Zoekresultaat: 178 artikelen

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Artikel

Daders van arbeidsuitbuiting

Over de vermeende rol van de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Arbeidsuitbuiting, Mensenhandel, georganiseerde criminaliteit, grensoverschrijdende criminaliteit
Auteurs Dr. Masja van Meeteren en Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Human traffickers are usually depicted in public discourse as evil villains: the crème de la crème of organized crime. Although this image has also been dominant among scholars for a long time, it has become increasingly controversial. On the one hand, this debate is fueled by discussions amongst criminologists on criminal networks, on the other hand by the expansion of the legal definition of the crime since 2005. Apart from exploitation in the prostitution sector, various other forms of human trafficking are distinguished now, including labor exploitation. This article explores the question of which organizational forms play a role in labor exploitation. Through a review of the empirical research literature on labor exploitation, the authors show that in the field of labor exploitation, there is probably less involvement in criminal syndicates or criminal networks that maintain contacts with other criminal networks. In many cases, labor exploitation is committed by individuals or family businesses, or smaller loosely organized networks that are not necessarily embedded in other criminal networks. For researchers and policy makers alike, it is therefore advisable not to approach labor exploitation exclusively from the perspective of transnational organized crime.


Dr. Masja van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Theoretische vernieuwing in de criminologie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Theoretical innovation, Scientific revolutions, Power-knowledge complex, Sensitising theory, Integrative theory
Auteurs Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article starts off with an exposé of what ‘theoretical innovation’ means in the social sciences. The development of criminology is considered to be a result of (1) historical and cultural developments, (2) political-economic developments, (3) developments in other academic disciplines and (4) reactions to or specifications of other theoretical perspectives in criminology itself. Paradigm shifts in criminology are characterised by an individualistic and positivist aetiological turn in its early days; a sociological turn towards a ‘criminology of the lawmaker’ from the late 1950s on; and a return to positivism in the neoliberal and neoconservative turn of the 1990s. The new century ushers in a new epistemological break in criminology, in which globalisation, global warming, migration, human rights and the implications of cyberspace ‘force’ criminologists to overcome their anthropocentric and colonial character biases.


Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is hoogleraar criminologie en voorzitter van de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: vanswaaningen@law.eur.nl.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.
Artikel

Het ‘cyborg crime’-perspectief

Theoretische vernieuwing in het digitale tijdperk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden cybercrime, cyborg, cyborg crime, Actor-Netwerk theory, Latour
Auteurs Wytske van der Wagen MsC
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study departs from the notion that current high-tech crime developments bring various new challenges for the rather anthropocentric, instrumental and dualistic theoretical repertoire of criminology. The article reflects on these challenges and proposes the alternative ‘cyborg crime’ perspective. This concept is the result of an explorative research on the theoretical potential of the actor-network theory (ANT) for cybercrime. The study concludes that ANT and the ensuing cyborg crime perspective enables to grasp certain dimensions of cybercrime more profoundly. ANT can move us (criminologists) beyond the classical novelty debate surrounding cybercrime and stimulate theoretical innovation.


Wytske van der Wagen MsC
Wytske van der Wagen, MSc, is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Law School. E-mail: vanderwagen@law.eur.nl.
Artikel

Verbanning en uitzetting in Noordwest-Europa sinds de vroegmoderne periode

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden banishment, expulsion, history, early modern period, Northwest Europe
Auteurs Dr. Margo De Koster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To supplement recent debates concerning the expulsion of criminal foreigners and the repelling of poor refugees with longer-term insights, this contribution examines banishment practices in early modern and modern Northwest Europe. It argues that banishment, a sanction involving a person’s geographical and social exclusion, served both to punish deviants and to monitor mobile newcomers. Expulsion practices were shaped mainly by concerns about the regulation of access to the labor market and poor relief. The profile of the expellee displays remarkable continuity across time: the poor unwanted stranger, lacking social bonds and, in the case of female migrants, perceived as being prone to prostitution. Albeit banishment often proved only temporary and thus not effective, authorities continued to rely on it because of its symbolic function, displaying their diligence in purifying and protecting local society. This was much to the detriment of the expellees, who were driven into marginality and illegality.


Dr. Margo De Koster
Dr. Margo De Koster is als universitair docent Historische Criminologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.
Diversen

Lokale oplossingen voor problemen in asielopvang: de ‘vluchtelingencrisis’ als window of opportunity

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden asylum reception, local turn, Plan Einstein, experimental governance
Auteurs dr. Karin Geuijen, dr. Rianne Dekker en dr. Caroline Oliver
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During the recent ‘refugee crisis’, governments have been confronted with various problems concerning asylum reception. In several locations in the Netherlands, as well as elsewhere in Europe and beyond, new local forms of experimenting around the issue of asylum reception have begun. One example is Utrecht’s ‘Plan Einstein’. In Overvecht, a district of the city, an office building has been converted into an asylum shelter, where 400 asylum seekers live together with 38 non-refugee youngsters from Utrecht. The Centre runs courses and activities, offered to both asylum seekers (including those who do not yet have a residence status) and local residents. Employing the concepts of ‘multilevel governance’ and ‘experimental governance’, this article indicates why this initiative was able to be realized at this location and at this time.


dr. Karin Geuijen
Dr. Karin Geuijen is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: k.geuijen@uu.nl.

dr. Rianne Dekker
Dr. Rianne Dekker is als universitair docent verbonden aan het departement bestuurs- en organisatiewetenschap, Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: r.dekker1@uu.nl.

dr. Caroline Oliver
Dr. Caroline Oliver is senior lecturer bij het department of social sciences,University of Roehampton, Londen. E-mail: caroline.oliver@roehampton.ac.uk.
Artikel

Vechter buiten de ring; Narratief en biografie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Narratieve criminologie, Vechter, Biografie
Auteurs Frank van Gemert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The most important mechanism for crime prevention is just the presence of guardians. Some counter arguments against this thesis are discussed and rejected. By manipulating the presence of guardians it is possible to influence the level of prevention. It is argued that a large scale evaluation of such measures is wanted.


Frank van Gemert
Frank van Gemert is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Verstoorde veiligheidsbeleving

In gesprek met buurtbewoners over de ‘onveiligheid’ in hun buurt naar aanleiding van gestegen ‘gevoelens van onveiligheid’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden fear of crime, qualitative analysis, evidence based policy
Auteurs Remco Spithoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘fear of crime’ is a buzzword among citizens, media, politicians and professionals by now. But the phenomenon seems to be as intangible as it is important. The struggle of professionals with this concept is the result of a too wide and self-evident problem definition. This article contains an alternative approach. The focus is on disturbed fear of crime: a negatively changed and problematically experienced fear of crime on the level of the neighborhood.
    Through a review of the literature and previous research, we work towards this concept and apply it to the neighborhood of Kerckebosch in the municipality of Zeist in the Netherlands. As during 2014 the local quantitative indicators for ‘the fear of crime’ rose from 7% of the local population indicating to ‘sometimes feel unsafe’ to 22%, while the rest of the municipality remained quite stable. Additionally, several local professionals received complaints of multiple local inhabitants claiming to ‘feel unsafe’ in the neighborhood. Our research question was: What explanations for their ‘disturbed fear of crime’ do local inhabitants of the neighborhood Kerckebosch give?
    It was highly plausible that this local rise of the fear in Kerckebosch was connected to the social re-engineering of the neighborhood, but the exact nature of the quantitative rise was unclear. Therefore, we have interviewed 25 local inhabitants. Qualitative analyses showed the local rise of ‘the fear of crime’ to be the result of: (I) physical characteristics of the neighborhood; (II) events of burglary and intimidation from the past; (III) the presence of loitering youths and – primarily – (VI) a backlash of social integration as a side effect of the social re-engineering of the neighborhood. These qualitative explanations to the observed quantitative discontinuity led to several policy advises, which were based on international effect studies.


Remco Spithoven
Remco Spithoven is hoofddocent bij het Instituut voor Veiligheid en het lectoraat Kennisanalyse Sociale Veiligheid aan de Hogeschool Utrecht. Daarnaast is hij research-fellow bij de leerstoel Veiligheid en Veerkracht aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Naar een regierecht voor de burger in het sociale domein?

Het recht op een familiegroepsplan als legal transplant

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Family group conference, Legal transplant, Care professionals, Family life, Big Society
Auteurs Dr. Annie de Roo en Dr. Rob Jagtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of family group conferences (FGCs) originated in New Zealand in 1989 as a tool and statutory right for extended family networks to arrange for the welfare and safety of a child that is neglected or abused by his/her own parents. Through successful FGCs, state intervention can be avoided while the resourcefulness of the larger community is mobilized. The concept has proliferated to many countries and therefore lends itself for analysis as a ‘legal transplant’. This contribution investigates the FGC as a transplant, focussing on how the concept has been adapted and incorporated in the legal systems of England and the Netherlands. In these two countries the ‘Big Society’ and austerity measures in the social domain are high on the policy agenda. How are such policy priorities blended – if at all – with the emancipatory ideal of granting family networks autonomy next to, or even over, publicly funded professionals? It appears that the FGC concept has been compromised in both England and the Netherlands, but in different ways.


Dr. Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is associate professor aan de Erasmus Law School te Rotterdam.

Dr. Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is senior fellow aan de Erasmus Law School te Rotterdam.
Artikel

Dwalen over franchise

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Franchise, Dwaling, Omzetprognose, Onderzoeksplicht, Mededelingsplicht
Auteurs Mr. drs. J.H.M. Spanjaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel onderzoekt de auteur hoe de omzetprognoses naar huidig recht worden getoetst en welke rol het dwalingleerstuk speelt. Daarbij wordt gekeken of de regeling over onderzoek en mededeling in de NFC van invloed is op de wijze waarop omzetprognoses worden getoetst.


Mr. drs. J.H.M. Spanjaard
Mr. drs. J.H.M. Spanjaard is advocaat bij La Gro Advocaten in Alphen aan den Rijn. De auteur dankt zijn kantoorgenoot mr. P.B.J. van den Oord voor zijn suggesties en commentaar bij een eerdere versie van dit artikel en mr. D. Diris (advocaat bij Kock & Partners in Brussel) voor het delen van de artikelen met betrekking tot het Belgische recht.
Artikel

Go west!

De onweerstaanbare lokroep van de Randstad

Tijdschrift Advocatenblad, Aflevering 7 2017
Auteurs Mark van der Heijden

Mark van der Heijden
Artikel

Over toekomstbestendige policing

De dilemma’s van veiligheidsregimes in grote steden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden policing, security, urban regimes, police strategies, risk management
Auteurs Dr. E. Devroe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we identify the political agency and discretion available to metropolises to define and accomplish their own policing agendas and to question what the role of public police forces can be in executing such agendas. Results of a comparative case study of 24 metropolises illustrate a major focus on risk management strategies like environmental opportunity oriented measures, hot spot hot time predictive policing actions and preventative community oriented policing. Also programs like Top 600 in Amsterdam and other early intervention efforts oriented towards ‘groups at risk’ (youngsters, nomads and criminal careers) find a place in the risk assessment regime. This article classifies all urban programs in 5 different ‘urban regimes’ and sheds light on the role the police should take in order to execute stated policy goals, summarized in urban policy coalition plans and security plans.


Dr. E. Devroe
Dr. Elke Devroe is als Associate professor verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs, Faculty of Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De kleur van de Omgevingswet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Omgevingswet, milieu, ruimtelijke ordening, Lex Michiels
Auteurs Prof. dr. Ch.W. (Chris) Backes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Auteur stelt de Utrechtse oratie van Michiels uit 2001 ‘Kleur in het omgevingsrecht’ centraal. In deze oratie ging Michiels in op de relatie tussen het ruimtelijkeordeningsrecht en het milieurecht en stelde de vraag of wij niet naar een integrale omgevingswet zouden moeten en wat de kleur daarvan zou moeten zijn. Auteur gaat in op de vraag welke kleur de Omgevingswet heeft gekregen. Is er sprake van een grijsbruin mengsel of van een kleurrijk schilderij?


Prof. dr. Ch.W. (Chris) Backes
Prof. dr. Ch.W. Backes is hoogleraar Omgevingsrecht en verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for Water, Oceans and Sustainability Law (UCWOSL).
Artikel

De smokkel van Syrische migranten naar Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2-3 2017
Trefwoorden Mensensmokkel, Smokkelroutes, smokkelnetwerken, Smokkelfuncties, smokkelen van migranten
Auteurs Sacha van der Velden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the modus operandi of human smugglers that smuggle Syrian migrants to the Netherlands in de period 2014-2016? Content analysis of police and Royal Marechaussee files, interviews with experts and Syrian migrants and literature research has revealed that: Syrian migrants in first instance use the South-Eastern route overseas from Turkey to Greece, for which they pay 1200-4000 euro to a smuggler, depending on the quality of the boat. From Greece some travel over land on the Balkan route. Several means of transportation are used on this route, with smugglers asking prices ranging from tens to hundreds of euros. Also they travel large parts on their own. Others are smuggled by airplane, for which they need (false) documentation. Smuggling by plane tends to be successful when departing from a small airfield, when made a detour through visa-free countries and/or a good quality (false) travel document. Prices range from 2.000 to 14.000 euros. Migrants mostly pay cash through irregular ‘banks’, a third party that plays an important facilitating role within several smuggling networks. These networks consist of several cells, with in these cells leaders and ‘employees’ and are located on migration routes and ‘hubs’ like Istanbul, Athens and Milan. The South-Eastern route is mostly in hands of Turkish criminal networks, and the continuation of the journey by airplane or through Milan over land is in hands of Syrian Dutch smugglers, the Balkan route seems to be mainly operated by individual smugglers. Within these smuggling networks the most important roles are: the recruiter, who is responsible for making contact with migrants on migration hubs or social media. The organizer/leader who coordinates activities along the smuggling route and calls employees to account. And finally the driver. Responsible for transporting the migrants and instructing them. Based on these findings several recommendations were made that can be found in this article or full research rapport.


Sacha van der Velden
Sacha van der Velden is Operationeel Specialist bij de Nationale politie.
Artikel

Zorgzame Kerk. Kerk zijn in de participatiesamenleving

Ervaringen met pilotprojecten van de Protestantse Kerk in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Decentralisatie, kerk in de samenleving, zorg en welzijn, kerk-staat
Auteurs Prof. dr. Herman Noordegraaf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the context of the project Careful Church the Protestant Church in the Netherlands has developed pilot projects in the field of care and welfare in eighteen local churches. The aim of these is to get learning experiences to determine her position in local society. A description is given of these pilots and of the most important experiences. It is of relevance also on basis of contacts with organisations and local authorities to develop a plan of action. Most activities have to do with creating rooms for encounter and with assisting people who are dependent on care. In this way churches can be a relevant actor in local society with meaningful and small scale activities.


Prof. dr. Herman Noordegraaf
Prof. dr. H. Noordegraaf is bijzonder hoogleraar voor Diaconaat aan de Protestantse Theologische Universiteit Amsterdam/Groningen.
Artikel

Het subversieve Brabant

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Dutch province of North Brabant, regional history, subversive culture, crime, drugs production
Auteurs Dr. P. Klerks
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various forms of organized crime are concentrated in the Dutch province of North Brabant, bordering Belgium. In this essay it is argued that specific historic, geographic, social economic, cultural and social psychological factors created an enduring window of opportunity in which criminality can flourish. Brabant is portrayed as a marginalized province that suffered from war, exploitation by the central government, rural gangs, a lack of law enforcement, extreme poverty as well as from discrimination because of its mainly catholic population. Against this background the population developed a mentality of solving problems on their own. Their survival strategies implied not only legal activities like agriculture and small-scale production in private houses, workplaces and factories, but also smuggling and illegal alcohol production. In more recent times the production of synthetic drugs, growing cannabis and transport criminality became widespread.


Dr. P. Klerks
Dr. Peter Klerks is werkzaam bij het Parket-Generaal van het Openbaar Ministerie en de Politieacademie.
Artikel

Criminele families in Noord-Brabant

Over generatie-effecten in de zware criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden criminal family networks, organized crime, North Brabant, intergenerational transmission, opportunity structures
Auteurs Drs. H. Moors en Prof. dr. T. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on intergenerational transmission of crime in families is based on a study of seven families of which at least one member held a key position in an organized crime group. The authors retrieved information on at least three generations (preceding and succeeding this key member’s generation) to investigate whether transmissions occurred, and if so, how these might be explained. Throughout the generations the majority of family members indeed have criminal records. However, it seems to be less easy to transfer criminal leadership in organized crime from one generation to the next. Leading a criminal group seems to demand qualities that are not transferred easily. Successful successors appear to be able to establish their own networks within the deviant subcultures from which they stem. This also explains the persistence of criminal behavior: both men and women select their friends and partners from these closed communities and seem to prefer for their social and love relationships those who have already developed substantial criminal track records. Organized crime families in North Brabant took advantage of criminal opportunities that were presented to them over the years. Particularly XTC production, starting in the 1990s, allowed them to step up their criminal activities from the local to the global level. In addition, they may have capitalized on a moral economy with sentiments of subordination present in the province of North Brabant, dating back to the seventeenth century, which resulted in a more reserved attitude towards authorities than in other parts of the Netherlands. Finally, law enforcement agencies have been generally slow to respond to developments in criminal opportunities that benefited these seven families.


Drs. H. Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is partner van advies- en onderzoeksbureau EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. T. Spapens
Prof. dr. Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.

Dr. Jan Dirk de Jong
Dr. J.D.A. de Jong is lector Aanpak Jeugdcriminaliteit aan Hogeschool Leiden en wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

De reclassering en de lokale samenwerking

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Reclassering, sociaal domein,, samenwerken in het sociaal domein, frontlinie werker
Auteurs Drs. Lous Krechtig en Drs. Mirjam Wildeboer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently the Dutch probation is faced with changes in the local situation: new forms of cooperation and networks have emerged, due to the transformation of the social domain. The probation officers participate on different levels in these networks. They can no longer simply deliver their ‘products’, but have to ‘do what is necessary. A lot of decisions have to be made on the operational level.
    Examples of the changes are given. Recent research on cooperation in the social domain show that ‘cooperation’ is easier sad then done. These changes ask for a new set of competences.


Drs. Lous Krechtig
Drs. Lous Krechtig is senior ontwikkelaar en onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader bij het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie van de Hogeschool Utrecht.

Drs. Mirjam Wildeboer
Mirjam Wildeboer is kwaliteitsfunctionaris voor de regio zuid-west van Reclassering Nederland en neemt deel aan de Master Forensisch Sociale Professional.
Artikel

Professionaliteit als norm in het reclasseringswerk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Professionaliteit, praktijkgericht onderzoek, master Forensisch sociale professional, beroepsregister reclasseringswerkers
Auteurs Drs. Anneke Menger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    New demands require probation to invest in high standards of professionalism. Probation officers can nowadays build their professionalism on common values, scientific knowledge, professional discretion and public accountability. Collaboration with universities of applied sciences results in a common research agenda, new degree programs and well-structured post-initial training. Questions yet to answer are how to guarantee professionalism in a context of large professional discretion. Probation seeks answers in facilitating their professionals to do the master degree program forensic social professional, in developing peer audits based on new quality standards and in initiating a professional register.


Drs. Anneke Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector bij het lectoraat Werken in Justitieel Kader van Hogeschool Utrecht.
Artikel

Radicalisering in Molenbeek

Belgisch tweesporenbeleid verhindert integrale aanpak

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden Radicalisering, Molenbeek, Belgisch tweesporenbeleid
Auteurs Prof. Elke Devroe en Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Radicalization in Molenbeek; Belgian dual policy obstructs integrated approach Belgisch tweesporenbeleid verhindert integrale aanpak


Prof. Elke Devroe
Prof. Elke Devroe is Associate Professor aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA), Faculteit Governance and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers
Prof. dr. em. Paul Ponsaers is werkzaam bij de Vakgroep Strafrecht, Criminologie en Sociaal Recht van de Rechtsfaculteit van de Universiteit Gent.
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