Zoekresultaat: 197 artikelen

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Artikel

De Europese kreukelzone van de wetgever

Goede wetgeving vanuit het EU- en EVRM-perspectief

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 5 2018
Trefwoorden EU, EVRM, wetgever, toetsing, Verenigbaarheid
Auteurs Mr. dr. A. Cuyvers en Mr. P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Wat is een ‘goede wet’ voor de Nederlandse rechter vanuit het EU-recht en het EVRM bezien? Een ‘goede wet’ – daaronder mede begrepen de toelichting bij de wet – stelt de rechter afdoende in staat om (1) de verenigbaarheid van een wet met het EU-recht of het EVRM te beoordelen en (2) potentiële conflicten met het EU-recht of het EVRM constructief op te lossen zonder te hoeven grijpen naar ‘zware’ opties. Maar hoe, en tot op welke hoogte, kan of moet de wetgever rekening houden met de Europese taak en habitat van de Nederlandse rechter, zowel qua inhoud als qua motivering van wetgeving? En welke wetgevende kreukelzone mag de rechter onder Europees recht en het EVRM aan de wetgever laten alvorens in te grijpen? Ter beantwoording van deze vragen gaat deze bijdrage in op de verschillende vereisten die het EU-recht en het EVRM stellen aan goede wetgeving, waarbij mede wordt ingegaan op de structuur van de stapsgewijze toetsing door de Europese Hoven van nationale wetgeving.


Mr. dr. A. Cuyvers
Mr. dr. A. (Armin) Cuyvers is universitair hoofddocent Europees recht aan het Europa Instituut van de Universiteit Leiden.

Mr. P.B.C.D.F. van Sasse van Ysselt
Mr.dr. P.B.C.D.F. (Paul) van Sasse van Ysselt is plaatsvervangend hoofd afdeling Constitutionele Zaken bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties, raadsheer-plaatsvervanger bij het Gerechtshof Amsterdam en verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean

An excludable act under article 1F(b) Refugee Convention?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden article 1F, Refugee Convention, exclusion clauses, migrant smuggling, serious non-political crimes
Auteurs Anne Aagten LLL.M.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2015, deadly incidents of migrant smuggling in the Mediterranean were daily covered by everyday newspapers. Empirical research has shown that migrants themselves may be involved in these smuggling operations. If they apply for refugee protection, they may be excluded from refugee status under Article 1F of the Refugee Convention. Article 1F(b) excludes asylum seekers from international protection if serious reasons exist to consider that they have committed serious non-political crimes. This contribution discusses whether migrant smuggling can be considered as such and whether various forms of participation in smuggling operations give rise to individual responsibility and trigger application of article 1F(b).


Anne Aagten LLL.M.
A.E.M. Aagten LLL.M. is onderwijs- en onderzoeksmedewerker bij het Instituut voor Immigratierecht (Universiteit Leiden).
Article

Access_open Empirical Legal Research in Europe: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Interventions

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden empirical legal research, Europe, popularity, increase, journals
Auteurs Gijs van Dijck, Shahar Sverdlov en Gabriela Buck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Empirical Legal research (ELR) has become well established in the United States, whereas its popularity in Europe is debatable. This article explores the popularity of ELR in Europe. The authors carried out an empirical analysis of 78 European-based law journals, encompassing issues from 2008-2017. The findings demonstrate that a supposed increase of ELR is questionable (at best).
    Moreover, additional findings highlight:

    • An increase for a few journals, with a small number of other journals showing a decrease over time;

    • A higher percentage of empirical articles for extra-legal journals than for legal journals (average proportion per journal is 4.6 percent for legal journals, 18.9 percent for extra-legal journals);

    • Criminal justice journals, environmental journals, and economically oriented journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than other journals;

    • More prestigious journals being more likely to publish empirical articles than less-prestigious journals;

    • Older journals being more likely to publish empirical work than younger journals, but not at an increasing rate;

    • Journals being legal/extra-legal, journals in a specific field, journal ranking, or the age of the journal not making it more (or less) likely that the journal will publish empirical articles at an increasing (or decreasing) rate.
      Considering the lack of convincing evidence indicating an increase of ELR, we identify reasons for why ELR is seemingly becoming more popular but not resulting in more empirical research in Europe. Additionally, we explore interventions for overcoming the obstacles ELR currently faces.


Gijs van Dijck
Professor of Private Law at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Shahar Sverdlov
Law student at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Gabriela Buck
Law student at Maastricht University, the Netherlands.
Artikel

Zelfredzaamheid in detentie

Kritische kanttekeningen bij het systeem van promoveren en degraderen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden Zelfredzaamheid, Burgerschap, Gevangenis, Autonomie
Auteurs Dr. Esther van Ginneken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the ‘participation society’ it is expected that citizens actively contribute to solving societal problems, including health care, immigration and security issues. A somewhat similar responsibilisation culture is visible in prisons, where prisoners are held responsible for their own rehabilitation. This article problematizes the way in which prisoners’ agency is promoted in Dutch prisons, considering prisoners’ constrained agency and the normative expectations that are tied to the approach. This critique is advanced through discussion of the promotion/demotion system that has been used in Dutch prisons since 2014. This system, comparable to the Incentives and Earned Privileges system in England and Wales, espouses both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ behavioural norms. The soft behavioural norms reflect a citizenship ideal that extends beyond compliance with the law. It is argued that these normative expectations tied to agency have a limiting effect on prisoners’ autonomy. This article argues in favour of a shift from the citizenship ideal to an autonomy ideal, which applies the principle of minimum restrictions. Furthermore, access to education, reintegration courses and contact with family should be treated as a right, rather than a privilege, in order to maximise autonomy and minimise the harmful effects of imprisonment.


Dr. Esther van Ginneken
Dr. Esther van Ginneken is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Crimmigratie en het uitzetten van strafrechtelijk veroordeelde vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden crimmigration, bordered penality, migration, banishment, bifurcation
Auteurs Jelmer Brouwer MSc E.MA
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses to what extent current responses to crime committed by immigrants can be seen as a modern version of the classical practice of banishment. To that end it analyses three recent policy developments directed at criminally convicted immigration. The analysis shows that during the last ten years there has been a sharp increase in the number of immigrants losing their residence permit following a criminal conviction. Moreover, punishment aimed at criminally convicted immigrants without a legal right to stay is increasingly aimed at permanent exclusion through the practice of deportation. Drawing on the theoretical notions of crimmigration and bordered penality, it is therefore argued that criminally convicted immigrants increasingly see themselves confronted with punishment practices that are the modern equivalent of the classical practice of banishment. This raises important questions about where we should draw the line between insiders and outsiders.


Jelmer Brouwer MSc E.MA
J. Brouwer MSc E.MA is als promovendus verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Access_open Crimmigratie: What’s in a word?

Tijdschrift Crimmigratie & Recht, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Auteursinformatie

Prof. mr. dr. Maartje van der Woude
Prof. mr. dr. M.A.H. van der Woude is Hoogleraar Rechtssociologie bij het Van Vollenhoven Instituut voor Recht, Bestuur & Samenleving. Zij is verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden en lid van de redactie van Crimmigratie & Recht.
Artikel

Access_open Securitisering en seksualisering van migratie: het debat over oud en nieuw in Keulen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Refugees, Gender debate, Sexual violence, Framing analysis
Auteurs Dr. Martina Althoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article examines the public debate about New Year’s Eve in Cologne in 2015. Theoretical starting point is the idea that public debates are forms of social communication in which reality is produced and social events become meaningful. On the basis of a framing analysis, it is investigated what significance New Year’s Eve in Cologne has as a medial event for society. The question here is how the event is described and explained, how it is mentioned and interpreted, what significance it collectively receives and how these insights can be theoretically interpreted. The analysis shows that different frames were possible, such as the problematization of the work of the police. Instead, the discourse focused on the sexual behaviour of refugees and securitization and sexualisation of migration takes place.


Dr. Martina Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. E-mail: m.althoff@rug.nl.
Artikel

Een internationale vergelijking van wetgevingstechnische aanwijzingen

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 1-2 2018
Trefwoorden wetgevingstechniek, Aanwijzingen voor de regelgeving, Interpretation Act, Gemeenschappelijke Praktische Handleiding
Auteurs Mr. M.J.C. Stip
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage staat een rechtsvergelijkend onderzoek naar wetgevingstechnische aanwijzingen van Nederland, Duitsland, Zwitserland, het Verenigd Koninkrijk, de Europese Unie, Canada en de Canadese provincie Brits-Columbia centraal. Hierbij wordt de vraag gesteld in hoeverre er overeenkomsten en verschillen zijn tussen de Nederlandse Aanwijzingen voor de regelgeving en de equivalenten daarvan van andere rechtsordes. Daartoe wordt allereerst beschreven welke instrumenten in de verschillende rechtsordes worden gebruikt, welke doelen daarmee worden nagestreefd, hoe de instrumenten zijn opgebouwd en de bindende kracht die van het instrument uitgaat. Daarna worden de instrumenten op twee punten met elkaar vergeleken, te weten beknoptheid en het voorkomen van dubbelzinnigheid. In alle besproken instrumenten zijn dit nastrevenswaardige zaken, hoewel de wijze waarop dat gebeurt, verschilt. Ook de doelstellingen van de instrumenten zelf verschillen, hoewel de onderzochte wetgevingstechnische principes veel gelijkenissen vertonen.


Mr. M.J.C. Stip
Mr. M.J.C. (Catharine) Stip is promovenda en docent staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Legal Legitimacy of Tax Recommendations Delivered by the IMF in the Context of ‘Article IV Consultations’

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden legitimacy, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Article IV Consultations, tax recommendations, global tax governance
Auteurs Sophia Murillo López
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution examines the legal legitimacy of ‘Article IV Consultations’ performed by the IMF as part of its responsibility for surveillance under Article IV of its Articles of Agreement. The analysis focuses on tax recommendations given by the Fund to its member countries in the context of Consultations. This paper determines that these tax recommendations derive from a broad interpretation of the powers and obligations that have been agreed to in the Fund’s Articles of Agreement. Such an interpretation leads to a legitimacy deficit, as member countries of the Fund have not given their state consent to receive recommendations as to which should be the tax policies it should adopt.


Sophia Murillo López
Sophia Murillo López, LL.M, is an external PhD candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and a member of the ‘Fiscal Autonomy and its Boundaries’ research programme.
Article

Access_open The Questionable Legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden base erosion and profit shifting, OECD, G20, legitimacy, international tax reform
Auteurs Sissie Fung
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The global financial crisis of 2008 and the following public uproar over offshore tax evasion and corporate aggressive tax planning scandals gave rise to unprecedented international cooperation on tax information exchange and coordination on corporate tax reforms. At the behest of the G20, the OECD developed a comprehensive package of ‘consensus-based’ policy reform measures aimed to curb base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) by multinationals and to restore fairness and coherence to the international tax system. The legitimacy of the OECD/G20 BEPS Project, however, has been widely challenged. This paper explores the validity of the legitimacy concerns raised by the various stakeholders regarding the OECD/G20 BEPS Project.


Sissie Fung
Ph.D. Candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam and independent tax policy consultant to international organisations, including the Asian Development Bank.
Article

Access_open Legality of the World Bank’s Informal Decisions to Expand into the Tax Field, and Implications of These Decisions for Its Legitimacy

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden World Bank, legality, legitimacy, global tax governance, tax policy and tax administration reforms
Auteurs Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The emergence of global tax governance was triggered by common tax problems, which are now still being faced by international society of nation-states. In the creation of this framework, international institutions have been playing a major role. One of these institutions is the World Bank (Bank). However, those who write about the virtues and vices of the main creators of the framework usually disregard the Bank. This article, therefore, argues that this disregard is not justified because the Bank has also been playing a prominent role. Since two informal decisions taken in the past have contributed to this position of the Bank, the article gives in addition to it answers to the following two related questions: whether these informal decisions of the Bank were legal and if so, what implications, if any, they have for the Bank’s legitimacy.


Uyanga Berkel-Dorlig
Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Tax Law, Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

    The highest administrative court in the Netherlands has delivered a razor-sharp ruling on the intra-community service provision set out in Articles 56 and 57 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union). This concerns ‘new’ EU-nationals who are still under transitional measures with regard to access to the labour markets of ‘old’ EU Member States. The judgment was preceded by a request from the Chairman to a State Councillor Advocate General to deliver his opinion on various aspects of punitive administrative law practice in the Netherlands. Both the opinion and the judgment are a welcome clarification and addition (or even correction) on the practice.


Othmar K. Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwalte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.
Artikel

Access_open Dworkin’s Rights Conception of the Rule of Law in Criminal Law

Should Criminal Law be Extensively Interpreted in Order to Protect Victims’ Rights?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Klaas Rozemond, Ronald M. Dworkin, Legality in criminal law, Rights conception of the rule of law, Legal certainty
Auteurs Briain Jansen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The extensive interpretation of criminal law to the detriment of the defendant in criminal law is often problematized in doctrinal theory. Extensive interpretation is then argued to be problematic in the light of important ideals such as democracy and legal certainty in criminal law. In the Dutch discussion of this issue, Klaas Rozemond has argued that sometimes extensive interpretation is mandated by the rule of law in order to protect the rights of victims. Rozemond grounds his argument on a reading of Dworkin’s distinction between the rule-book and the rights conception of the rule of law. In this article, I argue that Dworkin’s rights conception, properly considered, does not necessarily mandate the imposition of criminal law or its extensive interpretation in court in order to protect victims’ rights.


Briain Jansen
Briain Jansen is als promovendus rechtstheorie verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    In the last few decades, we have witnessed the renaissance of Comparative Constitutional law as field of research. Despite such a flourishing, the methodological foundations and the ultimate ratio of Constitutional comparative law are still debated among scholars. This article starts from the definition of comparative constitutional law given by one of the most prominent comparative constitutional law scholars in Italy, prof. Bognetti, who defined comparative constitutional law as the main joining ring between the historical knowledge of the modern law and the history of the humankind in general and of its various civil realizations. Comparative constitutional law is in other words a kind of mirror of the “competing vision of who we are and who we wish to be as a political community” (Hirschl), reflecting the structural tension between universalism and particularism, globalization and tradition.
    The article aims at addressing the main contemporary methodological challenges faced by the studies of the field. The article argues that contemporary comparative constitutional studies should address these challenges integrating the classical “horizontal” comparative method with a vertical one - regarding the international and supranational influences on constitutional settings - and fostering an interdisciplinary approach, taking into account the perspective of the social sciences.


Antonia Baraggia
Emile Noël Fellow, Jean Monnet Center for International and Regional Economic Law & Justice, NYU School of Law and Post-doc Fellow in Constitutional Law, University of Milan. For helpful comments on an earlier draft I am grateful to Luca Pietro Vanoni, Sofia Ranchordas and two anonymous reviewers.

    Both H.L.A. Hart and John Searle repeatedly refer to games in their work on the concept of law and the construction of social reality respectively. We can argue that this is not a coincidence, Hart’s analysis of law as a system of primary and secondary rules bears close resemblances to Searle’s analysis of social reality as a system of regulative and constitutive rules and the comparison to games leads to interesting insights about the ontology of law and legal epistemology. The present article explores both the institutional theory of law that can be devised on the basis of the work of Hart and Searle, the method of analytical philosophy they employ and the particular consequences that can be deduced for legal research from the resulting legal theory.


Arie-Jan Kwak
Dr. A.J. Kwak, Faculty of Law, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.

    The article discusses the contribution of comparative law to the study of federalism and decentralisation. In doing so, it stresses the relevance of the notion of federalising process, as elaborated by Carl J. Friedrich.


Giacomo Delledonne
Postdoctoral fellow in Constitutional Law, Scuola superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy. Email: giacomo. delledonne@gmail.com. Huge thanks go to Sofia Ranchordás and Irene Broekhuijse. I would also like to thank Paolo Carrozza, Paolo Addis, Ilaria Rivera and the anonymous reviewers for their precious suggestions and comments.
Artikel

Access_open Staatsimmuniteit van executie: beslagmogelijkheden voor crediteuren na de herfstarresten van de Hoge Raad (2016)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Staatsimmuniteit, Executie, Beslag, Hoge Raad, Internationaal gewoonterecht
Auteurs Prof. dr. C.M.J. Ryngaert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In de herfst van 2016 heeft de Hoge Raad een aantal belangwekkende arresten inzake de staatsimmuniteit van executie gewezen, waarin hij met name het vermoeden bevestigt dat de vreemde staat immuniteit geniet in zowel executoriale als conservatoire beslagprocedures. De schuldeiser kan dit vermoeden weerleggen door te bewijzen dat de beoogde beslagobjecten gebruikt worden of bestemd zijn voor andere dan publieke doeleinden. Een en ander doet de vraag rijzen in hoeverre de schuldeiser de volgens de Hoge Raad op hem rustende stelplicht en bewijslast kan effectueren, en bijgevolg in hoeverre hij nog executiemaatregelen kan nemen ten aanzien van goederen van vreemde staten. Deze bijdrage situeert de arresten van de Hoge Raad in een internationaalrechtelijke context. Vervolgens wordt aangevoerd dat de Hoge Raad de op de schuldeiser rustende stelplicht praktisch werkbaar heeft willen houden teneinde de bescherming die de restrictieve immuniteitsleer aan de schuldeiser hoort te bieden niet illusoir te maken. De schuldeiser kan ermee volstaan aannemelijk te maken dat de onmiddellijke bestemming of het onmiddellijke gebruik van de opbrengsten uit de schuldvordering niet-publiek of niet-soeverein van aard zijn. Ten slotte wordt geargumenteerd dat de algemene gewoonterechtelijke regels inzake staatsimmuniteit niet onverkort gelden voor een bijzondere categorie van executieprocedures, namelijk deze die betrekking hebben op arbitrale vonnissen. Door met arbitrage in te stemmen wordt de betrokken vreemde staat geacht afstand te hebben gedaan van de immuniteit waarop hij eventueel recht heeft. De conclusie is dat de Hoge Raad de deur niet volledig heeft dichtgedaan voor schuldeisers die beogen beslag te leggen op goederen van vreemde staten,


Prof. dr. C.M.J. Ryngaert
Prof. dr. C.M.J. Ryngaert is hoogleraar internationaal publiekrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Fraude & asset recovery: een routekaart voor het terughalen van vermogensbestanddelen langs civielrechtelijke weg

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden fraude, asset tracing, asset recovery, exhibitieplicht, Norwich Pharmacal order
Auteurs Mr. dr. C.G. van der Plas en Mr. C.L. van Tilburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel over fraude & asset recovery wordt stapsgewijs aan de hand van een casus uiteengezet hoe via civielrechtelijke weg kan worden achterhaald waar weggesluisde vermogensbestanddelen zijn gebleven en hoe deze kunnen worden teruggehaald. Daarbij wordt niet alleen aandacht besteed aan de mogelijkheden die het Nederlandse recht daarvoor biedt, maar passeren ook enkele discovery tools uit common law jurisdicties de revue.


Mr. dr. C.G. van der Plas
Mr. dr. C.G. van der Plas is advocaat bij Florent te Amsterdam en universitair docent Internationaal privaatrecht aan de UvA.

Mr. C.L. van Tilburg
Mr. C.L. van Tilburg is advocaat bij Florent te Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Evaluating BEPS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden tax avoidance, tax evasion, benefits principle
Auteurs Reuven S. Avi-Yonah en Haiyan Xu
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article evaluates the recently completed Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project of the G20 and OECD and offers some alternatives for reform.


Reuven S. Avi-Yonah
Reuven Avi-Yonah is Irwin I. Cohn Professor of Law, the University of Michigan.

Haiyan Xu
Haiyan Xu is Professor of Law, University of International Business & Economics, Beijing; SJD candidate, the University of Michigan.
Article

Access_open The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden flawed legislation, tax privileges, tax planning, corporate social responsibility, tax professionals
Auteurs Hans Gribnau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making, interpreting and using tax rules therefore is inevitably a matter of exercising responsibility. Both should abstain from viewing tax laws as a bunch of technical rules to be used as a tool without any intrinsic moral or legal value. States bear primary responsibility for the integrity of the international tax system. They should become more reticent in their use of tax as regulatory instrument – competing with one another for multinationals’ investment. They should also act more responsibly by cooperating to make better rules to prevent aggressive tax planning, which entails a shift in tax payments from very expert taxpayers to other taxpayers. Here, the distributive justice of the tax system and a level playing field should be guaranteed. Multinationals should abstain from putting pressure on states and lobbying for favourable tax rules that disproportionally affect other taxpayers – SMEs and individual taxpayers alike. Multinationals and their tax advisers should avoid irresponsible conduct by not aiming to pay a minimalist amount of (corporate income) taxes – merely staying within the boundaries of the letter of the law. Especially CSR-corporations should assume the responsibility for the integrity of the tax system.


Hans Gribnau
Professor of Tax Law, Fiscal Institute and the Center for Company Law, Tilburg University; Professor of Tax Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
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