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Artikel

Naar een compensatoir regime voor levenslang- en zeer langgestraften

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment the Netherlands, prison regime, prison living conditions, prison policies, human rights
Auteurs G. de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Though small in numbers life and long-term prisoners pose special problems for the Dutch prison administration in terms of their treatment. A new approach is to concentrate these prisoners in three units specially designated for them. It is still unclear however what the regime in those facilities will look like. The author argues for introducing there a ‘compensatory regime’ that can counteract to some degree the harmful effects of life and long-term imprisonment.


G. de Jonge
Prof. mr. dr. Gerard de Jonge is emeritus bijzonder hoogleraar detentierecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Data en interpretaties in de cognitieve neurowetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden cognitive neuroscience, criminal law, single cell recording, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, interpretation of neuroscientific data
Auteurs W.F.G. Haselager, F. Leoné en D.A.G. van Toor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research in cognitive neuroscience may have significant implications for law. In order to assess such implications properly, a basic knowledge of the complexities involved in the acquisition and interpretation of brain data could be helpful. In this paper the authors will discuss some of the issues involved in two basic techniques of cognitive neuroscience: single cell recordings and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The authors aim to improve the reader’s understanding of the kind of assumptions and inferences that help to bridge the gap between data and interpretation.


W.F.G. Haselager
Dr. Pim Haselager is als associate professor verbonden aan het Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour van de Radboud Universiteit.

F. Leoné
Frank Leoné, MSc is promovendus bij het Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour van de Radboud Universiteit.

D.A.G. van Toor
Dave van Toor, LLM, BSc is als junior docent/promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Surveilleren en opsporen in een internetomgeving

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, Internet, open-source intelligence, iColumbo, police power
Auteurs J.J. Oerlemans en B.J. Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Publicly available information on the Internet about people or criminal acts can be relevant to criminal investigations. This article analyses to what extent Dutch criminal procedure law allows open source intelligence for law-enforcement purposes. When more than ‘minor’ privacy interferences arise, an explicit investigatory power in the criminal procedure code is required. Minor infringements are allowed under the general task description in the Police Act 1993. It is unclear however when ‘substantial’ privacy infringements arise. On the basis of ECHR jurisprudence on foreseeability and the Dutch criteria for ‘systematic observation’, the authors conclude that Internet data-gathering will often require an explicit investigatory power and can only be used for criminal investigation with an order from the public prosecutor, but not, except for small-scale and ad hoc searches, for general police practice purposes. Because the Internet is much different in its nature from a decade ago and the investigatory powers are not in all respects easily applicable to Internet surveillance, the authors argue that the Dutch legislator must take action and make clear under which conditions information on the Internet can be gathered by law enforcement.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.

B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Alcohol en agressie: een complexe relatie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs N. van Hasselt, N. van Bunningen en R. Bovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Not everyone using alcohol turns aggressive. The effect of a substance like alcohol works differently for different individuals. This is not only due to the substance itself, but also to the drinker's attitude, state of mind and personality, as well as the physical, social and cultural settings in which drinking occurs. The relation between alcohol consumption and aggression is therefore a complex one. Moreover alcohol consumption often takes place in settings and situations where other aggression stimulating factors are present. This article explores the relation between alcohol and aggression on the basis of existing literature. Attention goes to the effects of the substance itself, the drinker and the context in which the drinking takes place.


N. van Hasselt
Drs. Ninette van Hasselt is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.

N. van Bunningen
Drs. N. van Bunningen is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.

R. Bovens
Dr. René Bovens is werkzaam bij het Trimbos-instituut.

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that cannot be qualified as non-consensual. If these teenagers are approached without force they are thus protected against such a contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. This paper deals with how officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts between youngsters as lewd and in what circumstances these interactions are possibly permissible. What is the motivation for initiating criminal law and how to explain the distinction between the alleged offender and the alleged victim? The juridical valuation of the professionals dealing with criminal law is analysed followed by some critical remarks regarding the protection of sexual active youngsters against other sexual active youngsters as well as the act of sex as transgression.


J.C.W. Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is verbonden aan de Haagse Hogeschool voor de opleiding Integrale Veiligheidskunde. Het onderzoek waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, is mogelijk gemaakt door financiering van het Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek Seksualiteit (FWOS).

    Children suffer differently from domestic violence as a witness of interparental violence than as direct victim of maltreatment or sexual abuse. In this article three different research samples of children as witnesses of domestic violence are compared with regard to the posttraumatic stress symptoms they show. One sample is a clinical population from mental health care for youth, one sample consists of children reported to a child maltreatment centre and one sample stems from a pilot study of referrals of domestic violence in families in the G4. In all three samples we find a much higher percentage of children with traumatic symptoms than in the normal population. The highest percentage of traumatized children (74%) we find in the clinical population. When we look at the parents we also find a high percentage of traumatized parents (31%), but more striking is the percentage of parents who themselves were involved (as a victim or witness) in domestic violence when they were children (60%). This leads to questions concerning the intergenerational transfer of domestic violence.


B. Tierolf
Drs. Bas Tierolf is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de afdeling Orthopedagogiek van de Faculteit Psychologie en Pedagogiek van de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam, alsmede aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Fataal huiselijk geweld

Doding van eigen kind, partner of ouder

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs F. Koenraadt en M. Liem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Homicides that take place in the family generally lead to shock and incomprehension in society at large. Even though in recent years the number of homicides in the Netherlands has decreased, domestic homicides still claim approximately sixty victims per year. This article aims to describe the nature and incidence of domestic homicide in the Netherlands by making use of both epidemiological data as well as detailed analyses of case reports of domestic homicides. In doing so, several types of domestic homicides are distinguished: intimate partner homicide, child homicide, parent and sibling homicide, multiple family homicide and finally, domestic homicide followed by suicide. The findings are discussed and put into perspective.


F. Koenraadt
Dr. Frans Koenraadt is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij is tevens wetenschappelijk adviseur bij het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen.

M. Liem
Dr. Marieke Liem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    Many public prosecutors see a link between domestic violence and violence in the public sphere. In the beginning of this century the fight against domestic violence was integrated into the national security policy of The Netherlands. The growing attention for domestic violence combined with better registration has led to an enormous grow of criminal justice cases of domestic violence. The article analyses the public prosecution policy towards domestic violence. Nowadays even without a report suspects can be brought to trial if the charges can be proved. On the one hand the public prosecution aims to lay down a standard, on the other hand perpetrators are confronted with a set of conditions forcing them to accept professional help in order to bring about a change in their behaviour and prevent recidivism. In this way an effective use of criminal justice could contribute to a reduction of domestic violence and crime in general.


P. van der Valk
Mr. drs. Patricia van der Valk is officier van justitie bij het parket Almelo.

    This article is based on the author's recent doctorate thesis Working their way into adulthood, which analyses the role of employment in delinquent development in 270 high-risk males from age 18 to 32. Prior to age 18 all men had undergone residential treatment for serious problem behaviour in a juvenile justice institution in the Netherlands. Although recidivism is high, most juveniles desist in their mid-20s, and even high-frequency chronic offenders show declined levels of criminality around age 30. Why do some offenders desist from offending, while others continue? Part of this variation is explained by personality and background characteristics. Over and above these factors, employment is significantly related to a decrease in offending. This paper further analyses the relationship between employment and crime.


V. van der Geest
Dr. Victor van der Geest is universitair docent bij de sectie criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VU) en onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Hij promoveerde afgelopen mei op het proefschrift Working their way into adulthood. Voor dit onderzoek, waarop dit artikel is gebaseerd, volgde hij een groep van 270 jongens in de leeftijd van 12 tot 32 jaar, die begin jaren negentig behandeld werden in een justitiële jeugdinrichting.
Artikel

De burgemeester in crisistijd

Schakelen tussen bestuurlijke moed en terughoudendheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2010
Auteurs R. Bron en M. Zannoni
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article aims to illustrate the importance of the mayor in times of disaster and crisis management. The mayor plays a crucial role, even though he is merely one link in the crisis management process. In the Netherlands, the organization and coordination of crisis management is subdivided into 25 safety regions. Recently there has been a strong development towards professionalization of these safety regions and their partners. However, in the case of a local crisis all attention goes to the mayor, whose decisions and actions are critically followed by the media and the public. In order to identify what would constitute a good mayor in times of crisis, the article lists essential points and qualities. In sum, a good mayor in times of crisis should be critical and show managerial courage.


R. Bron
Mr. drs. Roland Bron is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

M. Zannoni
drs. Marco Zannoni is als managing senior werkzaam bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement.

    This article examines the historically inverse relationship between the incidence of interpersonal violence and the level of tolerance for the occurrence of violence. The Middle Ages witnessed high homicide rates, but people accepted violent conflicts as belonging to daily life. Homicide rates declined during the early modern period which resulted in a relatively peaceful nineteenth century. Precisely in this century new concerns and fears are visible over youth gangs and street robbery, which in reality were rarely lethal. The inverse relationship persisted until the mid-twentieth century, but then disappeared. While the 1950s and 1960s had low homicide rates and low concern, thereafter both homicide rates and public concern increased. The paper ends with a preliminary explanation for the historical trends observed.


P. Spierenburg
Prof. dr. Pieter Spierenburg is als hoogleraar Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit te Rotterdam.

    In spite of the recent growing international naval presence in the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean Somali pirates still continue to attack passing merchantmen trying to hijack these and kidnap the crews. It seems logic to consider what security measures can be taken on the ships themselves against piracy attacks. After analyzing the dilemmas surrounding armed self-defence the author describes how various technological devices, some still developing, could contribute to greater security on board. Just as important however, is the development and appliance of an anti-piracy policy, at the shipping company as well as on board. Information sharing and communication are crucial to an efficient anti-piracy policy. Also crewmembers should know what to expect when a piracy attack occurs and how to act. The structural protection of important waterways is a primary task for naval forces, while the merchantmen themselves could take care of primary protection against piracy attacks. This would diminish their dependence on naval presence, which can never be large enough to effectively prevent piracy.


H.A. L'Honoré Naber
Henri L'Honoré Naber heeft ruime ervaring opgedaan met alle facetten van piraterij. Eerst als koopvaardijofficier. Later bij de Marinestaf te Den Haag als Hoofd Koopvaardijzaken, waar hij o.a. belast was met de veiligheid voor de koopvaardij. Hij is oprichter en directeur van adviesbureau Safer Seas Consultancy. In samenwerking met andere experts heeft hij het programma Seacure ontwikkeld, dat rederijen en offshorebedrijven de mogelijkheid biedt een volledig en integraal anti-piraterij-beleid op te zetten.
Titel

De effectiviteit van behandelingen bij seksuele delinquenten: Een overzicht van de internationale literatuur

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 01 2005
Trefwoorden Delinquent, Recidive, Tussenkomst, Seksueel gedrag, Slachtoffer, Kind, Risico, Zedendelict, Verkrachting, Seksueel geweld
Auteurs Veen, V.C. en Ruiter, C. de

Veen, V.C.

Ruiter, C. de
Titel

De bestuurlijke boete als remedie tegen handhavingstekorten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 06 2005
Trefwoorden Handhaving, Bestuurlijke boete, Bestuurder, Toezicht, Herstel, Gebrek, Administratief recht, Herstelsanctie, Last onder dwangsom, Aansprakelijkheid
Auteurs Michiels, F.C.M.A.

Michiels, F.C.M.A.
Titel

Sociale netwerken en jeugdcriminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 05 2008
Trefwoorden Kind, Ouders, Strafbaar feit, Model, Diefstal, Delinquent, Frequentie, Moeder, Politie, Vader
Auteurs Broekhuizen, J., Driessen, F.M.H.M. en Völker, B.

Broekhuizen, J.

Driessen, F.M.H.M.

Völker, B.
Titel

De gevangenis van de toekomst?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 04 2007
Trefwoorden Gedetineerde, Personeel, Gevangenis, Telefoon, Telefonie, Aansprakelijkheid, Kleinhandelsbedrijf, Eerste aanleg, Levering, Personal digital assistant
Auteurs Kruissink, M., Post, B. en Stoltz, S.

Kruissink, M.

Post, B.

Stoltz, S.
Artikel

Voorgeschiedenis en stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 03 2007
Trefwoorden Slachtoffer, Misdrijf, Delinquent, Kleinhandelsbedrijf, Risico, Strafbaar feit, Erkenning, Politie, Strafvordering, Idee
Auteurs Dijk, J.J.M. van, Groenhuijsen, M.S. en Winkel, F.W.

Dijk, J.J.M. van

Groenhuijsen, M.S.

Winkel, F.W.
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