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Artikel

De problematiek van sfeervervaging bij de bestuurlijk-strafrechtelijke aanpak van mensenhandel in de legale prostitutiesector

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden human trafficking, prostitution control, adminstrative measures, prevention, criminal justice
Auteurs Nina Holvast en Patrick van der Meij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the legalization of the prostitution sector, not only has the combating of human trafficking through criminal law been substantially fortified, but also the administrative approach to human trafficking in that sector. This integral approach of human trafficking, in which administrative and criminal law measures complement each other, is necessary to combat this harrowing type of crime. The criminal law-administrative approach offers good footholds for a more forceful reaction to human trafficking. Besides the preventive effect administrative measures can have as a complement to criminal law, administrative supervision can also be useful to obtain criminal law information. However, that brings several new dilemmas with it that are connected to the phenomenon of the blurring of spheres. Under certain circumstances, the blurring of spheres between a criminal law and an administrative approach can lead to an improper use of competencies. We conclude that in the manner in which the prostitution sector is currently supervised, the legal protection of the citizen against actions of the supervisor is inadequately guaranteed. That does not mean that information that is obtained through administrative supervision may no longer be used in criminal cases. It is to be recommended however that several changes be made to current practice, which may prevent the improper use of supervisory competencies in prostitution controls.


Nina Holvast
Mr. drs. N.L. (Nina) Holvast is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: holvast@frg.eur.nl.

Patrick van der Meij
Mr. dr. P.P.J. (Patrick) van der Meij is strafrechtadvocaat bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten in Amsterdam en tevens research fellow bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.p.j.vandermeij@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Het actuele veiligheidsdebat in Frankrijk

Een toneelstuk in meerdere bedrijven

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden security policy, security discourse, Sarkozysm, battle of criminologists
Auteurs Marc Cools
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the current security debate in France is dissected as if it were a play in different acts. President Sarkozy, the political producer, has launched a public ‘schizophrenic’ discussion in which criminologists/sociologists act and quarrel on the edge of a knife. This debate can only be understood in reference to French criminological history, politics, structures and scientific particularities. The contents of this criminological theatre of war can enrich criminological discussion in the Netherlands and Belgium.


Marc Cools
Prof. Marc Cools is professor in de vakgroep criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Brussel en in de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie aan de Universiteit Gent. E-mail: Marc.Cools@vub.ac.be, Marc.Cools@UGent.be.
Artikel

De strafrechtelijke bescherming van jongeren tegen seksuele contactlegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden teenagers, sexual activities, legal protection, criminal law, discourse analysis
Auteurs Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Teenagers between twelve and eighteen years of age are protected by Dutch criminal law against sexual encounters that can be described as ‘voluntarily’. If teenagers are approached without force or approach a person themselves autonomously they are thus protected against such contact, but they could have played a sexual active role nevertheless. How do the alleged offenders in these criminal cases make contact and how are the punishable interactions possible considering the facilitative role of the victim? This paper will deal with the way the officials of the police and justice departments value sexual contacts with youngsters in a diverse range of settings. The crucial question is how the professionals dealing with the protection of youngsters and at the same time safeguarding the legal rights of offenders come to their juridical deliberation.


Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent/onderzoeker aan de Haagse Hogeschool, Academie voor Bestuur, Recht en Veiligheid, opleiding Integrale Veiligheid. E-mail: j.c.w.gooren@hhs.nl.
Artikel

Van overlastmelding naar een globale typering van problematische jeugdgroepen: de shortlist als quickscan

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2011
Trefwoorden shortlist, Beke, teenagers causing trouble, youth groups, youth group inventory, youth group causing trouble, criminal youth group
Auteurs Paul Harland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ‘Shortlist troublesome youth groups’ is a compact survey that enables police-officers to categorize problematic youth groups on a general level. The ‘shortlist’ results in three categories. The least troublesome groups are labelled ‘annoying’, the more serious groups are referred to as ‘disturbing’ and the most serious ones are called ‘criminal’ youth groups. As a quick scan, the shortlist tool has originally been developed in order to prevent criminalization of youth. It has now become a compulsorily used instrument for all 25 police services in the Netherlands. The shortlist is seen as the central starting point that should ultimately lead to the implementation of multidisciplinary interventions to tackle the specific problems that the youth groups cause.This article briefly discusses the highly subjective judgements of perceptions of disorder in society. Against this background this article describes the aim, the benefits and limits to the use of the shortlist. This analysis is based on fifteen years of experience with the annual listing of troublesome youth groups by means of the shortlist at the Haaglanden police service.This contribution concludes that the shortlist is a useful instrument that enables police officers to efficiently categorize problematic youth groups. Several changes by the Haaglanden police service with regard to the content as well as to the procedure further optimized the use of the shortlist. However, its global characteristic hampers evaluation of local safety interventions on the group. Also, comparisons of results between police services are not possible just like that. For those purposes (evaluations and comparisons) additional, i.e. more detailed information on the groups are to be gathered. The shortlist-methodology consists of further steps that include more in-depth analyses.Having said this, the shortlist is a valuable quick scan tool that enables professionals to swiftly categorize problematic youth groups.


Paul Harland
Dr. Paul Harland is senior onderzoeker bij de Politie Haaglanden, afdeling Analyse & Research (Staf Korpsdirectie). E-mail: Paul.harland@haaglanden.politie.nl.
Artikel

Samenwerking in de criminaliteitsbestrijding

Kwalitatief onderzoek naar de integrale aanpak van illegale hennepteelt

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden criminaliteitsbestrijding, hennepteelt, integrale aanpak, publiek-private samenwerking
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Wytske van der Wagen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The fight against organized cannabis cultivation is an important topic within Dutch law enforcement. No longer the sole responsibility of the police, the current trend is for the police to work alongside local government, companies providing energy, housing associations and the Inland Revenue. Together they unite their strengths to deal more effectively and resolutely with the problem. Although different studies have been conducted concerning the (effectiveness of) the fight against cannabis cultivation, there is not much known regarding the way actors experience the fight from ‘within’, that is: the interactions, perceptions and transformations of agreements and premises which are enacted on the ‘molecular level’ of the cooperation. In two large Dutch cities, we have researched, on the basis of semi-structured interviews and observation, how parties implement their role within the integral fight against cannabis cultivation. The results reveal that the execution is more complex and uncontrollable than previously considered. The cooperation turns out not to be deductive, structured and ‘organized’; but rather flexible, dynamic and ‘self organizing’ in character.


Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn website is www.marcschuilenburg.nl. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@vu.nl.

Wytske van der Wagen
Wytske van der Wagen is criminologe. E-mail: wytskevdwagen@gmail.com.
Artikel

Veiligheidsarrangementen in IJburg

Over de praktijk van de besturing van veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden veiligheidsarrangement, actieonderzoek, geobjectiveerde probleemanalyse, appreciative inquiry
Auteurs Hans Boutellier en Erik van Marissing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes and judges on the development of three ‘social-safety arrangements’ in a new developed neighbourhood in the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on different research methods, three key issues are defined: youngsters hanging around on the streets annoying residents and little children, families showing anti-social behaviour, and youngsters showing signs of criminal behaviour. Together with all responsible ‘players on the pitch’ the current policies were discussed and expanded with additional strategies. The development of these arrangements consists of four stages: an objective diagnosis of the area, a more detailed analysis to determine the most urgent social safety issues, determining all actors involved and their role in the system, and, finally, a broad discussion with all actors to determine shortcomings in the current policies and interventions. Social safety arrangements can best be regarded a research-based policy instrument that provides detailed insight in the roles and positions of all actors and helps policymakers translate this knowledge into local policies.


Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl

Erik van Marissing
Dr. Erik van Marissing is als onderzoeker werkzaam op het Verwey-Jonker Instituut, Kromme Nieuwegracht 6, 3512 HG Utrecht. Tel. 030-2300799, e-mail: evanmarissing@verwey-jonker.nl
Artikel

Veiligheid in veelvoud: beeld, beleid en realiteit in Rotterdams Oude Westen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden onveiligheidsgevoelens, veiligheidsindex, Oude Westen, etnografie
Auteurs Tom de Leeuw en René van Swaaningen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we want to show how different actors (amongst whom residents, professional safety-functionaries and street youth) view the safety situation in Rotterdam’s problematic neighbourhood ‘the Old West’ in very different ways and start from very different parameters. We conclude that the one-dimensional image of an unsafe neighbourhood that emerges from the city’s official, quantitative measurement instrument, the so-called ‘Safety Index’ (Veiligheidsindex), does not do justice to the diversity of opinions and visions of the different actors in the neighbourhood and is thus unsuited as the political ‘compass’ for local safety policy it was intended for. This diversity comes much better to the surface in the qualitative, ethnographic research on which this article is based. Such research enables us first to better understand safety as a local phenomenon and secondly offers more concrete points of departure for policy.


Tom de Leeuw
Drs. Tom de Leeuw is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Tom de Leeuw, Sectie Criminologie L7-020, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, e-mail: deleeuw@frg.eur.nl.

René van Swaaningen
Prof. dr. René van Swaaningen is als hoogleraar Internationaal Comparatieve Criminologie verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens wetenschappelijk directeur van de Erasmus Graduate School of Law. Contactadres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Kamer L7-022. E-mail: vanswaaningen@frg.eur.nl
Artikel

Integrale veiligheidszorg en de burgemeester

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2011
Trefwoorden integraal, burgemeester, veiligheidsbeleid, religie
Auteurs Ruth Prins en Lex Cachet
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Changing public safety problems as well as an increasing societal demand for public safety made way for new policy approaches. During the 1990s, the so called ‘integral safety approach’ was introduced in the Netherlands. This approach manifested itself mainly on the municipal level where the mayor is being held responsible for managing public safety and order. The central question raised in this article is: what are the consequences of an integral approach to public safety problems for the mayor when managing local order and public safety? We will demonstrate that ‘integrality’ is no clear cut concept. Careful inspection of the concept learns that it has multiple meanings. Of these various meanings, especially the ambition to address public safety problems by means of ‘new alliances’ characterized the actual implementation of integral policies. However, working together within these new alliances uniting various more or less independent actors from both the public and private sector, seemed to be hampered by a lack of coordination and control. In that sense, the introduction of the integral approach had consequences for steering and control of public safety policies. These consequences have to be addressed, especially by the mayor who is accountable for local order and safety. The mayor had attributed to him – first in practice, soon by law as well – the role of director of public safety policy on the municipal level. However, as we will demonstrate in this article, the mayor lacks an important trait needed for effective directorship: decisive powers. Therefore the mayor is not able to realize effective cooperation between partners within the new alliances of the integral approach to public safety problems. As a potential solution, we will describe the characteristics of a ‘model of anticipation’ granting the mayor a certain level of decisive powers to be used as an ultimum remedium.


Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Contactadres: Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Burg. Oudlaan 50 (kamer M7-06), Postbus 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam. Tel. 010-4088714, e-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl

Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is Universitair Hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Openbaar brandmeldsysteem: historie, kosten en opbrengst

Onderzoek naar historie, kosten en opbrengst van het openbaar brandmeldsysteem in de veiligheidsregio Twente

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Brandmelding, Kosten-baten analyse, Veiligheidsopbrengst, Openbaar meldsysteem, Incidentrapporten
Auteurs Ron de Wit en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands fire safety regulations require certain types of buildings to have a direct connection between the building fire alarm system and the dispatch centre of the fire brigade. These automatic fire alarm systems are mandatory for example in premises where inhabitants such as small children or elderly people have limited self-evacuation capabilites in case of fire. These automatic fire alarms aim at saving lives by a faster response of the fire brigade. However, the fast majority of these automatic alarms are false. As a result these calls constitute a considerable and undesirable drain on the fire brigade resources. These calls cause unwanted direct costs (salaries) and indirect costs (road accidents due to fire brigade mobilisation) apart from the regular maintenance costs. Up to now no data is available for the costs and benefits of the system of automatic fire alarms. This article describes the results of a study of the automatic fire alarm system in the region Twente. The yearly social costs are calculated at about € 3 million. In order to calculate the benefits all incident reports from automatic fire alarms during a period of 29 months have been investigated. In this period no call form an automatic fire alarm system has occured in which the fire brigade had to deploy its resources for a live saving or evacuation action.


Ron de Wit
Ir. Ron de Wit is brandweerofficier en plaatsvervangend regionaal commandant brandweer in de veiligheidsregio Twente. Daarnaast is hij onderzoeker bij crisislab aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. Contactadres: R.A.C. de Wit, Lansinkweg 33, 7553 AG Hengelo. E-mail: rac.dewit@kpnmail.nl.

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar crisisbeheersing en fysieke veiligheid aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Downloaders van kinderporno

Een overzicht van de literatuur

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Kinderporno, Downloaden, Zedencriminaliteit, Literatuurstudie
Auteurs Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Unlike the physical abusers of children, little is known about downloaders of child pornography. The key questions in this article are: who are the downloaders, what are their backgrounds, why and how they download child pornography, how they behave offline and online and what types of downloaders can be distinguished? A simple answer to these questions is currently impossible to give. There is more, preferably longitudinal, research needed on risk factors for downloading child pornography and the various types of downloaders. Combating the downloaders requires a lot of the police in terms of international cooperation and up to date knowledge and expertise. This also served the treatment practices, which is partly dependent on a properly conducted police investigation.


Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke. E-mail: a.vanwijk@beke.nl.
Artikel

Gekocht, maar niet gekregen

Slachtofferschap van online oplichting nader onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden Online oplichting, Slachtofferschap, Slachtofferenquête, Lage zelfcontrole
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consumer fraud seems to be widespread, yet little research is devoted to understanding why certain social groups are more vulnerable to this type of victimization than others. The present paper deals with internet consumer fraud victimization, and uses an explanatory model that combines insights from self control theory and routine activity theory. The results from large-scale victimization survey data among the Dutch general population (N=6,201) reveal that people with low self-control run substantially higher victimization risk, as well as people performing ‘risky’ routine activities, such as online shopping and participation in online forums. Though a minority share of the self-control-victimization link is indirect – because people with low self-control are more involved in risk-enhancing routine activities – a large direct effect on internet fraud victimization remains. This suggests that, within similar situations, people with poor impulse control respond differently to deceptive online commercial offers.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is werkzaam als universitair docent Criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie. Contactadres: postbus 9520, 2300 RA Leiden. Tel. 071-5277418. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Forensisch-medische expertise voor slachtoffers van huiselijk geweld

Hoe werken politie en forensische artsen samen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2010
Trefwoorden huiselijk geweld, forensische geneeskunde, medische verklaringen, letselverklaring
Auteurs Tina Dorn, Manon Ceelen, Olga Boeij e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, police can request a physical examination of victims of domestic violence. These examinations can be either carried out by the physician who has treated the victim, or, alternatively, by a forensic physician. From a medico-legal point of view, an examination by a forensic physician has several advantages, as forensic physicians are independent and trained in examining victims of violence and reporting to the police. The aim of the current study was to (1) describe the structure of forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands, (2) establish with whom the police request physical examinations of victims (forensic physician vs. physicians who have treated the victim), (3) explore the underlying reasons for the choice made and (4) elaborate how the current cooperation of police and forensic physicians can be improved in favour of victims of domestic violence. For this purpose, interviews were carried out with police professionals and forensic physicians throughout the country. The results demonstrated that victims can access forensic services almost exclusively on referral by the police. Furthermore, the police in most cases request physical examinations from physicians who have treated the victim and not from forensic physicians. Reasons for referring victims to treating physicians instead of forensic physicians are costs and lack of information on forensic services. Reports provided by treating physicians are criticized by the police for being illegible, incomprehensible, and lacking information on aspects which are of importance for the legal procedure. In short, the legal position of victims could be strengthened by requesting physical examinations from forensic physicians instead from treating physicians. A major obstacle to change is a lack of funding. Furthermore, forensic services for victims of domestic violence in the Netherlands could be improved if victims could access forensic services without referral of the police.


Tina Dorn
Dr. Tina Dorn is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam. Contactadres: GGD Amsterdam, afd. EDG, Postbus 2200, 1000 CE Amsterdam. Tel. 020-5555911. E-mail: tdorn@ggd.amsterdam.nl.

Manon Ceelen
Dr. Manon Ceelen is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Olga Boeij
Dr. Olga Boeij is onderzoeker, afdeling Epidemiologie, Documentatie en Gezondheidsbevordering, GGD Amsterdam.

Kees Das
Dr. Kees Das is hoofd afdeling Forensische Geneeskunde, GGD Amsterdam.

Mariëtte Christophe
Mariëtte Christophe is programmaleider, Landelijk Programmabureau Huiselijk Geweld en de Politietaak.
Artikel

Versnipperde regie

De positie van de gemeente in een lokaal veiligheidsnetwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden gemeentelijke regiefunctie, veiligheidsnetwerk, netwerkanalyse, doorzettingsmacht, centraliteit
Auteurs Jolijn Broekhuizen, Ronald van Steden en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The coordination in public safety has been assigned to the municipality. The central question in this article is whether the municipality is equipped to fulfil this task successfully. In this study we investigated a metropolitan security network against drug and alcohol nuisance. Questionnaires were administered among 36 organisations dealing with these nuisance problems. The social network analysis shows that the municipality is predominant in the security network. On the other hand there are several other organisations, such as the Police, health organisations and Housing Associations, that also take up a central position in the network. We also found that the municipality’s informal network is less well developed than its formal network. In contrast, the Police and several local health organisations often liaise informally with other organisations that ‘fight’ drug and alcohol nuisance within the network. Quite a number of organisations are in the position to obtain important information and to exert influence when organisations are unwilling to cooperate. Consequently, several organisations other than the municipality are suited to successfully complete the coordination in a security network.


Jolijn Broekhuizen
Drs. Jolijn Broekhuizen is senior onderzoeker bij de Dienst Onderzoek en Statistiek van de gemeente Amsterdam. E-mail: j.broekhuizen@os.amsterdam.nl.

Ronald van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. E-mail: jcj.boutellier@fsw.vu.nl.
Artikel

Gemeenten en de strijd tegen de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden georganiseerde criminaliteit, bestuurlijke aanpak, BIBOB, gemeenten, evaluatieonderzoek
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Municipalities play an increasingly important role in the fight against organized crime. Following Italian and New York examples, the Netherlands have developed several instruments for an administrative approach to organized crime. This article describes these instruments on a local and a national level and discusses its theoretical foundations. A critical assessment is made on the reach of this administrative approach considering the perception and nature of organized crime in the Netherlands. Further, methods for assessing the effectiveness of such an approach are discussed. Has organized crime successfully been targeted and how could this be established?


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

Uitbreiding bevoegdheden ter handhaving van de openbare orde en veiligheid

Een versterking of verzwakking van de positie van de burgemeester?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden bestuurlijke handhaving, burgemeester, bestuurlijke bevoegdheden, openbare orde
Auteurs Arnt Mein
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Lately, mayors’ powers for maintaining public order and safety have been considerably extended, and even more powers are in preparation. These powers must enable the mayor to act quickly against public order disturbances and security threats. The novelty is that the mayor may conditionally use and exercise these new powers preventively against groups of rioters. Their freedom of action and their privacy can also be considerably curtailed. This means these powers have to be used carefully and reluctantly. If the mayor overdoes the crimefighter role, he/she may lose the public’s confidence.


Arnt Mein
Mr. Arnt Mein is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en de vakgroep Criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: AMein@verwey-jonker.nl.
Artikel

Gemeentelijke regie in de veiligheidszorg

Schets van relevante factoren en een wetsvoorstel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden gemeente, regie, wetsvoorstel, lokaal veiligheidsbeleid
Auteurs Jan Terpstra en Mirjam Krommendijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the local governance of public safety many different organizations are involved. These organizations cooperate in local networks or partnerships to manage problems related to crime and disorder. In the Netherlands the local government should coordinate the cooperation between these organizations and their activities. Research shows that in practice this coordination has many serious shortcomings.
    Therefore the Dutch government proposed a new Act to promote the local government’s capacities to coordinate these networks and local policies of public safety (Wet op de gemeentelijke regierol lokale integrale veiligheid). At this moment this proposal has not yet been submitted to the Dutch Parliament.
    This Act will create new obligations and powers for the local government. According to this Act every four years local councils will have to establish a public safety policy plan based on an analysis of local problems of crime and disorder. Local governments should make formal agreements with the local partner agencies about their activities. Additionally the Act will provide local governments with the power to enforce these cooperation and contributions and to sanction it.
    Research shows that many of the problems that arise in the coordination of these networks and partnerships result from the local governments themselves. Often the governmental support and commitment to local safety issues are insufficient, the local administration is highly fragmented, the coordination is often poorly implemented and local administration often have a bureaucratic culture that is hard to reconcile with the need to react quickly to urgent local problems.
    Considering these problems the authors argue that this proposed Act is not an adequate solution for the problems that arise in the coordination of local safety policies and partnerships.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar Criminologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl.

Mirjam Krommendijk
Drs. Mirjam Krommendijk is werkzaam als onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Criminologisch Instituut van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. E-mail: m.krommendijk@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Lokaal veiligheidsbeleid in Nederland en België: op zoek naar verschil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2010
Trefwoorden lokaal veiligheidsbeleid, politie, gemeente, Nederland en België
Auteurs Lex Cachet en Ruth Prins
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public safety has always been a core task for local, municipal authorities. However, until rather recently only the police has been actively involved in addressing local problems of public safety and maintaining order instead. Local public safety policy – as a responsibility for local authorities together with many other partners – is a relatively new phenomenon.This article compares the main developments and trends in local public safety policy in the Netherlands and Belgium. Special attention is paid to the role and position of the local, municipal authorities. What strikes most, are the strong similarities between the two countries. National governments played an important and catalyzing role in the development of public safety policy in the Netherlands as well as in Belgium. After many years and not without a lot of trouble, the monopoly of the police on designing and implementing policy for addressing public safety and order came to an end in both countries. Which, amongst other effects, presented the local authorities with new challenges.


Lex Cachet
Dr. Lex Cachet is universitair hoofddocent Bestuurskunde aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: cachet@fsw.eur.nl.

Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins MSc is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Opleiding Bestuurskunde. E-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl.
Artikel

Gemeenschap als bron van positieve veiligheid

Een conceptuele verkenning en aanzet tot empirisch onderzoek

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden gemeenschap, sociale cohesie, sense of belonging, insluiting
Auteurs Ronald van Steden, Marieke van Vliet, Ton Salman e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the links between the concepts of security and community, questioning the conventional use and meaning of both. To begin with, it addresses the taken-for-grantedness of the thought that communities foster feelings of security, and that contemporary processes of migration, intensified worldwide communication, and ‘heterogeneization’ of habitats stimulate feelings of insecurity and nostalgia for ‘old-fashioned’ tight kinship. Subsequently, it criticizes the too lop-sided focus on insecurity in current debates, and asks attention for – community-based – positive feelings of security. In the next paragraphs, however, the problematic aspects of the idea of ‘community’ are discussed: its inadequacy in capturing current individualized ways-of-life, its exclusionary tendencies, its potentially exaggerated focus on social control, and its rejection of, and fear for, the outside world. Therefore, we assess the possibility to construe (‘strong’) community qualities in a situation of multiple, overlapping and porous populations of varied identity-relevance within overarching institutional arrangements of rule of law and of shared codes of conduct (as ‘weak’ ties). Finally, the argument is translated in suggestions for empirical research to be able to determine the fecundity of the ideas presented.


Ronald van Steden
Ronald van Steden is universitair docent aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: r.van.steden@fsw.vu.nl.

Marieke van Vliet
Marieke van Vliet is cultureel antropologe. Zij is werkzaam als recherchekundige bij de regiopolitie Amsterdam-Amstelland. E-mail: marieke.van.vliet@amsterdam.politie.nl.

Ton Salman
Ton Salman is universitair hoofddocent aan de afdeling culturele antropologie van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: aj.salman@fsw.vu.nl.

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.E-mail: jcj.boutellier@fsw.vu.nl.
Artikel

Vrouwen en witwassen: een logische combinatie met incoherente resultaten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden vrouwen, georganiseerde misdaad, witwassen, 420bis
Auteurs Melvin Soudijn
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A part in Dutch penal law defines money laundering as ‘any person who acquires an object, possesses it, hands it over or sells it or makes use of an object, knowing that the object originates – directly or indirectly – from an offense’. Under object is meant any goods and any property rights. With this in mind, the author argues that whoever knows that money (the object) is derived from crime, but spends the money anyway, is committing a money laundering offense. Taking the argument one step further, it is therefore a reasonable hypothesis that a large number of wives or girlfriends of criminals, have been prosecuted for money laundering. That is, if the women knew that the money they spent was obtained through crime. To test the hypothesis, 62 cases dealing with organized crime were selected and analyzed. These cases largely focus on male perpetrators of drug crimes, money laundering, human smuggling and human trafficking. It turns out that the women often knew their male friends or husbands were involved in crime. The women also profited of these crimes because they used their friends’ expensive cars, lived in large mansions and often went shopping for luxury items. Still, hardly anyone was prosecuted for money laundering offenses. Several explanations were found, ranging from pity of officers, an overload of work, absence of direct proof or simply male chauvinist bias. Only if the women were actively involved in other crimes, would they find themselves prosecuted with (among others) money laundering offenses.


Melvin Soudijn
Melvin Soudijn is als senior wetenschappelijk onderzoeker werkzaam bij de KLPD. E-mail: Melvin.Soudijn@klpd.politie.nl.
Artikel

De lokale voorzorgcultuur

Over de steeds verder naar voren werkende overheid in de aanpak van sociale onveiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2010
Trefwoorden voorzorgcultuur, voorzorgprincipe, veiligheidsbeleid, preventie
Auteurs Ruth Prins en Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public safety governance has been characterised in many ways. Literature mentions traditional sanctions for purposes of repression, policy programs aiming for prevention, as well as cooperation of public, private and hybrid organizations in addressing public safety problems. Very recently, a so called culture of precaution, in which problems of public safety are to be addressed at a very early – premature – stage, would have entered the scene. This potential culture of precaution is topic of this article. The article aims to indicate the empirical manifestations of a culture of precaution, as mentioned in literature, in contemporary public safety governance. The central question is as follows: to what extent and in what way is contemporary public safety governance on municipality level characterised by the precautionary principle? Five municipalities within the police region of Utrecht, varying in size from 40.000 to 300.000 citizens, have been studied; Amersfoort, Bunschoten, Utrecht, Woerden and Zeist. In total 153 measures addressing problems of public safety have been analyzed for characteristics of precaution. In order to do so, a model has been developed which locates precaution next to traditional strategies for addressing public safety. It will be demonstrated that a culture of precaution is not empirically present in public safety governance on municipality level. However, contemporary public safety governance does appear to posses some minor characteristics of the precaution paradigm.


Ruth Prins
Ruth Prins is promovendus Burgemeester en Veiligheid, Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: prins@fsw.eur.nl.

Hans Boutellier
Hans Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: jcj.boutellier@fsw.vu.nl.
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