep en de zoektocht naar virus en vaccin (uitg. Mets & Schilt).
Artikel

Een gevaarlijke driehoeksverhouding?

Falende staten, georganiseerde misdaad en transnationaal terrorisme

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2009
Auteurs Tanja E. Aalberts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years it has become popular in political discourse and academic literature to talk about the blurring boundaries between transnational terrorism and organized crime. In addition, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 have instigated a debate on the link between transnational terrorism and state failure. This article scrutinizes this so-called ‘black hole’ thesis and its relationship to the crime-terror nexus by addressing the political significance of such conceptual blurring within an international context that is increasingly characterized by uncertainty and uncontrollable risks.


Tanja E. Aalberts
Dr. Tanja E. Aalberts is universitair docent aan de Universiteit Leiden (taalberts@fsw.leidenuniv.nl).

    The writings of Cesare Lombroso reflect to a high degree the crime problems being discussed in his time. This is certainly true for the phenomenon of the Italian mafia. Inspired by others writers, press reports and his own observations he came to the conclusion that criminal associations belonging to the Sicilian mafia and the ‘Ndrangheta, in particular consisted of professional criminals and were quite often headed by an intelligent born criminal. In a quite detailed manner he described the ways in which these organizations were structured and the initiation rites that were applied to youngsters who wanted to join them. Lombroso made no secret of the political role the mafia groupings played in Italy, but he warned at the same time that one should take into account that these groupings also disguised themselves as political organizations in order to cover up their true nature: nothing else than criminal organisations. This warning gives room for the idea that - like in the United States - the Italian mafia could also take root in other European countries than Italy itself and not only use them as places to hide from the Italian police and judicial authorities or as market places to trade in illegal goods and services.


C.J.C.F. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit van Tilburg.

    This article compares ICT in European judicial systems based on the 2008 CEPEJ report on efficiency and quality of justice. It ends by discussing whether ICT is changing the administration of justice. Office automation, jurisprudence databases, e-mail and internet access for judges and clerks have been implemented in most courts in Europe. Case registration systems were less widely introduced, and case and court management systems even less. The forerunners among the judicial systems are ahead when it comes to digital access and external communication. The inaccuracy of the CEPEJ report makes drawing more detailed conclusions problematic. Some observations from other sources show that managing and developing ICT can be difficult for judiciaries. ICT's potential is in enhancing timeliness, access, consistency and public trust. Increased public scrutiny and the availability of information engender predictability. However, judging ultimately involves resolving issues whose outcome is unpredictable.


A.D. Reiling
Mr. Dory Reiling is als vicepresident verbonden aan de Rechtbank Amsterdam. Zij is bezig met de afronding van haar proefschrift Technology for justice, how information technology supports judicial reform.

    In this article four possible relations of the credit crunch and corporate crime are examined. A first relation is that cases of accounting fraud have contributed to the causation of the crisis. Due to these scandals the trust in large corporations and the financial sector would have been eroded. A second possible relation is the reverse: the crisis will lead to more corporate crime. Because of the crisis companies run into financial difficulties. In their despair they could try to cut costs by not complying with regulations or they could try to gain illegal profits through fraud. The third relation is the criminalization of more unethical corporate behavior. The moral outrage on the behavior of banks and insurance companies that contributed to the crisis might lead to an increased labeling of risky or greedy of corporate executives as crime. This will result in more regulation. The fourth and final relation is that these amplification effects will lead to the discovery of more corporate crime.


W. Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is als hoogleraar criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    In the past few years, an increasing number of Private Security Companies (PSCs) - also sometimes referred to as Private Military Companies (PMCs) - have emerged offering and conducting anti-piracy services. These companies offer services in addition to security provided by states and their government agencies. PSCs are today hired to provide anti-piracy services in different parts of the world, but mostly in strategically important waterways where piracy is a serious security concern. This article examines the employment of PSCs in two such waterways, namely the Malacca Straits and the Gulf of Aden, and discusses the risks, challenges and benefits of privatising maritime security.


C. Liss
Carolin Liss is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Asia Research Center van de Murdoch University in Perth, Australië.
Toont 21 - 35 van 35 gevonden teksten
« 1 2 »
U kunt door de volledige tekst zoeken naar alle artikelen door uw zoekterm in het zoekveld in te vullen. Als u op de knop 'Zoek' heeft geklikt komt u op de zoekresultatenpagina met filters, die u helpen om snel bij het door u gezochte artikel te komen. Er zijn op dit moment twee filters: rubriek en jaar.