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Artikel

Access_open Globalization as a Factor in General Jurisprudence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden general jurisprudence, globalization, global legal pluralism, legal positivism, analytical jurisprudence
Auteurs Sidney Richards
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Globalization is commonly cited as an important factor in theorising legal phenomena in the contemporary world. Although many legal disciplines have sought to adapt their theories to globalization, progress has been comparatively modest within contemporary analytical jurisprudence. This paper aims to offer a survey of recent scholarship on legal theory and globalization and suggests various ways in which these writings are relevant to the project of jurisprudence. This paper argues, more specifically, that the dominant interpretation of globalization frames it as a particular form of legal pluralism. The resulting concept – global legal pluralism – comes in two broad varieties, depending on whether it emphasizes normative or institutional pluralism. This paper goes on to argue that these concepts coincide with two central themes of jurisprudence, namely its concern with normativity and institutionality. Finally, this paper reflects on the feasibility of constructing a ‘general’ and ‘descriptive’ jurisprudence in light of globalization.


Sidney Richards
Sidney Richards is Doctoral candidate in Law at Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge.
Redactioneel

De sociale rol van het geheim: inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden disclosure, research of secrecy, cultural criminology, meaning
Auteurs Dina Siegel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In cultural criminology, we talk about crimes as secrets and secrets as crimes. There is a close relationship between criminality and secrecy. The unravelling of secrets can help us discover the meaning criminals attach to their actions and contacts. Secrets have always been a topical issue, as they are strongly embedded in our social world. Secrecy used to be functional in times of war and under dictatorships as a symbol of political and/or religious protest. Today, however, secrecy is most often associated with illegality and criminality. It is not easy to study secrets and secrecy, and for this reason criminological research requires specific, mainly ethnographic, research methods.


Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is hoogleraar criminologie aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: d.siegel@uu.nl

    Exhibitieplicht; 843aRv: vrijheid intern vormen van gedachten

Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Redactioneel

Redactioneel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens, Leontien M. van der Knaap en Ralf Beerens
Auteursinformatie

Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien M.) van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: L.M.vdrKnaap@uvt.nl

Ralf Beerens
R. (Ralf) Beerens Ph.D is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV) en promovendus aan de Universiteit van Lund, Zweden. E-mail: ralf.beerens@nifv.nl
Artikel

Technologie en wetgeving in cyberspace: verstandshuwelijk of innige relatie?

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden ICT, technoregulering, privacy
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. M. Hildebrandt, Prof. dr. R.E. Leenes en Mr. M.H.A.F. Lokin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt een schets gegeven van de ontwikkelingen in cyberspace, ofwel de informatiegestuurde samenleving, en de wijze waarop de rechtsstaat daar een plaats in kan en moet krijgen. De auteurs benaderen dit vraagstuk vanuit twee invalshoeken, namelijk die van ‘juridische bescherming by design’ en die van ‘(computer)code as regulation’. De eerste invalshoek betreft de vraag hoe fundamentele waarden en grondrechten kunnen worden geborgd door ze een herkenbare en afdwingbare plaats te geven in de ICT-infrastructuren die ons dagelijks leven inmiddels beheersen. De tweede betreft de vraag hoe technologie ons de norm kan stellen, en welke randvoorwaarden daar noodzakelijkerwijs bij vervuld moeten worden om te zorgen dat de techniek niet met het recht op de loop gaat.Dit stelt de wetgever voor nieuwe uitdagingen. Meer geschreven regels zijn niet voldoende om de technologische ontwikkelingen in goede banen te leiden. Het vergt dat juristen en architecten daadwerkelijk elkaars werelden gaan delen, in het proces van ontwerp van zowel de regels als de systemen waarin deze een plaats moeten krijgen.


Prof. mr. dr. M. Hildebrandt
Prof. dr. mr. M. Hildebrandt is hoogleraar ICT en rechtsstaat aan het Institute of Computing and Information Sciences (iCIS) van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, universitair hoofddocent Rechtstheorie aan de Erasmus School of Law Rotterdam en Senior Researcher bij het Centre for Law Science Technology and Society van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. hildebrandt@law.eur.nl

Prof. dr. R.E. Leenes
Prof. dr. R.E. Leenes is hoogleraar regulering door technologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Mr. M.H.A.F. Lokin
Mr. M.H.A.F. Lokin is juridisch adviseur bij het DG Belastingdienst en redacteur van RegelMaat.mariette.lokin@planet.nl
Artikel

De stad en de grenzen van religieuze tolerantie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden urban transformation, Istanbul, religion, segregation
Auteurs Ayse Çavdar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the public spheres of the global cities, religion is getting more visible. However, this is not an independent process, but is linked to broader urban processes like segregation, security and (fear of) crime. With two different examples from Istanbul, this article explains how religious motivations become ways of expression for existing or emerging lines of urban segregation. While religious motivations appear as a tool used against urban gentrification in the area of Tophane; in the gated community of Basaksehir, religion, together with ‘fear of crime’ and ‘fear of immorality’, serves to differentiate a middle class living space from the ‘scary’ and ‘immoral’ environment of the big city.


Ayse Çavdar
Ayse Çavdar is journalist en PhD student aan de European University of Viadrina. E-mail: aysecavdar@gmail.com.
Artikel

De staat van de criminologie van internationale misdrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden criminology of international crimes, genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity
Auteurs Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman, Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers, Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What do we know about the criminological aspects of international crimes? What do they entail and what are facilitating factors which can help us understand their causes and how should we respond to these crimes? Are international crimes merely a more extreme form of ordinary crimes or are they a different kind of criminality? In the past few years a growing number of scholars both at a national and at an international level have devoted their scholarly attention to this important and urgent research theme. In this special issue we aim to present a number of articles in which different perspectives on this topic are presented. By doing so we hope to enhance our knowledge of this phenomenon and to provide an impulse to further criminological research within this area in both the Netherlands and Belgium. This introductory article gives an overview of the state of the art of international crime criminology in the Netherlands and Belgium, and the rest of the world.


Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law-consultant en momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.

Prof. dr. Alette Smeulers
Prof. dr. A.L. Smeulers heeft de onderzoekslijn criminologie van de internationale misdrijven aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam opgezet en is sinds 1 september 2011 tevens hoogleraar internationale criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg, a.l.smeulers@tilburguniversity.edu.

Prof. dr. Stephan Parmentier
Prof. dr. S. Parmentier is hoogleraar Sociologie van de criminaliteit, het recht en de mensenrechten aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC), Rechtsfaculteit, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, stephan.parmentier@law.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Christianne de Poot
Dr. C.J. de Poot is senior onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC), Den Haag, en Lector Forensisch Onderzoek bij de Hogeschool van Amsterdam en de Politieacademie, c.j.de.poot@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

Grensvervaging tussen interne en externe veiligheid

Achtergronden en gevolgen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden internal security, external security, blurring boundaries
Auteurs Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internal and external security are traditionally considered to be distinct concepts that allow police organizations and tasks to be differentiated from those of the military. Internal security is then viewed as oriented towards the maintenance of the order within a state and to be exercised against fellow citizens with a limited use of violence. External security deals with the protection of the territory and is exercised against foreign enemies, may include the use of excessive violence. In practice, however, the boundaries between these concepts and between police and military aims and tasks have become blurred. The extension of the security concept, a change in the nature of interventions on foreign territory and a shifting image of the enemy create an overlap between internal and external security issues and actors. This evolution seriously challenges the existing legal and normative frameworks that rely heavily on assumptions based on the distinction between internal and external security.


Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. (Tom) Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Correspondentieadres: Universiteitstraat 4, 9000 Gent, België. E-mail: tom.vanderbeken@ugent.be
Artikel

Transnationalism, Legal Pluralism and Types of Conflicts

Contractual Norms Concerning Domestic Workers

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Antoinette Vlieger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Transnationalism and migration are recognised contributors to legal pluralism. Scholars of legal pluralism state that in conflicts, social actors sustain their claims with arguments from coexisting legal systems. They manoeuvre between different legal systems, or contradicting norms within one system, to achieve the most satisfactory decision in a conflict. In doing so, they use norms as discursive tools. Indeed, according to data on domestic workers in Saudi Arabia and the Emirates, this manoeuvring with norms as discursive tools is often recognisable in conflicts between workers and their employers. However, transnational contractual norms and the legal pluralism they create are not merely discursive tools in existing conflicts; they are also regularly the cause of conflicts. Domestic workers conclude agreements with agents in their countries of origin, while employers conclude agreements with different agents in the destination countries. Both parties believe the other party has signed the same contract, while in reality that is not the case. Because of the differences between the two sets of contractual norms, these norms cause conflicts; they are not merely discursive tools. This finding calls for a division between different types of conflicts, which is proposed here for the purpose of socio-legal analysis of conflicts in general and particularly in situations of transnationalism and legal pluralism.


Antoinette Vlieger
Antoinette Vlieger is a researcher and lecturer at the Law School of the University of Amsterdam. For the last five years she has been researching conflicts between domestic workers and their employers in Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Her PhD thesis on this topic is to be published in fall 2011. Thereafter she hopes to do research on the question of why there is little labour protection on the Arabian Peninsula, combining this with hands-on human rights work in the Middle East.

    For a common market, a common patent and a common patent litigation seem self-evident. Although efforts to introduce these common market institutions in Europe started early in the history of the Economic Community, they remained unsuccessful. The reconstruction of this legal history is focused on two theoretical issues.The first concerns the question of power and influence in the EU, in particular the configuration of stakeholders responsible for the non-decision making on this policy issue. The basic mechanism underlying the lack of success of this dossier appears to be a balance of power between the two opposing groups of stakeholders (France and European institutions vs. Germany, UK, supported by their patenting industry and legal experts). This suggests that transnational rule making, proceeding under similar conditions, is likely to have a long (if not unsuccessful) ‘issue career’.The second theoretical issue concerns the agenda-setting mechanisms of recent decades. All initiatives on international or transnational patent policy have mainly been the product of ‘high politics’, although the input of patent legal experts (representatives of ‘low politics’) has increased considerably in recent decades. Further, this history would seem to defy simple schemes of agenda setting. There is no simple sequence of issue initiation, specification, expansion and entrance. At best, it is a series of such sequences.


Alex Jettinghoff
Alex Jettinghoff is a researcher at the Institute for Sociology of Law of the Radboud University Nijmegen. His main research interests are: business contracting and litigation, the role of lawyers in legal change, war and legal transformation, and the practices of intellectual property.
Artikel

Gunstbetoon en geneesmiddelen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 8 2011
Trefwoorden financiële relaties artsen-industrie, geneesmiddelenreclame, gunstbetoon, zelfregulering
Auteurs Mr. M.E. de Bruin en prof. mr. M.D.B. Schutjens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In het kader van Europese en nationale wetgeving over geneesmiddelenreclame worden regels gesteld aan financiële relaties (gunstbetoon) tussen farmaceutische bedrijven en beroepsbeoefenaren, waaronder artsen. Deze wettelijke regels zijn in Nederland verder uitgewerkt in het kader van zelfregulering. In de CGR Gedragscode Geneesmiddelenreclame is bepaald onder welke voorwaarden het geven van geschenken, het bieden van gastvrijheid bij bijeenkomsten en betaling voor dienstverlening en sponsoring is toegestaan. Deze regels zijn in de loop der jaren verder aangescherpt. Ook is er veel jurisprudentie over dit onderwerp, met name vanuit de Codecommissie van de CGR. Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de achtergronden en de meest actuele stand van zaken rond gunstbetoon in Nederland.


Mr. M.E. de Bruin
Mirjam de Bruin is als juridisch adviseur op het gebied van de gezondheidszorg werkzaam bij Schutjens De Bruin.

prof. mr. M.D.B. Schutjens
Marie-Hélène Schutjens is als juridisch adviseur op het gebied van de gezondheidszorg werkzaam bij Schutjens De Bruin en is tevens deeltijd hoogleraar farmaceutisch recht aan de UU.
Redactioneel

Over cultuur en criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 0 2011
Trefwoorden culture, crime, media, research methods
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg, Dina Siegel, Richard Staring e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introduction to this first issue of the Dutch Journal on Culture and Crime, the editors first examine the history of cultural perspectives in criminology and the reasons why this approach is particularly relevant to analyse crime in our globalised consumer societies. Cultural criminology’s social-constructionist perspectives on the key-concepts, culture and crime, are elaborated next, followed by an exposé of the new imaginative meaning of media-studies in our age of information. In the last paragraph the claim is made that, although ethnography plays a key-role, there is a wide variety of research methodologies that can be applied in cultural criminological framework.


Marc Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. Marc Schuilenburg is docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Dina Siegel
Prof. dr. Dina Siegel is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: d.siegel@uu.nl.

Richard Staring
Prof. dr. Richard Staring is bijzonder hoogleraar Mobiliteit, toezicht en criminaliteit aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: staring@law.eur.nl.

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar Internationaal vergelijkende criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Access_open The Theory and Practice of Teaching and Guiding Legal Research Skills

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2011
Trefwoorden legal education, legal research skills, legal research methods, Utrecht School of Law
Auteurs Ian Curry-Sumner en Marieke van der Schaaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of this article is to present a case study of the development process and its underlying theoretical fundaments of a research skills line in the law degree programme. Broader educational purposes of the article are to give managers and lecturers of law schools suggestions for implementing research skills in their curriculum. Accordingly, the article is aimed at stimulating students’ research skills. This article will discuss the background to the decisions that were made in the Utrecht School of Law, then discuss the ultimate end result, namely the implementation of a new research skills line and the publication of a standard research skills instruction. Furthermore, each section will commence with a brief outline of the theoretical framework, followed by an explanation of how this theory has been practically implemented in the Bachelor of Law in Utrecht.


Ian Curry-Sumner
Dr. Ian Curry-Sumner is als senior universitair docent verbonden aan het Molengraaff instituut voor privaatrecht (Universiteit Utrecht). Ook is hij coördinator van het research skills-project in Utrecht. Recentelijk publiceerde hij Research Skills: Instruction for Lawyers samen met F. Kristen, T. van der Linden-Smith en H. Tigchelaar.

Marieke van der Schaaf
Dr. Marieke van der Schaaf is universitair docent aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    This paper analyses the association between rural youth violence, drinking alcohol in the weekend and going to the pub, as compared to their peers in more urbanized areas. In addition, the paper analyses whether the gender gap in the use of violence is larger for rural youth. Based on self-report data of 5,062 youngsters aged 14-22 years old, two forms of violence were analysed. The first concerns physical violence: fighting, hitting someone resulting in medical treatment and wounding someone with a weapon. The second comprises behaviour that prepares for the use of violence: threatening and carrying a weapon. These two forms of violence were related to two types of rural areas on the basis of population density. It turned out that youngsters living in the least densely populated areas were not less likely to have engaged in physical violence whereas their peers in more densely populated rural areas had somewhat lower chances to do so. Concerning behaviour that prepares for violence, the analyses showed that in both rural areas, youth were slightly less likely to have engaged in such behaviour. Furthermore, the association between drinking alcohol and the use of physical violence was stronger for youth living in both rural areas. The results also indicate that the gender gap in youth violence is not larger for rural youth. The paper concludes that future research should inquire the specific meanings of alcohol and violence in rural youth culture. Such research should take the diversity of rural areas into account, rather than relying on measures of population density only.


D. Weenink
Dr. Don Weenink is als hoofddocent verbonden aan de Rural Sociology Group van de Universiteit Wageningen. Dit artikel is onderdeel van een onderzoek naar geweld onder jongeren, ondersteund door een NWO Venibeurs.
Discussie

Technologische en juridische normativiteit: het tekort van het reguleringsparadigma

Een respons op Leenes’ ‘Technoregulering’

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden regulation by technology, code as law, legitimacy, rule of law, regulation
Auteurs Mireille Hildebrandt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mireille Hildebrandt responds to the article of Ronald Leenes. She largely agrees with Leenes’ objection that technoregulation threatens to conflate rule-making (a task of the legislator) with administration (a task of the executive). In her reply she rejects the external perspective that is inherent in regulation as behaviour-modification, arguing that legal subjects are not to be seen as mere objects of regulation. At the same time she calls for a reflection on the normative implications of technological infrastructures for existing legal rights, e.g., on privacy, even if these implications were not intended by a regulator.


Mireille Hildebrandt
Mireille Hildebrandt is hoogleraar ICT en rechtsstaat aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, hoofddocent rechtstheorie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker aan Law Science Technology and Society Studies (LSTS) aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Haar onderzoek richt zich in het bijzonder op de implicaties van slimme (proactieve) omgevingen voor rechtsstaat en democratie. Zij was deelprojectleider van het Europese KP6-project the Future of Identity in Information Society (FIDIS) en is momenteel betrokken bij het Europese KP7-project Security Impact Assessment Measurement (SIAM). Zij is naar Brussel gedetacheerd op het fundamenteel onderzoeksproject Law and Autonomic Computing. Mutual Transformations, redigeerde samen met Serge Gutwirth Profiling the European citizen. Cross-disciplinary perspectives (Springer: Dordrecht 2008) en samen met Antoinette Rouvory Law, human agency and autonomic computing. The philosophy of law meets the philosophy of technology (Routledge: New York 2011).
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.
Artikel

Temperament en antisociaal gedrag in de kindertijd

De rol van empathie, etniciteit en gender

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden zelfregulatie, agressie, jeugdigen, antisociaal gedrag
Auteurs Barbara Zwirs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research in mainly white Western samples has shown that temperament and conscience are important explanations for antisocial behaviour. In the current cross-sectional study among 2,185 children of the four largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands, namely, 684 Dutch, 702 Moroccan, 434 Turkish, and 365 Surinamese children, it was examined how these factors together explain antisocial behaviour and to what extent these relationships are valid regardless of ethnicity and gender. Teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for children from grades three to five of elementary school. The temperament dimension self-regulation was negatively related to antisocial behaviour for boys and girls of all ethnic groups with the exception of Turkish boys. Temperamental fearfulness was negatively associated with antisocial behaviour only for Dutch girls. Irrespective of gender and ethnicity, empathy, an important aspect of conscience, was negatively related to antisocial behaviour. Self-regulation moderated the effect of fear on antisocial behaviour only for Dutch girls and Moroccan boys.


Barbara Zwirs
Dr. B.W.C. Zwirs is universitair docent, sectie Criminologie aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, zwirs@frg.eur.nl.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Jurisprudentie

2010/35 Psychotherapeut; abrupte beëindiging therapie, geen doorverwijzing; niet bijhouden patiëntendossier; verweving privéleven in therapie; verweerder is van mening dat hij klager adequaat heeft behandeld en heeft doorverwezen: klacht is gegrond en beroep wordt verworpen

Centraal Tuchtcollege voor de Gezondheidszorg (mr. W.D.H. Asser, voorzitter, mr. W.P.C.M. Bruinsma en mr. A. Dupain, leden-juristen, drs. M.A.J. Hagenaars en drs. L. Swen, leden-beroepsgenoten, mr. H.J. Lutgert, secretaris) d.d. 19 augustus 2010.

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Gezondheidsrecht, Aflevering 7 2010
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