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Artikel

Vissen met een nieuwe hengel: een onderzoek naar betaalverzoekfraude

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden payment request fraud, online advertisement platforms, modus operandi, cybercrime, spearphishing
Auteurs Joke Rooyakkers MSc. en Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Online fraudsters seem to adapt to new digital opportunities. While the academic literature about phishing mainly focuses on phishing through emails, fraudsters also appear to use new means of communication and platforms to find and deceive their victims. Based on analysis of 728 police reports from the period from June 20th to August 20th 2019, this article provides a descriptive study on the new phenomenon of payment request fraud on the Dutch advertisement platform Marktplaats.nl (similar to eBay). The article will provide a thorough description of the crime script and its success factors. As fraudsters now use new means of communication, it will also be assessed to what extent they use new persuasion techniques, and to what extent victims may have different characteristics. The research, therefore, focuses on the modus operandi, persuasion techniques used by the fraudsters, and victim characteristics.


Joke Rooyakkers MSc.
I.J.M. Rooyakkers MSc. is analist cybercrime bij de Nationale Politie, eenheid Limburg.

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Persoonlijke pagina: https://research.vu.nl/en/persons/marleen-weulen-kranenbarg.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Marleen Weulen Kranenbarg
Gastredacteur dr. M. Weulen Kranenbarg is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Het verlies van geld, geluk en gezicht

Romance scams, datingfraude en ‘sweetheart swindles’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden cybercrime, victimization, romance scam, dating fraud, cybervictimology
Auteurs Raoul Notté MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Romance scams have seen a worldwide increase and are one of the most financially damaging forms of cybercrime. In addition, victims suffer strong emotional impact and are confronted with victim blaming. Research shows how the combination of various emotional and financial impact can induce a ‘double-hit’ on victims. Knowledge and possibilities for law enforcement are insufficient, which leads to a lack of financial compensation and support for victims.


Raoul Notté MSc
R.J. Notté MSc is als researcher/lecturer verbonden aan The Hague University of Applied Sciences (Faculteit IT & Design/Centre of Expertise Cyber Security). Hij is tevens promovendus bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University.

Dieke Miltenburg MSc
D. Miltenburg MSc behaalde recent haar wo-master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Anouk van de Beek MSc
A. van de Beek MSc behaalde recent haar wo-master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Invordering schulden: van eigenbelang naar gezamenlijk belang

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden debt recovery, seizing wage, seizing bank account, multiple creditors, legislation
Auteurs Mr. André Moerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution treats debt recovery as an important cause for the emergence and worsening of the debt problem. It is explained that when a bailiff seizes wage, the debtor often has too little left to live on. In addition to seizure of wage, the bailiff can also seize the bank account or seize household goods in order to sell these. The author describes how this can lead to new debts and what legislation is being prepared to modernize this situation. In case of problematic debts, multiple creditors are collecting from the same debtor, which requires coordination. The recovery by creditors facilitated by the current rules focuses on the claims of individual creditors. However, as soon as problematic debts are involved, an integrated approach is necessary, in which the common interest, the interest of all creditors and that of the debtor, takes precedence over self-interest.


Mr. André Moerman
Mr. A.J. Moerman is manager bij Bindkracht10, voorzitter van de signaleringscommissie van de Landelijke Organisatie Sociaal Raadslieden en eigenaar van www.schuldinfo.nl.
Artikel

De onbenutte kracht van schuldpreventie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden problematic debt, debt prevention, early detection, financial skills, legislation
Auteurs Dr. Tamara Madern
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Problematic debt has a large impact on people’s lives and tends to escalate quickly, making early detection and debt prevention crucial. Debt prevention is a mix of measures, activities and provisions aimed at ensuring that people acquire financial skills and that they are capable and actually behave financially sound, so that their finances are and remain in order. So people have to be financially literate and have financial skills, but they also have to be able to act at the right time in the right way. There is currently not enough attention for these three elements in legislation and regulations.


Dr. Tamara Madern
Dr. T.E. Madern is lector Schuldpreventie en Vroegsignalering bij het lectoraat Schulden en Incasso van het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie aan de Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Naar een maatschappelijk effectieve schuldenrechter

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden judiciary, debt collection cases, local experiments, reorganization, legislation
Auteurs Prof. mr. Nick Huls
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The corona crisis can be seen as an opportunity to facilitate a much wider access to the courts for a clean slate in the case of personal insolvency. This access was provided by the 1998 Dutch law on debt rescheduling Wsnp. After explaining the relapse of the law and the problems of the present system, an overview is given of the societal activities to turn the tide. The judiciary has started several local experiments to help overindebted citizens. Using the concept of societally effective courts the Council of the judiciary has backed this development. In the concluding part the author discusses several paths to improve the situation. First, the courts should organize themselves in such a way that debt collection and debt help are coordinated. Second, the courts must abandon their strict attitude towards the formalities for access that are now in place. The municipal assistance institutions should be given the possibility to suggest to the courts that their clients are ripe for a fresh start.


Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Prof. mr. N.J.H. Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Stabilisatie van het schuldenprobleem is niet genoeg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden debt counseling
Auteurs Dr. Ad Baan en Drs. Bram Berkhout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Dutch debt counseling system, a close collaboration between two trajectories, being voluntary debt settlements and debt settlements imposed by a judge, is vital for the overall success of the system. This article shows that this crucial collaboration is in fact poor, and negatively impacts the success of the debt counseling system. One of the underlying factors is the poor performance of the system as a whole. Although there is a common interest in reducing debts, the involved parties also have their own conflicting interests. The current system fails however to accomplish a tighter collaboration, and even sometimes seems to do the opposite. The authors conclude that a redesign of the Dutch system is necessary to organize a better and more coherent playing field.


Dr. Ad Baan
Dr. A. Baan is werkzaam als senior adviseur bij Berenschot op het terrein van schuldhulpverlening, werk- en inkomensvraagstukken en organisatievragen in het sociaal domein.

Drs. Bram Berkhout
Drs. A. Berkhout is als senior managing consultant verbonden aan Berenschot. Hij is expert in het opzetten en uitvoeren van evaluatie- en monitoronderzoek om de doelmatigheid en/of doeltreffendheid van beleid in kaart te brengen.
Artikel

Financiële problematiek als belemmering voor re-integratie van ex-delinquenten

Een onderzoek onder reclasseringswerkers en hun cliënten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden financial problems, debts, delinquency, risk factors, probation
Auteurs Gercoline van Beek MA, Dr. Vivienne de Vogel en Prof. dr. Dike van de Mheen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to improve the effectiveness of offender supervision many studies have been conducted into risk factors for delinquency. Evidence was found that debts and crime are interrelated. However, understanding of potential underlying risk factors in this relationship is limited. Results of an analysis of client files (N=250) show that debts among probation clients are highly prevalent and problems with respect to education, work and mental and physical health seem to be important underlying factors in the relationship between debts and crime. In addition, interviews were conducted with both probation workers (N=33) and clients (N=16) to get insight into the possibilities to adequately support clients with regard to debts in order to stimulate successful resocialization. Results underline the importance of paying attention to possible underlying factors to effectively supervise clients.


Gercoline van Beek MA
G. van Beek MA is onderzoeker en docent aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij doet momenteel promotieonderzoek naar financiële problematiek onder reclasseringscliënten (zie www.hu.nl/onderzoek/onderzoekers/gercoline-van-beek).

Dr. Vivienne de Vogel
Dr. V. de Vogel is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader aan de Hogeschool Utrecht en onderzoeker bij De Forensische Zorgspecialisten in Utrecht (zie www.hu.nl/onderzoek/onderzoekers/vivienne-de-vogel).

Prof. dr. Dike van de Mheen
Prof. dr. H. van de Mheen is hoogleraar Transformaties in de Zorg bij Tranzo, het wetenschappelijk centrum voor zorg en welzijn van de Universiteit van Tilburg (zie www.tilburguniversity.edu/nl/medewerkers/h-vdmheen).
Boekbespreking

Over het incassobeleid van het CJIB

Het laatste onderzoek van Roland Eshuis (1960-2020)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Auteursinformatie

Prof. mr. Nick Huls
Prof. mr. N.J.H. Huls is emeritus hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open Hoe de onvrede over het schuldhulpstelsel ontstond

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden overindebtedness, legislation, debt recovery, policy change, coronacrisis
Auteurs Dr. Nadja Jungmann
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands a large number of households is overindebted. Despite the economic prosperity, 20% of the households has to deal with large debts. Dissatisfaction with the position of debtors has grown in recent years. Numerous initiatives are being launched to improve their position. New legislation is provided for and municipalities are starting up all kinds of pilots. There is momentum for improvement. It is important that all initiatives are coordinated. In addition, it is also important to investigate what the legislation and initiatives yield.


Dr. Nadja Jungmann
Dr. N. Jungmann is lector Schulden & Incasso aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij is tevens eigenaar van trainings- en adviesbureau Social Force.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Robby Roks
Gastredacteur dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Access_open Havens en georganiseerde criminaliteit: een historische bespiegeling

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden international harbors, organized crime, history, smuggling, Rotterdam
Auteurs prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The structural vulnerability of the port of Rotterdam to organized crime is dealt with in this article from a broader, historical perspective. Using examples from ports in Italy and the United States, among others, the author shows how at the end of the last century local criminal groups managed to gain a dominant position in the handling of good flows. The author discusses various research reports that have been published over the years on the import of drugs into the port of Rotterdam and other European ports. Drug traffickers turn out to respond very flexible to stricter controls by simply moving to alternative ports or opting for transferring drug loads to small fast boats in open water. The author emphasizes that ports should not be studied as isolated transition points, but must be considered as nodes in networks that extend far inland and abroad. This is the only way to see the broader strategic and tactical options for stopping or reducing drug trafficking. In addition, attention must be paid to the problem of corruption among port workers, police and customs officers.


prof. dr. Cyrille Fijnaut
Em. prof. dr. C.J. Fijnaut is emeritus hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Tilburg.
Artikel

Tussen wal en schip

Etnografische inzichten in lokale havenbeveiliging

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden ethnography, ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg, security personnel, customs, global commerce
Auteurs Dr. Yarin Eski
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This ethnography of everyday policing realities in the European ports of Rotterdam and Hamburg presents an understanding of policing spaces where protecting and supporting global commerce dominate. In undertaking this research, the author participated in the daily activities of 85 participants in Rotterdam (N=52) and Hamburg (N=33), consisting of 30 operational port police officers, 31 security officers, 10 customs officers and 14 others involved in port security-related matters (e.g. shipping agents, port authorities, boatmen and maritime engineers). These participants were collectively responsible for protecting the vulnerability of the just-in-time logistics by becoming the intervention, through which they become the very local threat to global commerce itself. A struggle that reveals itself in their (narrated) policing struggles with management, colleagues and multi-agency partners, as well as with the maritime business community and dangerous others.


Dr. Yarin Eski
Dr. Y. Eski is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschap en Politicologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Drugssmokkelaars en de deur in de haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden book review, cocaine smuggling, harbor, corruption, customs
Auteurs Dr. Barbra van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, a recently published Dutch book on corruption in the port of Rotterdam is reviewed. De Schiedamse cocaïnemaffia. Een corrupte douanier, doorgewinterde criminelen en duizenden kilo’s coke was written by journalist Jan Meeus from NRC Handelsblad. The book can be seen as a case study of a customs officer – Gerrit – who fell for the big money. It gives a good insight into the connection between the legal and the illegal world and how this is experienced by those involved. The information in the book is based on seven large criminal files and dozens of conversations with people mentioned in those files. Meeus also attended the criminal proceedings intensively. It is now known that the film rights of the book have been sold and that Meeus will be writing the screenplay for the feature film together with director Jean van der Velde.


Dr. Barbra van Gestel
Dr. B. van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Transitcriminaliteit en logistieke knooppunten in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden Drug trafficking, airports, seaports, security checks, corruption
Auteurs Renushka Madarie MSc en Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands functions as an important source and transit country for international organized drug trafficking. This is in part due to its large logistical nodes in the world economy, like the airport and the seaport. Based on in-depth analyses of sixteen cases of the Dutch Organized Crime Monitor, this article explores how drug traffickers operate at logistical nodes, in particular airports. The results demonstrate that organized crime groups deploy mainly three types of tactics to traffic drugs, namely defying, avoiding, and neutralizing security checks. Occupational embeddedness is manifested through several job-related factors. Autonomy, mobility, and the similarity between legitimate duties and criminal activities facilitate discrete engagement in organized crime activities during work time. Port employees are also attractive to organized crime groups because of their job-related social capital and knowledge.


Renushka Madarie MSc
R. Madarie MSc. is als promovendus verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsteram

Dr. Edwin Kruisbergen
Dr. E.W. Kruisbergen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Uitdagingen in publiek-private samenwerking in de aanpak van drugscriminaliteit in de Rotterdamse haven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2019
Trefwoorden public private partnerships, Rotterdam harbor, security, drugs, crime
Auteurs Dr. Lieselot Bisschop, Dr. Robby Roks, Prof.dr. Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the challenges associated with public-private partnerships in tackling drug crime in the port of Rotterdam. The authors identified the actors involved in the fight against drug crime and, more generally, security in the port. The authors show how these various actors view the subject of drug crime (so-called mentalities), what they set as objectives (finalities) and how they try to achieve these objectives. Subsequently the various aspects of the interactions between these actors are being analyzed. The article is empirically based on 76 interviews with public and private actors in the port of Rotterdam, that were conducted in the period from January 2018 to February 2019, and an analysis of literature, news items, government reports and other documents.


Dr. Lieselot Bisschop
Dr. L.C.J. Bisschop is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R. Roks is als universitair docent werkzaam bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Prof.dr. Richard Staring
Prof.dr. R. Staring is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

Elisabeth Brein MSc
E. Brein MSc is als onderzoeker en programmamanager verbonden aan de Rotterdam School of Management van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
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