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Artikel

Het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Theoretische vernieuwing in het digitale tijdperk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, cyborg, cyborg crime, Actor-Netwerk theory, Latour
Auteurs Wytske van der Wagen MsC
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study departs from the notion that current high-tech crime developments bring various new challenges for the rather anthropocentric, instrumental and dualistic theoretical repertoire of criminology. The article reflects on these challenges and proposes the alternative ‘cyborg crime’ perspective. This concept is the result of an explorative research on the theoretical potential of the actor-network theory (ANT) for cybercrime. The study concludes that ANT and the ensuing cyborg crime perspective enables to grasp certain dimensions of cybercrime more profoundly. ANT can move us (criminologists) beyond the classical novelty debate surrounding cybercrime and stimulate theoretical innovation.


Wytske van der Wagen MsC
Wytske van der Wagen, MSc, is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Law School. E-mail: vanderwagen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Emotions and Explanation in Cultural Criminology

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cultural criminology, emotions, affective states, explanation, theory
Auteurs dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Cultural Criminology (CC) is one of the most recent and exciting developments in criminological theory. Its main argument is that mainstream criminological theories provide inadequate explanations of crime due to epistemological and theoretical flaws. CC’s alternative involves assuming a phenomenological and interpretative approach that focuses on the cultural and emotional components of crime. In this article I shall argue that although CC makes a valid demand for more realistic and complex explanations of crime, its own alternative needs to deal with two main challenges referred to its conceptualization of explanation and emotion. First, two problematic antagonisms should be avoided: understanding vs. causal explanation; and universal nomothetic explanations as opposed to ideographic descriptions. Considering recent developments in philosophy of social science, particularly the ‘social mechanisms approach’, CC should focus on explaining retrospectively through identification of specific causal mechanisms rejecting universal and predictive pretensions. Second, although cultural criminologists rightly question the emotionless character of criminological explanations, they lack an articulated alternative conceptualization of emotions to explain crime. A more refined concept needs to be elaborated in dialogue with recent advances in social sciences.


dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg
Dr. Nicolás Trajtenberg is senior lecturer and researcher at the Department of Sociology, Universidad de la República (UdelaR), Uruguay. He holds a PhD in criminology by the Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, UK. His main areas of research are explanation and theory in criminology, and youth violence. E-mail: nico.trajtenberg@gmail.com.
Artikel

Selectieve ‘culturalisering’ in de praktijk van de jeugdbescherming in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden youth justice, Roma, Caucasian migrants, refugees, selectivity, deviance
Auteurs dr. Olga Petintseva
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper focuses on the practice of youth justice (termed ‘youth protection’ in Belgium) in which professional actors ascribe deviant behaviour of youngsters to different cultural and migration backgrounds. Intra-European Roma migrants and refugees from the Northern Caucasus in Belgium are chosen as case studies. Discourse analysis of 55 youth court files and 41 expert interviews with professional actors show that deviant behaviour of these young people is explained in different manners. Two discourses are identified: ‘criminal vagabonds’ and ‘war torn children’. These discourses and their effects in practice differ tremendously for both groups. The broader discussion this article touches upon is the selective inclusion and exclusion in the institutions of formal social control, through social practices of culturalisation.


dr. Olga Petintseva
dr. Olga Petintseva is doctor-assistent aan de vakgroep criminologie, strafrecht en sociaal recht, Universiteit Gent. Haar onderzoeksinteresse situeert zich binnen de narratieve criminologie, cultuurstudies en sociolinguïstiek. E-mail: olga.petintseva@ugent.be.
Artikel

Access_open Securitisering en seksualisering van migratie: het debat over oud en nieuw in Keulen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Refugees, Gender debate, Sexual violence, Framing analysis
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines the public debate about New Year’s Eve in Cologne in 2015. Theoretical starting point is the idea that public debates are forms of social communication in which reality is produced and social events become meaningful. On the basis of a framing analysis, it is investigated what significance New Year’s Eve in Cologne has as a medial event for society. The question here is how the event is described and explained, how it is mentioned and interpreted, what significance it collectively receives and how these insights can be theoretically interpreted. The analysis shows that different frames were possible, such as the problematization of the work of the police. Instead, the discourse focused on the sexual behaviour of refugees and securitization and sexualisation of migration takes place.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. E-mail: m.althoff@rug.nl.
Diversen

Access_open ‘The closer you are the more information you get’ – interview met professor Emanuel Marx

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden etnographic research, Violence, Manchester school, going native
Auteurs prof. dr. Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is an interview with one of the most important social anthropologists of the 20th century – prof. Emanuel Marx.


prof. dr. Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie bij het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: dina.s@uu.nl.
Diversen

Lokale oplossingen voor problemen in asielopvang: de ‘vluchtelingencrisis’ als window of opportunity

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden asylum reception, local turn, Plan Einstein, experimental governance
Auteurs dr. Karin Geuijen, dr. Rianne Dekker en dr. Caroline Oliver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the recent ‘refugee crisis’, governments have been confronted with various problems concerning asylum reception. In several locations in the Netherlands, as well as elsewhere in Europe and beyond, new local forms of experimenting around the issue of asylum reception have begun. One example is Utrecht’s ‘Plan Einstein’. In Overvecht, a district of the city, an office building has been converted into an asylum shelter, where 400 asylum seekers live together with 38 non-refugee youngsters from Utrecht. The Centre runs courses and activities, offered to both asylum seekers (including those who do not yet have a residence status) and local residents. Employing the concepts of ‘multilevel governance’ and ‘experimental governance’, this article indicates why this initiative was able to be realized at this location and at this time.


dr. Karin Geuijen
Dr. Karin Geuijen is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: k.geuijen@uu.nl.

dr. Rianne Dekker
Dr. Rianne Dekker is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: r.dekker1@uu.nl.

dr. Caroline Oliver
Dr. Caroline Oliver is senior lecturer bij het department of social sciences,University of Roehampton, Londen. E-mail: caroline.oliver@roehampton.ac.uk.
Redactioneel

Varia

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Auteurs dr. Ilse van Liempt en prof. dr. Richard Staring
Auteursinformatie

dr. Ilse van Liempt
Dr. Ilse van Liempt werkt als universitair docent/onderzoeker bij de sectie Stadsgeografie van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: i.c.vanliempt@uu.nl.

prof. dr. Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring werkt als bijzonder hoogleraar bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

#HOUHETSTRAAT: straatcultuur op social media?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden street culture, Identity, social media, Performance
Auteurs Dr. Robby Roks en Jeroen van den Broek MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research on street culture in the Netherlands constitutes an area of relative paucity. Moreover, even less is known about the virtualisation of street culture. In this article, we draw on the social media accounts of a network of delinquent youngsters from Spangen, a neighbourhood in the Dutch city of Rotterdam. Analyzing tweets and images on social media, we found Goffmans (1959) notion of the ‘front’ in three main themes: the importance of the negative image of the locality, the communication of criminality, and emphasizing an oppositional relationship with the police. We argue that these results illustrate the performance of a street identity on social media.


Dr. Robby Roks
Dr. R.A. Roks is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: roks@law.eur.nl.

Jeroen van den Broek MSc
J.B.A. van den Broek, MSc, is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Lectoraat Aanpak Jeugdcriminaliteit van Hogeschool Leiden en daarnaast als zelfstandig criminoloog actief vanuit Partner in Crime. E-mail: jbavandenbroek@gmail.com.
Artikel

Naar een non-antropocentrische criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden green criminology, non-anthropocentric criminology, environmental crime, speciesism, animal rights
Auteurs Dr. Daan van Uhm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing ecological conditions in a globalizing world pose new challenges for human societies. Global warming, large-scale pollution, deforestation and species extinction have increasingly become topics on the international agenda. Even though many of these harmful activities are criminogenic, criminology pays rather little attention to environmental crimes and harms.
    Therefore, this article discusses the anthropocentric perspective within criminology and argues that a non-anthropocentric criminology can lead to new theoretical insights.


Dr. Daan van Uhm
Dr. Daan van Uhm is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Verzwijgen en ontkennen van slachtoffers van guerrillageweld in Argentinië

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden silence, denial, guerrilla, human rights, Argentina
Auteurs prof. dr. Willem de Haan en Dr. Eva van Roekel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, we try to answer the question of how and why the stories of the victims of attacks by the guerrilla movements in the 1970s in Argentina are currently silenced in the public sphere. We analyse how this collective denial is negotiated in human rights discourse. In particular, we show how strategic and essentialist silences as well as denial (literal, interpretative, implicatory) feature in political debates about human rights and political violence.


prof. dr. Willem de Haan
Prof. dr. Willem de Haan is senior research fellow bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Eva van Roekel
Dr. Eva van Roekel is docent-onderzoeker bij de afdeling Culturele Antropologie, Universiteit Utrecht.
Diversen

Access_open Theo van Boven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs dr. mr. Roland Moerland en prof. dr. Hans Nelen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The two editors of this issue conducted an interview with professor emeritus International law and Human Rights Theo van Boven. Van Boven was UN Special Rapporteur against Torture and he served as Director of Human Rights of the United Nations. In these and his other positions, Van Boven fought for the rights of victims of gross human rights violations and throughout his career he experienced first-hand how regimes try to cover up and deny their crimes. The interview focuses on his experiences with the former military junta in Argentina. Van Boven notes that in comparison to other regimes, the junta had developed the most sophisticated strategy of denial. Van Boven reflects on the regime’s vocabulary of denial, the political dimensions of denial and the implications for the victims. He is open and sincere about his experiences as Director of Human Rights of the United Nations and explains how victim rights, such as the right to truth, can clash with the bureaucratic and political reality within the United Nations.


dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.

prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Alsof zij nooit geboren waren …

Herinnering, ontkenning en de oude Jodenbuurt in Amsterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden memorialisation, Holocaust, Amsterdam, memory, social construction
Auteurs prof. mr. Chrisje Brants
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After catastrophic events, memorialisation is part of coming to terms with the past and rebuilding the future. It is also part of the social construction of the past – a struggle between conflicting representations of past events by different groups in society, with different memories, interests and degrees of power to influence which version of history is eventually recognized as correct and which is denied. In Western Europe, we tend to study such processes in parts of the world far removed from our own, forgetting that the major genocide of the 20th century, took place in our own cities, and that a process of memorialisation was ongoing there for many years after the war. The Jewish quarter in the centre of Amsterdam has many monuments, buildings and museums connected to the history of the Jews of Amsterdam, the majority of whom died in the death camps of the Shoa. The memory landscape of the Jewish quarter is dynamic, a reflection of a culture of remembrance and denial concerning the Second World War, in which events and people are remembered, but others forgotten. What can the urban landscape of Amsterdam tell us about this culture and its relationship to social and political events during and after the war? What/who are remembered and what/who forgotten, by whom, and why? How has that changed over time?


prof. mr. Chrisje Brants
Prof. mr. Chrisje Brants is emeritus hoogleraar straf(proces)recht bij het Willem Pompe Instituut, Universiteit Utrecht, en professor of law bij Northumbria University, Newcastle, Verenigd Koninkrijk.
Artikel

Hoe IS-glossy Dabiq harten van westerse moslims wint

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden jihadism, radicalization, propaganda, denial, Dabiq
Auteurs Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed, Layla van Wieringen MSc., Kyra van den Akker BSc. e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    IS propaganda is assumed to contribute to radicalization of Western Muslims. How IS propaganda reaches the hearts and minds of Western Muslims and consequently fuels radicalization is nonetheless an understudied topic. Through content analysis of all fifteen issues of IS-glossy Dabiq this article demonstrates how IS propaganda works in Dabiq. First, IS attunes in Dabiq to factors that foster radicalization according to the literature. IS does so by its discussion in Dabiq of injustice done to Muslims worldwide, the image of the Western enemy, and its positive presentation of the individual and group identity of IS fighters. Second, in Dabiq IS paves the way for embracing violent means, such as terrorist attacks on Western civilians through a discourse of ‘denial’.


Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. mr. Fiore Geelhoed werkt als universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Zij verricht onderzoek naar radicalisering en in het bijzonder de betekenis die radicalisering heeft voor geradicaliseerde moslims, levensverhalen, subculturen en de betrokkenheid van bekeerlingen bij jihadistische groeperingen.

Layla van Wieringen MSc.
Layla van Wieringen, BSc., is werkzaam bij de Hulplijn Radicalisering in Utrecht. Eerder heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond. Verder heeft zij de master Investigative and Legal Psychology aan het United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute gevolgd.

Kyra van den Akker BSc.
Kyra van den Akker, BSc., volgt in aansluiting op de bacheloropleiding Criminologie de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit.

Fleur Crolla BSc.
Fleur Crolla, BSc., volgt de master Crisis and Security Management aan de Universiteit Leiden en de master Opsporingscriminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit. Daarvoor heeft zij de bacheloropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.

Irene Senatori MSc.
Irene Senatori, MSc., heeft de bachelor- en masteropleiding Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit afgerond.
Artikel

‘Troostmeisjes’: Over de structurele ontkenning van seksuele slavernij en voortschrijdende victimisatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden comfort women, denial, sexual slavery, discourse analysis
Auteurs dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Samenvatting

    In 2015, South-Korea and Japan came to a ‘final’ agreement concerning the ‘comfort women’ issue. This contribution reveals that this deal signals the next stage in a process of denial through which Japanese authorities have structurally denied the women’s’ victimhood. Taking a discourse analytical approach, the contribution investigates this historical process of denial and its implications. The analysis shows that denial takes several forms and performs different functions throughout the process. It demonstrates that denial is an interactional phenomenon, has different psychologies underlying it, and that it operates on different levels. Denial ultimately contributes to a state of continued victimization.


dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Artikel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden denial, speech act, discourse theory, performative function of language, cultural criminology
Auteurs prof. dr. Hans Nelen en dr. mr. Roland Moerland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on the language of denial, some relevant concepts in relation to denial, speech act and discourse theory are explored. Stanley Cohen’s distinction between literal, interpretative and implicatory denial is illuminated, as well as the contribution of various scholars on the performative function of language. At the end of the article the relevance of these concepts for (cultural) criminology is explained.


prof. dr. Hans Nelen
Prof. dr. Hans Nelen is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit Maastricht.

dr. mr. Roland Moerland
Dr. mr. Roland Moerland is universitair docent criminologie aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Maastricht.
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