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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2013 x
Artikel

‘Levenslang’: schadebeperking door levenslange gevangenisstraffen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment United States, prison culture, benefits of prison life, sociolinguistics, protection of society
Auteurs M.S. Fleisher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This essay examines imprisoned felons’ perspectives and interpretations of ‘doing life’. Prisoners’ and ex-prisoners’ perspectives on the pros and cons of life imprisonment were documented over four decades of ethnographic research in prisons and on urban streets. The author’s research was conducted as a participant observer of street criminals and observing participant in federal prisons. Interviews with violent convicted felons in state and federal prisons and persistent criminals with histories of imprisonment reveal what it means to ‘do time’. Prisoners’ enculturation accommodates their adjustment to prison life and ability to negotiate daily prison life, but prison culture’s and prison programs’ inability to alter the nature of violent criminals pose a continuous threat to the population at large. Life imprisonment benefits prisoners’ physical and social health and protects communities by keeping violent criminals imprisoned.


M.S. Fleisher
Dr. Mark Fleisher is als research professor verbonden aan het Begun Center for Violence Prevention Research and Education van de Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.
Artikel

Perspectiefverlies bij levenslange gevangenisstraf en longstay-tbs-kader

Overeenkomsten en verschillen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment regimes, forensic clinics’ regimes, forensic longstay, psychological effects of detention, perspectives for detainees
Auteurs P.C. Braun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A comparison between life prisoners and long-term forensic psychiatric inpatients shows, besides differences in legal position, important similarities. Therefore the results of an experiment with regime changes in the long-term ward of Dutch forensic psychiatric institutions might also be relevant for the regime of life prisoners. The experiments are partly based on the ideas of Andrews, Ward and Bonta. The fundamental idea is to give inpatients a sense of control over their life environment by granting them as much responsibility as possible for practicalities, by communicating with their representatives regularly and taking a positive attitude towards inpatients’ preferences and requests. First experiences show that the new approach seems to have a positive impact on inpatients. They suffer less from depression as well as aggressive moods, which contributes to a better atmosphere in the institution. Stressing the tentative nature of this observation the author indicates that the hypothesis on the beneficial effects of active influence on the life environment might be verified by research currently in progress.


P.C. Braun
Drs. Peter Braun is als manager Patiëntenzorg Langdurende Forensisch Psychiatrische Zorg verbonden aan de Pompestichting.
Boekbespreking

Boekrecensie: leven na een levenslange gevangenisstraf

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden life imprisonment England, mandatory life sentence, discretionary life sentence, reintegration, desistance
Auteurs E.F.J.C. van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While a life sentence means life in prison in the Netherlands, prisoners serving a life sentence (‘lifers’) in England and Wales are eligible for conditional release (upon discretion of the parole board) after serving a minimum term. Life after life imprisonment by Catherine Appleton (2010) provides a detailed insight into the post-release experiences of 138 lifers and the supervision of this group by the probation service. Appleton has collected data from files and by interviewing 113 probation officers and 37 lifers, including 9 who were back in prison. Qualitative analysis revealed that self-efficacy and normality (e.g. a stable job and family life) are important in the process of desistance and that the probation service plays a valued supportive role. Statistical analysis further showed that alcohol abuse, sex offending, a history of sexual abuse and a poor relationship with one’s probation officer are significant predictors of return to prison.


E.F.J.C. van Ginneken
Esther van Ginneken, MPhil in Criminology, is als PhD candidate verbonden aan het Prisons Research Centre van de University of Cambridge.
Artikel

Vrije wil en verantwoordelijkheid in de strafuitvoering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden penal execution, rehabilitation, responsibility, life course approach, motivation
Auteurs M.M. Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responsibility of the prisoner for his own rehabilitation is a central element of ‘Modernising Imprisonment’, the masterplan that aims to reform the execution of the prison sentence in the Netherlands. The Secretary of Justice strives for an individual approach based on the points of departure of the Life Course Approach in criminology. This method is designed in different ways. A central element is that rehabilitation will only be offered in the near future to prisoners that show responsibility for their rehabilitation. Based on this starting point, a far-reaching system of advancing and degrading is introduced. Prisoners can deserve freedoms by showing responsible behaviour, but loose them again in case of irresponsible or unmotivated conduct. Three objections against this aspect of Modernising Imprisonment are discussed. First, the rehabilitation principle itself does not allow for such a far-reaching exclusion of categories of prisoners. Second, the high demands put on prisoners are not realistic given the characteristics of the prison population. Third, the assumption that a strict system of advancing and degrading will increase the effectiveness of sentencing is not well founded and cannot be derived from research.


M.M. Boone
Prof. mr. Miranda Boone is als bijzonder hoogleraar penitentiair recht en penologie verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij is tevens werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid en de neurowetenschappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden neuroscience, legal responsibility, mental capacities, brain mechanisms, brain imaging techniques
Auteurs N. Vincent
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper argues that to the extent that legal responsibility hinges on mental capacities – capacities which are implemented in (brain) mechanisms – scientists working in the fields of behavioural genetics and neuroscience can assist courts to adjudicate responsibility in several ways. First, by studying what mechanisms paradigmatically fully responsible agents possess and how those mechanisms operate. Second, by developing techniques to more individually, accurately and less subjectively inspect people’s mechanisms to gauge their true mental capacities. Third, by studying how youth, advanced age, and mental disorders affect these mechanisms. And fourth, by developing interventions to create, restore and enhance the function of these mechanisms in order to create, restore and enhance people’s responsibility-relevant mental capacities.


N. Vincent
Prof. Nicole Vincent is verbonden aan de Macquarie University in Sidney en aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Actieve verantwoordelijkheid in het strafrecht

Naar een brede opvatting van ‘recht doen’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden retrospective responsibility, prospective responsibility, virtues, therapeutic jurisprudence, rehabilitation
Auteurs B.A.M. van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal justice is oriented at retrospective responsibility: examining whether the defendant is guilty and imposing a punishment that fits the crime. In this article it is argued that prospective responsibility needs more attention: taking responsibility. We have to remind the offender of his obligations: pay his debt, repair the harm done, work to change his behaviour and enhancing his situation. We should also take account of the interests and needs of the persons concerned. It is also argued that stimulating active responsibility should take place within the logics of ‘doing justice’. Criminal justice cannot respond to the imperatives of care, well-being and problem-solving.


B.A.M. van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
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