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Artikel

De relevantie van het Kinderrechtenverdrag voor minderjarige vreemdelingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Convention on the Rights of the Child, immigration, Dutch immigration law, family reunification, asylum
Auteurs C. van Os
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    All rights in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) apply to all children, therefore they also apply to minor foreigners in the Netherlands. Nevertheless precisely for this group a continuous fight needs to be battled to make sure they receive the protection provided by the CRC. This article provides an overview of the most important articles of the CRC where minor asylum seekers and migrants can appeal to. The article also stresses the fact that children who reside unlawfully in the country may not be discriminated against their access to socio-economic rights. Furthermore, the question whether fully integrated children should have the right to a residency permit is dealt with. Subsequently the Dutch policy with regard to family reunification is assessed alongside the CRC. At last the article elaborates on the tension between the ‘ultimum remedium’ principle (article 37 CRC) on the one hand and the policy concerning children in alien detention on the other.


C. van Os
Mr. Carla van Os is jurist kinderrechten & migratie bij Defence for Children in Leiden.
Artikel

Drieënvijftig tinten grijs

Afnemende verantwoording van en controle op hybride politiewerk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Policing, hybrid police complex, private policing, governance of security, democratic control
Auteurs A.J.J. Meershoek en A.B. Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Fifty three shades of grey refers to the radical transformation of policing and security in society from a traditional public – and foremost ‘blue’ – police system into a hybrid(semi)public and private policing system which is losing its dominant – and visible – blue character. Using the criminological concepts ‘police as an institute’ and ‘policing as a process’ the ongoing blurring of boundaries between different public and private organisations is discussed in the context of the proliferation of different forms of multi-agency cooperation. Whereas in the traditional discourse of the public police system a strong tradition of analysing the democratic nature of policing exists, in the public and scientific perception of the new, variegated police constellation such notions are still lacking, which contributes to the relative lack of political control, the defective democratic accountability and fragile human rights in the grey areas. The public discourse on the police remains too narrowly focused on the public police system. ‘Normal science’ of policing needs to break away from ‘police as an institute’ to incorporate new research questions and new concepts regarding ‘policing as a process’.


A.J.J. Meershoek
Dr. Guus Meershoek is als lector Politiegeschiedenis verbonden aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn. Hij is tevens universitair docent Maatschappelijke Veiligheidszorg aan de Universiteit Twente.

A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Politie en Veiligheidstudies aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De kenmerken van high reliability organizations (HRO’s)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden high reliability organizations (HROs), high reliability organizing, system safety, accident prevention
Auteurs K.M. Sutcliffe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic and professional disciplines, such as organization and management theory, psychology, sociology and engineering, have, for years, grappled with the multidisciplinary issues of safety and accident prevention. This article examines a domain of research on system safety – the high reliability organization (HRO) paradigm. HROs operate in hazardous conditions, but have fewer than their fair share of adverse events. HROs, traditionally found in the domain of aviation and aircraft carriers, are committed to safety at the highest level and adept a special approach to its pursuit. The attributes and operating dynamics of the best HROs provide a template on which to better understand how safe and reliable performance can be achieved under trying conditions.


K.M. Sutcliffe
Prof. Kathleen Sutcliffe is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Department of Management and Organizations van de University of Michigan.
Artikel

Hoog betrouwbaar organiseren in het OM

Beelden uit parketten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Public Prosecutor’s Office, high reliability organization (HRO), HRO principles, professional culture, error prevention
Auteurs H. de Bruine, H. Fijn en P. de Beer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article deals with possibilities for the Public Prosecutor’s Office in the Netherlands to learn from high reliability organizations (HROs). The authors draw a picture on the basis of information, gathered between 2008 and 2010. While dealing with mistakes or faults much emphasis is often laid upon a professional attitude, written handbooks and discipline as essential conditions. The experience with HROs shows that at the same time mental processes are needed for fast detection and containment of developing problems. These mental processes, heaped together as ‘collective mindfulness’, refer to the picking up of weak signals and the resilient reacting upon incidents. The authors show to what extent the Public Prosecutor’s Office makes use of these processes. The level of training and education and the ‘hands on’ mentality of the average Public Prosecutor build a firm foundation for reliability. Reflection and to what extent knowledge is shared seem liable for improvement. Adapting (elements of) the HRO philosophy may prove an effective way to foster the actual exchange and use of knowledge within the Public Prosecutor’s Office and thus raise its reliability.


H. de Bruine
Drs. Herman de Bruine is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Haagse Hogeschool. Van 1986 tot 2008 was hij in verschillende functies werkzaam bij de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen.

H. Fijn
Mr. Herman Fijn, MC is zelfstandig organisatieadviseur. Van 1998 tot 2010 was hij als adviseur werkzaam bij Prisma, het interne organisatieadviesbureau van de rechtspraak en het Openbaar Ministerie.

P. de Beer
Mr. drs. Peter de Beer, MPA is strafrechter bij de Rechtbank Utrecht. Van 1994 tot 2010 was hij officier van justitie. In 2010 en 2011 was hij als adviseur werkzaam bij Prisma.

    The introduction and fast growing popularity of electronic dance music has strongly influenced the spread of so-called party drugs in Amsterdam. Trends in substances use in Amsterdam's nightlife have been monitored systematically with ‘Antenna’, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Ecstasy remained the most popular stimulant drug, but since the late 1990s it had to compete with cocaine, and to a lesser extent with amphetamine. In the past decade, GHB and ketamine also gained popularity among clubbers and pub-goers. However, the vast majority does not take illicit drugs while going out at night. Alcohol remains by far the most popular substance, and has become even more important in the past decade.


T. Nabben
Dr. Ton Nabben is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

D.J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    The main difference between various forms of prevention of organised crime is between primary and secondary prevention on the one hand and tertiary prevention on the other. The latter is directed at diminishing an already existing problem. This article deals with social conditions which promote the arising of organised crime and with relevant specifically vulnerable factors and sectors (primary and secondary prevention). The authors argue that in a way every society gets the organised crime it deserves. Organising and regulating society often has the side effect of creating opportunities for individuals and groups which gain profit by exploiting the illegal markets that arise as a consequence of regulations. Whether the desire for regulation or the prevention of (organised) crime should prevail is a topic for political and social debate.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis is als raadadviseur verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.

J. de Waard
Mr. drs. Jaap de Waard is als senior beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de Directie Rechtshandhaving & Criminaliteitsbestrijding van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie te Den Haag.
Artikel

Ontzetting uit beroep of ambt

Herleving van een weinig gebruikte straf?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2011
Auteurs M. Malsch, W.C. Alberts, J.W. de Keijser e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Offenders can be deprived from their profession or office by a court. The Dutch legislator has recently increased possibilities for the judge to disqualify offenders who committed certain crimes within their professional occupation. This article discusses a study on the penalty of expulsion from a profession or an office. It appears that this penalty is not often imposed. Most cases concern sex crime cases and fraud cases. Although it is a penalty, the prosecutors and judges general aim at preventing new crimes when considering a disqualification. It is not known whether convicted persons comply to this penalty. The prosecution does not actively supervise observance. Respondents in this study fear that relapse into new crime within a profession happens, but figures are lacking on this point. Positive and negative sides of the disqualification are discussed in the article.


M. Malsch
Mr. dr. Marijke Malsch is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is zij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Haarlem en in het Hof Den Bosch.

W.C. Alberts
Drs. Wendy Alberts MSc was verbonden aan het NSCR voor het onderzoek naar ontzetting uit beroep of ambt en werkt thans bij de Reclassering.

J.W. de Keijser
Dr. Jan de Keijser werkte eerder bij het NSCR en is nu als universitair hoofddocent criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.

J.F. Nijboer
Prof. mr. dr. Hans Nijboer is hoogleraar Bewijs en Bewijsrecht bij dezelfde faculteit en tevens als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan het NSCR.

    Honour-related physical or psychological violence, performed in reaction to perceived (threats of) loss of (family) honour, draws a lot of political and public attention in the Netherlands. A comprehensive policy-program was developed to reduce and prevent honour-related violence. However, the project knows two important restraints. In the first place, no reliable prevalence figures of honour-related violence are available. Furthermore, the program has been implemented without articulating and testing the presumed working mechanisms. In this article suggestions are made for evaluation of the program using the educational project ‘Black Tulip’ as an illustration. Black Tulip is used in secondary schools and aims at adolescent potential victims and perpetrators of honour-related violence. The main purpose is to achieve attitude and behaviour changes by means of visualizing experiences with honour-related violence in drama and film, and subsequent group discussions. Evaluation of Black Tulip and other parts of the program should take place by a combination of traditional evaluation research (e.g. with pre- and post-measurements of attitudes and behaviour in ‘Black Tulip-schools’ and in schools that do not receive the intervention), and a theory-driven evaluation which articulates the presumptions about the working mechanisms of the program and puts these to a test using the scientific literature.


C.H. de Kogel
Dr. Katy de Kogel is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M.H.C. Kromhout
Dr. Mariska Kromhout is verbonden aan het WODC als senior-onderzoeker.

M. Smit
Dr. Monika Smit is verbonden aan het WODC als hoofd van de afdeling Rechtsbestel, Wetgeving & Internationale en vreemdelingen-aangelegenheden.
Artikel

Omstreden gelijkheid

Over de constructie van (on)gelijkheid van vrouwen en mannen in partnergeweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs R. Römkens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) changed from a private problem to a public concern over the last decades. It has become subject of various discourses in different domains. In the social sciences the gender-based discriminatory nature of IPV is contested by some researchers who claim a gender equality in IPV. They call for a gender-neutral approach to IPV as a family problem, de-contextualized from gender-based inequalities. In the Netherlands this degendering is reflected in current policy discourse. However, in the international legal human rights domain, IPV is unequivocally considered to be an issue that affects women disproportionately as a form of women's discrimination that is the result of unequal power relations. Both international binding human rights law and recent ruling of the ECHR impose binding duties to acknowledge this. This article addresses the paradox that is reflected in these two positions and how to get beyond it.


R. Römkens
Prof. dr. Renée Römkens is als hoogleraar Huiselijk geweld verbonden aan het International Victimology Institute (Intervict) van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Fataal huiselijk geweld

Doding van eigen kind, partner of ouder

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs F. Koenraadt en M. Liem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Homicides that take place in the family generally lead to shock and incomprehension in society at large. Even though in recent years the number of homicides in the Netherlands has decreased, domestic homicides still claim approximately sixty victims per year. This article aims to describe the nature and incidence of domestic homicide in the Netherlands by making use of both epidemiological data as well as detailed analyses of case reports of domestic homicides. In doing so, several types of domestic homicides are distinguished: intimate partner homicide, child homicide, parent and sibling homicide, multiple family homicide and finally, domestic homicide followed by suicide. The findings are discussed and put into perspective.


F. Koenraadt
Dr. Frans Koenraadt is als hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie en Psychologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht; hij is tevens wetenschappelijk adviseur bij het Pieter Baan Centrum (NIFP) te Utrecht en bij de Forensisch Psychiatrische Kliniek te Assen.

M. Liem
Dr. Marieke Liem is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2010
Auteurs M.P.C. Scheepmaker

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Artikel

What Works en What goes Wrong?

Over evidence-based beleid in de dagelijkse praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2011
Auteurs M. van Ooyen-Houben, C.N. Nas en J. Mulder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands a system of evidence-based interventions was set up, in which only behavioural interventions which meet the scientifically proven ‘What Works’ criteria can be applied to well-defined categories of offenders. An accreditation commission was installed by the ministry of Security and Justice to test behavioural interventions. One of the crucial elements of this evidence-based policy is that the interventions are carried out according to protocol and are applied to the target group by well-trained personnel. This, however, is a problem in practice. Reasons for the low intervention integrity lie among others in lack of support and lead in the organisation and low inflow of participants. The integrity problems pose a risk to the effectiveness of behavioural interventions. Literature suggests that a 100% compliance to protocols might be necessary nor desirable. Causes that lie in the organisation could be improved and the implementation process could be given some more time. Evidence-based policy is not that easy to carry out in daily practice. The future will show whether the goal of a reduction of criminal recidivism will be realized.


M. van Ooyen-Houben
Dr. Marianne van Ooyen-Houben is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij is tevens verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam/Criminologie en Maastricht University/Top Institute for Evidence Based Education Research.

C.N. Nas
Dr. Coralijn Nas is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

J. Mulder
Dr. Juul Mulder is werkzaam bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

    This article focuses on a phenomenon often called ‘function creep’. This is the process whereby new functions are added to systems that are basically intended for other purposes, or when systems or data originally intended for function A are linked to other systems or data having function B. New technical possibilities have definitely paved the way for function creep and a growing number of ICT-applications appear no longer limited to the purpose for which they were originally set up. Function creep is an inherent feature of innovation. But at the same time it poses risks if considered from a privacy perspective. After detailing many examples of function creep, the article elaborates on a potential risk not often discussed: loss of data quality. The analysis concludes in arguing that citizens can act as a crucial countervailing power to limit the expansion of function creep. This however requires that governments are more open and accountable to allow for a transparent and verifiable comparison between the interests at stake.


J.E.J. Prins
Prof.mr. Corien Prins is hoogleraar aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Universiteit van Tilburg en Raadslid bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR). Deze bijdrage is voor een belangrijk deel ontleend aan het rapport iOverheid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (maart 2011, zie: www.wrr.nl), dat onder haar verantwoordelijkheid werd opgesteld.
Artikel

Hoe waarschijnlijk is function creep?

Een beleidswetenschappelijke analyse

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs M.S. de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article it is argued that function creep is a structural phenomenon which is inherent in policy development. The author discusses several policy development theories which might be useful in trying to explain the phenomenon that policy instruments tend to be applied in reaching purposes never intended at the time these instruments were developed.
    Kingdon's streams model, the classic phase-oriented approach (e.g. Hoogerwerf), Sabatier's advocacy coalition theory as well as Walker's diffusion theory give various explanations for the phenomenon of function creep. But crucial is that policy makers are always looking for new innovating policy instruments to achieve their objects. According to the author it is almost impossible to prevent function creep. To some degree the abuse of function creep can be prevented by institutionalising these processes and to submit them to democratic control, checks and balances, procedures and other guarantees. But this will never be enough to escape from the ‘voyeurist society’.


M.S. de Vries
Prof. dr. Michiel de Vries is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en als bijzonder hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Aruba. E-mail: m.devries@fm.ru.nl.

    Intervention teams are among the most discussed tools in the current process of securitisation. Their integrated approach takes into account all underlying causes of insecurity and quality of life. For a more effective approach authorities and organisations have to cooperate and let go of their mutual boundaries. But can the participants put aside their differences in perspectives and policies? This article discusses the goal of ‘ontkokering’ (‘decompartalisation’), this was done through a study of the practices of intervention team SIP in Amsterdam. On basis of thirteen interviews and observations the authors argue that there are three main mechanisms or ‘molar barriers’, which conserve the old structures in the integrated approach of the intervention team: ‘methodical robustness’, ‘institutional robustness’ and ‘financial robustness’.


M. Schuilenburg
Mr. Drs. Marc Schuilenburg is werkzaam bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen. Zie: www.marcschuilenburg.nl.

C. Dijkstra
Catharina Dijkstra MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Aantallen civiele rechtszaken in Nederland en elders

Een vergelijking in de tijd en in Europa

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2009
Auteurs E. Niemeijer en C.M. Klein Haarhuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic perceptions of litigation rates are dispersed: they vary from observations of a ‘litigation explosion’ to empirical accounts of ‘vanishing trials’. In this article the authors study whether civil trials are increasing or vanishing in the Netherlands. To find out, the authors studied trends in the number of civil cases in the Dutch courts. First, they observed developments in the filings as well as the dispositions of civil cases over the past 25 years, taking into account the trial-likeness of the procedures. Second, they put the Dutch figures - including other indicators of legal activity - in a European perspective. The findings show that the number of court cases in the Netherlands is on the rise. This does not automatically imply, however, that the Netherlands are a highly litigious society. ‘Light’ versions of trials are predominant, as is efficiency in the management of cases. Moreover, the number of lawyers and judges is rather small compared to other European countries.


E. Niemeijer
Prof. dr. mr. Bert Niemeijer is werkzaam bij de directie Algemene Justitiële Strategie van het ministerie van Justitie en is tevens als hoogleraar empirische rechtssociologie verbonden aan de Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam.

C.M. Klein Haarhuis
Dr. Carolien Klein Haarhuis is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.
Artikel

De opbouw van de rechtsstaat in Afghanistan

Een bezinning op tien jaar buitenlandse hulp

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2010
Auteurs V.L. Taylor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this essay the author looks back at ten years of rule of law foreign assistance in Afghanistan. She first surveys the elements that make Afghanistan particularly challenging as a development. This is followed by a brief outline of foreign donor-assisted efforts at rule of law reform in the last decade. The features of law and legal systems in Afghanistan that are salient for would-be foreign reformers are analyzed. The concept of judicial independence serves as example of well-intentioned rule of law interventions that have not fared well in this complex environment. The author argues that better prepared international advisors with a better grasp of legal history and comparative law may have produced stronger outcomes. Ultimately, however, a pre-post-conflict setting constrains conventional rule of law programs in important ways and calls for more realism about what can be achieved, within what time frame and with what degree of sustainability.


V.L. Taylor
Prof. Veronica Taylor is als hoogleraar en directeur verbonden aan de School of Regulation, Justice and Diplomacy van de Australian National University. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op de Van Vollenhoven Lezing die zij op 20 mei 2010 uitsprak ter gelegenheid van haar benoeming als The Hague Visiting Professor of Rule of Law aan de Universiteit Leiden.
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