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Artikel

Experimenteren met informeren

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2016
Trefwoorden mandated information disclosure, effectiveness, experimental design, external validity, cult of significance
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. W.H. van Boom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the regulation of private law relationships, the concept of informed choice-making is an important point of departure for policymakers. As a result, professionals and traders are often under a legal duty to offer certain information to the public in order to inform, persuade or warn against dangers. Policymakers and academics alike tend to refer to findings from purely experimental studies to underpin the effects and overall effectiveness of such information duties. This contribution argues that such studies have limited value as a basis for policymaking. Moreover, it is argued here that policymakers may in fact benefit from practice-oriented research which lacks significant findings.


Prof. mr. dr. W.H. van Boom
Prof. mr. dr. Willem van Boom is hoogleraar civiel recht te Leiden.
Artikel

Het belang van grootouders in hedendaagse gezinnen en het recht op omgang met kleinkinderen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden grandparents, grandchildren, child care, rights of access, intergenerational solidarity
Auteurs Dr. T. Geurts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the context of a recent call for the strengthening of the legal position of grandparents with regards to visitation rights, this article presents a brief review of major conceptual notions and empirical findings within the literature on grandparent-grandchild relationships. Three major topics for understanding the intergenerational relationship are addressed: the historical context, the importance of the relationship, and changes over individual time.


Dr. T. Geurts
Dr. Teun Geurts is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

De dynamiek van een migratiereis van Afrika naar Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden African migration, migration journey, European borders, migration policy, migrant aspiration
Auteurs Dr. J. Schapendonk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the context of the most recent European policy initiatives towards putting a halt on illegal immigration from Africa, this article discusses the transnational environment of West African migrants and the dynamics of their migration routes. By following one migration story more closely and by relating this route with the experiences of other migrants the article gives a clear insight into the aspirations of migrants, the often intangible way their journeys are facilitated, as well as into the various results of asylum procedures in Europe. The author argues that a European migration policy should go beyond the securitizing of migration through strategies aiming at immobilizing African migrants. This policy will prove to be ineffective since the aspirations of African migrants are constantly fed by political instability and the transnational reality of globalization.


Dr. J. Schapendonk
Dr. Joris Schapendonk is verbonden aan de Faculteit Geografie, Planologie en Milieu van de Radboud Universiteit te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Op zoek naar bescherming in een vrije wereld

Asielmigratie naar Europa ontleed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, refugees, Lampedusa, European migration policy
Auteurs Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The arrival of asylum seekers has become a major political and social issue in Europe recently, although not for the first time in history. This article describes and analyses the reasons why growing numbers of undocumented migrants come to Europe, many of them as asylum seekers. One important reason is growing political instability in a ring of countries that surround the EU. The article also describes the different routes undocumented migrants take to the EU, the rapid changes that occur in the choice of routes, and the backgrounds of these changes. Although most attention goes to the risky transit in the Central Mediterranean area, and the number of migrants taking this route is growing, a majority of asylum seekers has reached the EU via other routes. Finally, this article also indicates roads towards finding solutions to the issue; this can only be achieved in the context of the EU.


Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
Prof. dr. Han Entzinger is als hoogleraar migratie- en integratiestudies verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens vicevoorzitter van het Wetenschappelijk Comité van het Bureau voor de Grondrechten (FRA) van de Europese Unie te Wenen. Informatie: www.eur.nl/fsw/sociologie/profielen/profiel_mis/10541/.
Artikel

Frontex en de grenzen van zijn mandaat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Frontex, fundamental rights, border control, push-back operations, Mare Nostrum
Auteurs Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As an EU agency operating at the external borders of the EU, Frontex is actively involved in combating illegal migration. Since a rising number of migrants drown in the Mediterranean Sea or are pushed back to unsafe third countries, Frontex is being accused by human rights organizations for violating the fundamental rights of the EU. The Agency however maintains that it can’t be held accountable for human rights violations, as it is only assisting Member States, and not taking over their responsibility. This article analyses if this position is correct in the light of the growing tasks and mandate Frontex is granted by the EU.


Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
Mr. dr. Tineke Strik is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Daarnaast is zij voorzitter van de GroenLinks-fractie in de Eerste Kamer.
Artikel

Dublin: blind interstatelijk vertrouwen is een fictie

Over inwilligingspercentages en overdrachten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden asylum seekers, Dublin Regulation, mistrust, distribution key, solidarity
Auteurs Mr. R. Bruin, Mr. S.G. Kok en Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In light of the high numbers of persons entering the EU via the southern borders and the current uneven distribution of asylum seekers (five Member States of the EU currently received in 2014 more than 70% of the total amount of refugees), there is a clear and urgent need for the EU ministers to ensure a fairer distribution of asylum seekers within the EU. The Dublin Regulation’s system of allocating the responsibility for an asylum request does not offer a solution for this challenge, also because Member States cannot have a blind faith in the standards of a number of states for processing asylum requests. There are significant differences in the application of the law and the procedures.


Mr. R. Bruin
Mr. René Bruin is Head of Office UNHCR te Den Haag.

Mr. S.G. Kok
Mr. Stefan Kok is docent aan het Instituut voor Immigratierecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
Prof. mr. dr. Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Politie in tweevoud: centraal en decentraal

Een analyse van enkele achtergronden en spanningen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden police, centralisation, decentralisation, municipal enforcement officers, local security
Auteurs Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra en Dr. B. van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The advent of the Dutch National Police in 2012 is the culmination of a much longer process of centralization and scaling up of the regular police organization. Partly as a result of this process of increased scale, municipalities have introduced their own surveillance officers to patrol the streets. Thus, the contours of a dual police system have arisen. This raises various questions, and in this article we focus on two of them. First, which background factors have contributed to the emergence of new municipal enforcement organizations and to what extent developments within the police have contributed to this development? Second, what are the consequences of this dual police system and what problems and risks are involved?


Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Rechtenfaculteit van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. B. van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is als senior onderzoeker werkzaam bij de afdeling strafrecht van de Rechtenfaculteit van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Hij is tevens verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen van de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Niemand slaapt bij ons op straat?

Over de noodopvang van onrechtmatig verblijvende vreemdelingen en het steekspel tussen centrale overheid en gemeenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden immigration policy, refugees, shelters, central government, local government
Auteurs Prof. dr. R. Staring
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch policies concerning the illegal stay of aliens are characterized by regular tensions between central and local governments. This article describes various concrete (proposals for) policy changes in the last twenty years and examines the reasons for these tensions while using the distinction between policy strategies based on denial versus strategies based on adaptation (Garland). When it comes to refugee policies, the central government works in the denial mode while local governments adapt and try to find solutions in order to bring problems under control. This attitude can be explained by the local governments’ duty to provide for in the case of humanitarian emergency situations.


Prof. dr. R. Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Wie heeft hier de regie?

Coffeeshops tussen lokaal, nationaal en internationaal drugsbeleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden coffee shops, drug policy, international drug treaties, drug tourism, multi-level governance
Auteurs Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben en Dr. A. Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Tensions between the central national level and the local level become clearly visible in coffee shop policies, which have to fit within the international VN and EU treaties and strategies, national drug policy principles and local interests of public order. Three cases, all concerning long-term problems of drug tourism, nuisance and crime around coffee shops, illustrate these tensions. In the case of coffee shop Checkpoint near the Belgian border the Public Prosecutor aimed at solving the problem by prosecuting the coffee shop as a criminal network, while the mayor tried to minimize the negative effects by facilitating visitor flows. In the case of the private club and residence criterion in 2012 not all the mayors actually enforced these national criteria. This leads to a bigger emphasis on local tailoring. Thirdly, several mayors have opted for a regulation of cannabis production for coffee shops, while the stance of the national government is that international treaties banning this practice should be respected. The influence of local policies may be small, but in the end the local communities seem crucial when it comes to finding new ways of managing drug problems.


Dr. M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is wetenschappelijk medewerker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Dr. A. Mein
Dr. Arnt Mein is onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
Artikel

Hoe effectief is het antiwitwasbeleid in elke EU-lidstaat?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden anti-money laundering policy, financial crime, policy study, money laundering, cluster analysis
Auteurs J. Ferwerda en B. Unger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    All EU Member States developed anti-money laundering policies based on EU directives and FATF recommendations. While uniformity in this policy area is needed for international cooperation, the different countries are facing different money laundering challenges and interpret the goal of anti-money laundering policy quite differently. This article analyses the money laundering threat in each EU Member State and the effectiveness of the corresponding policy reaction. Furthermore, the authors identify four types of anti-money laundering policy in the EU and classify each country in one of the four types by using the statistical method of cluster analysis.


J. Ferwerda
Dr. Joras Ferwerda is universitair docent bij het departement Economie van de Universiteit Utrecht.

B. Unger
Prof. dr. Brigitte Unger is als hoogleraar Economie verbonden aan de Faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Een kansloze minderheid in de marge?

De sociaaleconomische en politieke positie van de Roma in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, social inclusion, political participation, minority activism, equal citizenship
Auteurs Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article provides an overview of the current socio-economic and political situation of the Roma in Europe, the continent's largest and most marginalized minority. While a host of new regulations and initiatives on different levels of government have been issued in order to foster the social inclusion of the Roma in various areas of life, the situation on the ground remains far from hopeful. Poverty and discrimination continue to be huge problems in most of the countries where Roma live. New avenues for political and social mobilization have become available to Roma activists and politicians. Yet also in this area important challenges remain. The recent popularity of extreme right-wing populist responses to Roma mobilization and migration has created important obstacles to the full participation and equal citizenship of Roma in our contemporary societies.


Prof. dr. P. Vermeersch
Prof. dr. Peter Vermeersch is als hoogleraar politieke wetenschappen verbonden aan de KU Leuven (www.petervermeersch.net).
Artikel

Participatie, veiligheid en beeldvorming van Romaminderheden

Een kritische reflectie op het Nederlandse beleid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden Roma, Europeanization, European minority policies, securitization, the Netherlands
Auteurs Dr. H. van Baar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article critically evaluates the recent developments in Dutch policy formation regarding Roma minorities from the perspective of the increased attention paid to their position at European level. First, the author discusses the so-called ‘Europeanization of Roma representation’, that is the post-1989 representation of the Roma as a European minority and the simultaneous large-scale, Europe-wide devising of development, inclusion, and empowerment programs meant for them. Thereafter, the author argues that some of the risks of the Roma’s Europeanization – such as the isolation and culturalization of policy formation and the diminishing of democratic accountability – have also and ambiguously affected Dutch policies meant for Roma, Sinti and caravan dwellers. By means of a brief analysis of recent policy developments, the author demonstrates that the Dutch shift towards a policy that, at least in name, encourages social participation, has actually tended to result into a one-sided focus on the Roma as a ‘problem group’ and ‘security threat’.


Dr. H. van Baar
Dr. Huub van Baar is verbonden aan het Institut für Politikwissenschaft, Justus-Liebig Universität Gieβen, en aan het Amsterdam Centre for Globalisation Studies, Faculteit Geesteswetenschappen, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

De geest als aangrijpingspunt

De betekenis van gedragssturing in veiligheid, gezondheid en onderwijs

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden mind politics, nudging, security, public health, social policy
Auteurs Dr. R. Peeters en Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. R. Peeters
Dr. Rik Peeters is werkzaam als adviseur bij de Kafkabrigade (www.kafkabrigade.nl) en als onderzoeker en docent bij de Tilburgse School voor Politiek en Bestuur.

Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Kapitalistische banken als criminele ondernemingen: de casus Wall Street

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden finance crime, financial crisis, financial networks, white collar crime, Goldman Sachs
Auteurs D.O. Friedrichs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central thesis of this article is that the structure of the present financial system, its culture, and its collective practices and policies are fundamentally criminal and criminogenic. The harms emanating from this financial system are exponentially greater than those emanating from the disadvantaged environments that generate a disproportionate percentage of conventional crime. Accordingly, on various levels, there is much at stake in more fully and directly recognizing and identifying many core policies and practices of the financial system for what they are: crimes on a very large scale.


D.O. Friedrichs
Prof. David O. Friedrichs is als distinguished professor verbonden aan het Department of Sociology, Criminal Justice & Criminology van de University of Scranton. Hij is tevens gasthoogleraar aan de School of Law van de University of Western Australia (Perth).
Artikel

Naar een Europese aanpak van voedselfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden food fraud, European Parliament, EP Resolution on food fraud, crisis in the food chain, horse meat
Auteurs J.A. van den Akker en E.M.R. de Lange
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Have recent food fraud cases, combined with a lack of priority and regulatory framework for combating food fraud and increased involvement of organized crime, caused a crisis of the European food chain? To what extent does this necessitate a European response? This article argues that the crisis in consumer confidence caused by cross-border fraud must be urgently addressed at national and EU level and that combating food fraud should be a priority next to the enforcement of food safety rules. Necessary changes of EU rules applicable to the sector and its controls should be made through the EU decision-making process. The European Parliament recommends an approach that should define food fraud to enable the development of EU policy, facilitate cross-border cooperation and information-sharing between member states and encourage sector initiatives, whereas its enforcement should focus on altering the type of controls by public authorities and installing tougher penalties.


J.A. van den Akker
Mr. Joost van den Akker, MA is beleidsmedewerker Europees Parlement voor de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).

E.M.R. de Lange
Esther de Lange, MA is lid van het Europees Parlement. Zij maakt namens het CDA deel uit van de fractie van de Europese Volkspartij (EVP).
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