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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2012 x Rubriek Artikel x

    Criminology usually focuses on the human experience. The relatively few criminological publications that do pay attention to animals, are very often written from an anthropocentric perspective in which animals are portrayed as passive objects and in terms of their usefulness to humans. Is this a satisfactory situation? Some criminologists would answer this question with a sincere ‘no’.
    For example Beirne and Cazaux have pleaded for a non speciesist criminology, meaning a criminology that does not take other than the human species for granted. This is not a plea for an entire new criminology, but an appeal for more attention on negative outcomes of human behaviour regarding animal welfare. In this article some examples of research options are described.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nederlandse politie en aan de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zij publiceert frequent over de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

    Many species are threatened with extinction today. Certain animal species are becoming scarce and thus more valuable. Illegally traded animals and animal products are exported by relatively poor countries. These easily provide exporting papers that demonstrate that animals are bred in captivity, when in reality they are caught in the wild. In general illegally traded animals originate from South and Central America, Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa. Europe is a major importer. Since illegal trade in animals is booming business, it is not uncommon for illegal traders in exotic animals to be associated with other forms of organised crime. Due to a relatively low risk of prosecution and high profits to be made, the trade in rare species has become very attractive.


D.P. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    Because of the special characteristics of the Internet, cybercrime inherently crosses national borders and has fewer natural barriers than classic cross-border crime. This triggers the question whether criminal law with its traditional national focus is able to combat cybercrime. Can legislatures respond to technological change with sufficient speed in an internationally aligned approach? This article tries to answer this question by mapping the dynamics of cybercrime law, focusing particularly on the interplay between European and Dutch legislative initiatives. It shows that the dynamics consist of a European framework of minimum standards on major issues, with much room for national legislatures to interpret the standards and to add initiatives of their own where the European framework remains silent. Although this has worked well so far, if cybercrime continues to transform into large-scale organised crime, a step-change in the dynamics towards more steering European approaches may be necessary.


B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Cybercrime en politie

Een schets van de Nederlandse situatie anno 2012

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs W.Ph. Stol, E.R. Leukfeldt en H. Klap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2004 the main problem of the Dutch police concerning cybercrime was a lack of knowledge, for example about how to act in a digital world, about the character of cybercrime and about the effectiveness of measures. The main question in this article is if this situation has changed, and if so, how. Although the legislator has given the police special powers to fight crime in a digital world, the police still struggle with questions about what exactly are the powers they have. Although the police have invested in pilot projects and in the recruitment of digital experts, knowledge about ‘policing a digital society’ is not yet common in the police organisation - which is a shortcoming since ‘digital is normal’ in the lives of the common people. Although the police established digital aspects in police training, digital is not yet a common feature in police education. In sum, although the police in various ways pay attention to digital aspects of policing, digital is not yet a regular part of the police organisation, police training and/or everyday police practice.


W.Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

E.R. Leukfeldt
E.R. Leukfeldt Msc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.

H. Klap
Drs. Henk Klap MPM is programmamanager van het landelijke politiële Programma Aanpak Cybercrime (PAC).
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van identiteitsfraude

Een studie naar aard, omvang, risicofactoren en nasleep

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs J. van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Identity fraud involves the theft of another person's identity information (e.g. bank account number and password), mostly for purposes of financial gain to the offender. The literature review summarizes main results from international and Dutch research with respect to the nature, size, risk factors and aftermath of identity fraud as well as the consequences for its victims. Though scientific research on these phenomena is taking place more and more, much work yet remains to be done. This review ends with suggestions for future research on identity fraud.


J. van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is als universitair hoofddocent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Zin en onzin van het downloadverbod

Actuele ontwikkelingen in digitale piraterij nader beschouwd

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs H.B.M. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution, the author explores some of the issues that are currently dominant in the debate revolving illegal downloading (also known as digital piracy). Four specific issues are addressed. Firstly, the legal status of downloading is discussed, followed by a brief analysis of a debate currently being held within the Dutch parliament dealing with this issue. Of particular interest is the proposed ‘download-ban’ which is intended to decrease digital piracy and increase legitimate sales. However, as will be demonstrated, this proposed ban is not without criticisms. Following this analysis, the question is raised what is actually empirically known about the impact of illegal downloading on the involved industries, and whether proposed measures such as a ‘download-ban’ can have the desired impact. Finally, the role of copyrights in the digital environment is explored.


H.B.M. Leeuw
Bastiaan Leeuw UM Mcrim is promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van Maastricht University. Hierbinnen is hij verboden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. Zijn onderzoek heeft betrekking op een (criminologische) studie naar downloadgedrag op het internet, waarbij de vraag centraal staat welke mogelijke interventies effectief kunnen zijn om downloadgedrag aan te passen.
Artikel

Cyberwar? What war?

Meer in het bijzonder: welk recht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs A.R. Lodder en L.J.M. Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of cyberwar from an international law perspective, in particular from the framework of the laws of war. It discusses some of the difficulties in applying these laws to cyberattacks, further complicated by the characteristics of the Internet. A distinction is made between cyberwar, -crime, -espionage and -terrorism, and the different fields of law that apply to these distinct ‘cyberevents’. Next to discussing several historic cyberattacks, the question is raised whether cyberwar is merely a hype or whether we should be taking this threat seriously. Rather than answering this question, the authors feel that the actual threat posed by ‘cyber’ is less important than the political and military prominence gained by this phenomenon in these past few years. The authors conclude by stating that a lot of work has yet to be done to address the issues raised by the occurrence of cyberwar.


A.R. Lodder
Prof. Arno Lodder is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

L.J.M. Boer
Lianne Boer is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    This article describes the main security threats in cyberspace as well as the various types of actors behind these threats. The author discusses the reaction of existing and new state security agencies towards the new cyber threats. After analyzing the main obstacles in tracing cybercriminals he gives some recommendations for a more effective strategy against cybercrime.


R. Prins
ir. Ronald Prins is cybersecurity-specialist en directeur en medeoprichter van Fox-IT. Hij studeerde Technische Wiskunde aan de TU Delft en heeft zich daarna gespecialiseerd als cryptograaf. Bij het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut was hij werkzaam als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker.
Artikel

De rol van internet bij fraudedelicten

Internetfraudeurs en klassieke fraudeurs vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs E.R. Leukfeldt en W. Ph. Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on different criminological theories in combination with the unique characteristics of the Internet, it is assumed that there are significant differences between cyber criminals and traditional criminals. This article compares the characteristics of fraudsters who use the Internet to execute their scams (e-fraudsters) and fraudsters who do not use the Internet (classic fraudsters). The personal characteristics, social economical background and criminal careers are compared. The main conclusion is that e-fraudsters are not ‘new’ criminals that only commit crimes because of the perceived benefits of the Internet. But the use of the Internet does make the perceived consequences of committing a fraud offense less severe, so offenders who use the Internet will commit fraud offenses earlier in life. Internet provides the opportunity for fraudsters to commit frauds at a younger age.


E.R. Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt, MSc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie. Tevens is hij als onderzoeker gedetacheerd aan de Open Universiteit.

W. Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

    When it comes to cybersecurity usually little attention is payed to internal threats, i.e. from within organizations themselves which may - intentional or not - breach the confidentiality of digitally stored information. When a secret reaches the media, it often generates a lot of public attention. Not only because of the content or the curiosity-value of the secret itself, but also because of the - sometimes shockingly simple - way the secret has been leaked. This kind of security breach in particular gives rise to negative publicity, which not only impacts the organization which it concerns, but also reflects badly on other peers in the sector, especially in the case of breaches that are government-related. In this article, the author explores the issues of the leaking of secrets in ‘cyberspace’ by using several examples - such as the WikiLeaks affair - to illustrate the effects of ICT developments in the last two to three decades on vulnerabilities in information security. The article then focuses on new developments in ‘Alternative Workplace Strategies’ and the related use of new technologies in relation to the vulnerabilities in information security. Organizations can reduce the threats by facilitating their employees with smart solutions which are also results of new technologies.


J.H. Maat
Mr. Johri Maat, MSSM is senior adviseur bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en gespecialiseerd in security science & management. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
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