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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2013 x
Artikel

De bescherming van klokkenluiders: recente lessen uit Australië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden whistleblower protection, Australian legislation, human rights, anti-retaliation model, public sector integrity
Auteurs A.J. Brown
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to aid understanding of the ways in which different policy purposes, approaches and legal options can be combined in the design of better legislation, using Australia’s recently passed Public Interest Disclosure Act 2013. It provides a guide to key elements of the new legislation, as an example of legislative development taking place over a long period, informed by different trends. In particular, it is one of the first national laws to seek to integrate divergent approaches to the ‘anti-retaliation’ model of whistleblower protection, including its place in the employment law system, it sets new standards for the role of ‘public whistleblowing’ in such a regime, and provides new responses on basic questions of coverage, including which individuals are able to gain the benefit of the legislation. This provides lessons as to how different legal approaches might be better integrated, in pursuit of a clearer understanding of the interface between whistleblowing and other integrity reforms.


A.J. Brown
Prof. A.J. Brown is hoogleraar Public Policy and Law bij het Centre for Governance & Public Policy van de Griffith University in Australië. E-mail: A.J.Brown@griffith.edu.au.
Artikel

Over motieven voor het melden van misstanden

Een kwalitatief onderzoek binnen het Belgische federale politiekorps

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2013
Trefwoorden Belgian federal police, organizational misbehavior, internal reporting behavior, internal reporting motives, grid-group cultural theory
Auteurs K. Loyens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Whistleblowing research should more explicitly focus on underlying motives for the decision to report on organizational misbehavior. Arguably, these motives are connected to the factors that can explain the decision whether or not to blow the whistle. Reporting for egoistic reasons can probably be explained by other factors than reporting for altruistic reasons. This article aims to enrich the whistleblowing literature by proposing grid-group cultural theory as an alternative approach. This theoretical framework could provide more insight into reporting decisions by identifying various motives for such decisions and linking them with elements in the organizational culture that could explain them. As an illustration, the theory is applied in an ethnographic study in two investigative teams of the Belgian federal police. More research is, however, needed to fine-tune the conceptual framework and to test the preliminary findings of this empirical study.


K. Loyens
Dr. Kim Loyens is universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Utrecht en plaatsvervangend docent Criminologie aan de KU Leuven.
Artikel

Roma-migratie in Europa vanuit Nederlands perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden Roma, labour migration, minority groups
Auteurs P. Jorna
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focusses on the share of Roma in the labour migration from Eastern and Central Europe to the Netherlands. By combining European reports on the situation of what is Europe’s largest minority group with insights from Dutch migration studies push and pull factors are identified as well as the mobility patterns of Roma involved in the process of migration. Attention is also paid to the ‘when and how’ of the Dutch response (‘agenda setting’) – at home and in the European context – to the growing importance of the Roma issue in Europe. As an example the position of Bulgarian Roma in larger cities like Rotterdam is explored further.


P. Jorna
Drs. Peter Jorna is Consultant Roma & Sinti Issues en voormalig lid voor Nederland van de Committee of Experts on Roma, Raad van Europa (2005-2011).
Artikel

Marginaal gehuisveste arbeidsmigranten en overlast

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden labour migrants, nuisance, housing policy, Central and Eastern Europe, public space
Auteurs B. van Gestel, E.K. van Straalen en M.A. Verhoeven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recent labour migration from Central and Eastern Europe has, next to positive economic facets, also negative aspects like nuisance. This article describes the nature of this nuisance and the circumstances causing this. According to key informants who have been interviewed for this study, the nuisances discussed in this article pertain to only a small part of the labour migrants. The nuisance related to labour migrants from Central and Eastern Europe mostly consists of loud ‘noises of living’ around the home and in public space. Considering the nuisance, the following aspects seem to be part of the cause: thin-walled houses and the (illegal) letting per room; poor commitment to the neighbourhood due to temporary stay; quarrels and acts of violence between labour migrants and excessive drinking; lack of privacy and therefore meeting in public space; and housing in neighbourhoods with an accumulation of social issues. In this article the authors describe these aspects and their occurrence.


B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

E.K. van Straalen
Elmarije van Straalen, MSc is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

M.A. Verhoeven
Drs. Maite Verhoeven is werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Auteurs B. van Gestel, R.P.W. Jennissen en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

B. van Gestel
Dr. Barbra van Gestel is als onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC en redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

R.P.W. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij de onderzoeksafdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving en Internationale en Vreemdelingenaangelegenheden van het WODC en redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.

M. Chotkowski
Dr. Margaret Chotkowski is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC. Zij promoveerde in 2005 op het proefschrift Vijftien ladders en een dambord. Contacten van Italiaanse migranten in Nederland, 1890-1940.
Artikel

De instroom van buitenlandse arbeiders en de migratiegeschiedenis van Nederland na 1945

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden labour migration, the Netherlands, long boom, migration trends, expansion of the EU
Auteurs R.P.W. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the migration history of the Netherlands after World War II. The emphasis is on labour migration as the article seeks to clarify that the inflow of foreign labour had a large impact on the magnitude and the course of migration flows towards and from the Netherlands. This is quite obvious for the period in which labour migration was the most important immigration type. However, this article also deals with the influence of labour migration of earlier periods on other migration types, which became the most important immigration types from the first oil crisis of 1973. Next to the immigration history, the inflow of foreign labourers also affected the emigration history of the Netherlands to a certain extent.


R.P.W. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

De maatschappelijke positie van Midden- en Oost-Europese arbeidsmigranten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden CEE migrants, social position, labour migration, housing conditions, posted workers
Auteurs E. Snel, M. Faber en G. Engbersen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the social position of Central and Eastern European (CEE) migrants in the Netherlands, in particular their labour and housing position, using the results of recent Dutch research by three different groups of scholars. We cannot speak of a homogeneous group of migrants. The prevailing image of the hard-working labour migrant, doing low-qualified and often low-paid work (even though many of them are highly skilled) and faced with poor working and living conditions is largely confirmed by the available research. However, there are also knowledge workers (‘kennismigranten’) among the migrants from CEE-countries working in the Netherlands. In addition, the authors also found partners and children of previous migrants from CEE-countries, and students. This diversity of the new group of migrants from CEE-countries forms a challenge for local governments to find appropriate instruments to lead integration on the right track.


E. Snel
Dr. Erik Snel is verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

M. Faber
Marije Faber, MSc is werkzaam bij de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

G. Engbersen
Prof. dr. Godfried Engbersen is verbonden aan de afdeling Sociologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Retourmigratie van arbeidsmigranten uit Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden return migration, labour migrants, duration of stay, labour market performance, migration policy
Auteurs G. Bijwaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is often overlooked that many migrants only stay temporary in the host country. From a policy view the question as to what extent labour market performance affects the decisions of migrants to return to their home country is highly relevant. Based on data on recent labour migrants to the Netherlands this question is investigated. From the host country perspective it is positive that unemployment and low income shorten the duration of stay. This implies that the overconcern by host countries being burdened by welfare seekers is unfounded. However, high-income migrants are also more prone to leave. Thus, even when policies of attracting highly qualified labour migrants are successful, this won’t have a sustainable effect on the labour market in the Netherlands. These migrants usually don’t stay very long in the country, but either move on or return to their home country.


G. Bijwaard
Dr. Govert Bijwaard is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Interdisciplinair Demografisch Instituut (NIDI).
Artikel

Waarom komen minder vrouwelijke dan mannelijke arbeidsmigranten naar Nederland?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2013
Trefwoorden labour migration, female labour migrants, gender patterns, labour migration policy, social network theory
Auteurs L.J.J. Wijkhuijs en R.P.W. Jennissen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1995 the influx of labour migrants in the Netherlands has increased steadily from over 10.000 in 1995 to around 47.000 in 2011. As a consequence, from 2007, searching a job is the main migration motive of non-Dutch immigrants to migrate to the Netherlands. On average, one third of all labour migrants were women. Explanations for the fact that a minority of the labour migrants coming to the Netherlands are women can be derived from the literature. Possible reasons are gender patterns (in the Netherlands and/or the countries of origin) and differences in the personal networks of men and women. In addition, the Dutch labour migration policy, and in particular the conditions applying to labour migrants (in terms of education and employment sector) as well as the restriction on the right of family members of labour migrants to work in the Netherlands, may limit the influx of female labour migrants.


L.J.J. Wijkhuijs
Dr. Vina Wijkhuijs is als senior onderzoeker/adviseur werkzaam bij het Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid.

R.P.W. Jennissen
Dr. Roel Jennissen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

Discriminatie van transgenders door politie en justitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden transgender discrimination, violence against transgender, justice, police treatment, equal rights
Auteurs I. Pohlkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    While reflecting on gender issues transgender persons and their issues are often neglected. Government institutions on various levels don’t know how to handle their gender nonconformity as neither male nor female. Also they are often targets of inappropriate police and judicial measures. Transgender persons are often sceptical and cautious when interacting with those professionals: a fair and respectful treatment is not to be expected. In this article the author takes on to explore this blind spot. She presents the results of a survey on the transgender discrimination and violence by police and judicial institutions in Germany. The author points out that this is a result of the ongoing structural discrimination of gender non-conform persons in a binary gender system. This topic is part of her PhD thesis on the experience of discrimination and violence of gender non-conform persons in general. Her qualitative study is based on narrative interviews and a group discussion with gender non-conform persons in Germany.


I. Pohlkamp
Ines Pohlkamp MSc promoveert aan de universiteit van Hamburg op seksueel non-conforme vijandige discriminatie en geweld. Zij is verbonden aan het Gender Instituut in Bremen. Contact: pohlkamp@genderinstitut-bremen.de.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Auteurs Martina Althoff, Janine Janssen en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Ik ben geen freak! Het leven van transgenders in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden transgender, gender identity, sex operations, social acceptance, mental health
Auteurs S. Keuzenkamp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Some people are born as men, but feel like a woman; some feel like both a man and a woman; and some feel neither man nor woman. Similarly, there are people who are born as women, but feel like a men, etcetera. For these people, their birth gender and gender identity do not (completely) correspond. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research (SCP) studied the lives of these so-called transgender persons. 459 transgender persons filled out an online questionnaire between September 2011 and April 2012. Half the respondents knew before the age of 10 that their gender identity did not correspond with their birth gender. Almost a third of the respondents are still (mainly) living in the closet. Negative reactions are quite common. And compared with the rest of the Dutch population, transgender persons are much more often declared unfit for work and suffer much more often from mental health problems.


S. Keuzenkamp
Prof. dr. Saskia Keuzenkamp is als bijzonder hoogleraar Emancipatie in internationaal vergelijkend perspectief verbonden aan de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Zij is tevens sinds kort werkzaam als manager van de afdeling Effectiviteit bij Movisie in Utrecht. Daarvoor was zij verbonden aan het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau in Den Haag.
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