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Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x Jaar 2013 x
Artikel

Als de nood aan de man komt

Slachtofferschap van mannen bij eergerelateerd geweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden honour-based violence, male victimisation, family pressure, homosexuality, adultery
Auteurs J. Janssen en R. Sanberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article sheds light on an aspect of honour-based violence (HBV) that is rarely addressed: male victimisation. HBV is usually regarded as violence inflicted on women by men. Police cases of male victimisation of HBV and scarce literature on this subject illustrate the ways in which men can become victims of violence. Men can be victimised in the same way that women are, for example when they commit adultery, are openly homosexual, or through conflicts about the choice of a partner. A specific and contested form of male victimisation occurs when their families pressure them to commit violence in order to restore family honour. Men are less likely than women to claim victim status and their victimisation of HBV is therefore possibly underreported. The authors do not argue to neglect female victims, but to expand hegemonic images of HBV and gender roles to include male victimisation. More insight into these matters is necessary to ensure the right support for each victim of HBV and to enable men and women to resolve these conflicts together.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nederlandse politie en tevens verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

R. Sanberg
Drs. Ruth Sanberg is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het LEC EGG.
Artikel

Wat heeft het allemaal om het lijf?

Over het belang van het begrip gender

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden gender, conceptual development, Foucault, transgender, delinquency
Auteurs M. Althoff en J. Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There are not only biological differences between men and women; there are also differences in social roles for men and women. In the 1970s the term ‘gender’ was introduced in order to make a distinction between the biological sex and the social roles ascribed to the sexes. But what does that term gender actually mean and what does it add to our understanding of social life in general and especially within the field of law enforcement? In the first part of the article a brief historical overview of the introduction of and debate on the gender concept is presented. The second part zooms in on the actual use of gender in (criminological) research on law enforcement.


M. Althoff
Dr. Martina Althoff is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Drugsdealers, gender en straatkapitaal

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden illegal drugs, drug dealing, gender, street capital, drugs economy
Auteurs H. Grundetjern en S. Sandberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Early studies of female drug dealers suggest that women are marginalized, passive victims. In contrast, more recent studies describe women as skilful and competent dealers. In a Bourdieu-inspired theoretical framework of ‘street capital’, the authors suggest that the truth is somewhere in between. Female dealers can be successful, but they face more obstacles than men do. The illegal hard drug economy is gendered and favours men. In this paper the authors discuss how female drug dealers develop particular strategies to prove they still belong in ‘the game’. Four such strategies are emphasized: desexualization, violent posture, emotional detachment and service-mindedness. These are common strategies for all drug dealers, but the gendered economy forces female dealers to be particularly careful about their business and self-presentation.


H. Grundetjern
Heidi Grundetjern, MSc is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.

S. Sandberg
Dr. Sveinung Sandberg is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.
Artikel

Herken de homo

Over het beoordelen van de geloofwaardigheid van seksuele gerichtheid in asielzaken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden asylum, homophobia, refugees, LHBT asylum seekers, refoulement
Auteurs S. Jansen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the way in which a stated lesbian, gay or bisexual orientation or (trans)gender identity can be assessed in asylum cases. Recently, the Dutch Council of State sought guidance from the European Court of Justice on this topic. Decisions in which an asylum claim is rejected, because the stated sexual orientation is not considered credible, are often based on stereotypes regarding LGBTs, as the ‘Fleeing homophobia’ research has shown. Illustrated by Dutch examples of stereotypical reasoning, the author elaborates on the pitfalls that should be avoided. She concludes that, as sexual orientation is an extremely personal characteristic, it is in fact not possible to assess someone else’s sexual orientation. Therefore asylum authorities should not try to develop their ‘gaydar’, but should rely on the self-identification of the asylum seeker instead.


S. Jansen
Mr. Sabine Jansen is werkzaam bij het COC in Amsterdam.
Artikel

Langdurig extramuraal toezicht op zedendelinquenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden community supervision, sex offenders, supervision legislation, electronic supervision, re-integration
Auteurs H.J.M. Schönberger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice intends to change legislation enabling long-term community supervision. Since it initially focused on sex offenders, the main focus of this article is on effectiveness of supervision programs and legislation for this group. Supervision programs that combine elements of control and treatment, guidance or social support are found to be the most effective in reducing reoffending. In addition, possible underlying mechanisms of effective supervision, such as social support, electronic supervision and treatment, are elaborated upon. Dutch initiatives are partially shaped by these elements, although up to this date their effects on reoffending have not yet been determined. The effects of legislation that enables supervision are more differentiated than expected, and their practical applicability is found to be crucial. In conclusion, aspects concerning (dynamic) risk assessment, balancing community and offender interests, and tailoring supervision to subgroups are discussed. Study results could be of use to further shape and refine upcoming legislation on long-term supervision.


H.J.M. Schönberger
Drs. Hanneke Schönberger was tot medio februari 2013 werkzaam bij het WODC als junior onderzoeker.
Artikel

Van stoornis naar neurocognitie in de behandeling van tbs-patiënten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden disordered offenders, neurocognition, DSM-V, risk taxation, Good Lives Model
Auteurs K. von Borries, E. Bulten en Th. Rinne
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Psychology, psychiatry, criminology and sociology provide scientific knowledge for the forensic psychiatry about disorders, the behaviour of offenders, offenses and the influence of the environment. In recent decades the What Works principles (risk, need, responsivity) became theoretical cornerstones of forensic psychiatry. However, additional theories have gained popularity: models addressing protective factors and the well-being of the delinquent. As in general psychiatry neurobiological research about the relationship between the brain and behaviour is influencing forensic psychiatry more and more. The translation of these results into regular assessment and treatment seems a matter of time. The development of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is an attempt to bridge the gap between this basic neurobiological-neurocognitive research and forensic psychiatric practice. This article describes the influence of the neurocognitive, neuropsychological knowledge in general and in particular the construction of this battery and its usefulness in daily practice. Whether this development is the beginning of a fundamental paradigm shift or an addition to the current approach, remains to be seen.


K. von Borries
Drs. Katinka von Borries is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

E. Bulten
Dr. Erik Bulten is verbonden aan de Pompestichting in Nijmegen.

Th. Rinne
Dr. Thomas Rinne is werkzaam bij het Pieter Baan Centrum van het Nederlands Instituut voor Forensische Psychiatrie in Utrecht.
Artikel

Zeven jaar na de Commissie Visser: een nieuw evenwicht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden TBS order, mentally disordered offenders, Parliamentary Inquiry Commission, leave permit, forensic care institutions
Auteurs M.J.F. van der Wolf en L. Noyon
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1988 the Dutch entrustment order for dangerous mentally disordered offenders (TBS) is organised around three basic principles: treatment, legal protection and social security. In 2006 the Parliamentary Inquiry Commission ‘Visser’ reviewed the TBS order and made seventeen recommendations. This article seeks to investigate to what extent the implementation of these recommendations contributed to developments like the increasing restraints on leave permits and a lengthened average stay. Since 2006 there has been a strong emphasis on security. For a balanced execution of the TBS order more attention is needed for treatment and legal protection.


M.J.F. van der Wolf
Mr. dr. Michiel van der Wolf is als universitair docent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

L. Noyon
Lucas Noyon is als onderzoeksassistent verbonden aan de afdeling strafrecht van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Verkorten van de tbs-verblijfsduur: een weg uit de crisis?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care budget cuts, TBS order, treatment time, risk society, risk analysis
Auteurs M.H. Nagtegaal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The economic crisis in the Netherlands forces the Ministry of Security and Justice to cut expenses. In the forensic psychiatric sector, the main savings are expected from reducing the length of stay of forensic psychiatric patients (TBS-patients) in high security hospitals. Currently, over 70% of all TBS-patients do not reach the now set goal of successfully terminating their treatment program within eight years. The present article questions whether it is plausible that this goal will be reached. Research has shown that there are several possible measures that can be undertaken to reduce the length of stay. Examples of these are identifying subgroups of patients who take particularly long to complete their treatment and setting up interventions for those patients, reducing the focus on risks in society and in forensic practice, and the inclusion of protective factors in risk assessment. These factors may help in finding a way out of the crisis.


M.H. Nagtegaal
Dr. Marleen Nagtegaal is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    Policies within forensic psychiatry can be characterized by the on-going search for balance between the interests of stakeholders. These interests vary in a lot of cases. The interest of society, the patient and the professional differs within a complex framework of political, ethical and juridical guidelines and scientific evidence. These differences are illustrated from a management’s point of view by describing the treatment issues in regard to forensic psychiatric inpatients with substance abuse disorders. Treatment policies on drug use during treatment balance between treatment guidelines and restrictive measures. These restrictions have to be adjusted to the necessary treatment programmes for developing new pro social lifestyles. The treatment policy on relapse and leave should balance between patient needs and the needs of society. The result of this interesting but also challenging and complex quest depends on the sensitivity of stakeholders for the interests of the others.


E. Bulten
Dr. Erik Bulten is als hoofd Diagnostiek, onderzoek en opleiding verbonden aan de FPC Pompestichting te Nijmegen.

J. Groeneweg
Ir. Joke Groeneweg is algemeen directeur van de FPC Pompestichting te Nijmegen.
Artikel

Forensische zorg anno 2013 en de plek van de tbs daarbinnen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden forensic care system, TBS order, forensic care budget, treatment capacity, extramural forensic care
Auteurs A.A. van Gemmert en N.H. Tenneij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The organization and execution of forensic care in the Netherlands has changed considerably over the last six years. In this paper the authors define forensic care as all mental health care for adults under the criminal law, including care for the intellectual disabled, and addiction care. Before 2007 the Ministry of Security and Justice sole responsibility was the financing and execution of the measure detention under a hospital order (the so-called TBS-measure). All other forms of forensic care were then provided under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. Nowadays, the Ministry of Security and Justice is responsible for all forensic care. The main reasons for this change were the increase observed in the number of patients detained under a hospital order and an increase in the length of stay necessary for the successful completion of the treatment, which resulted in an overload of the TBS-system, an observed lack of care possibilities for the detained, and a lack of transition between forensic and regular care.


A.A. van Gemmert
Nol van Gemmert is verbonden aan de afdeling Informatieanalyse en Documentatie van de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

N.H. Tenneij
Dr. Nienke Tenneij is als beleidsadviseur werkzaam bij de Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen (DJI) van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Auteurs Andrea Donker en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Andrea Donker
Dr. Andrea Donker is lector Regie van Veiligheid van het Kenniscentrum Sociale Innovatie bij de Hogeschool Utrecht en redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

De politiefunctionaris en het risico op PTSS

Een terechte zorg of medicalisering van een beroepsgroep?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden police officers, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), psychosocial problems, medicalization
Auteurs M.J.J. Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Several policy measures have recently been undertaken to enhance resilience in Dutch police officers. The author of this article argues that these initiatives rely on false beliefs about the stressful nature of police work. Police officers are often exposed to traumatic or otherwise stressful events, but this does not necessarily render them at an increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other (trauma-related) psychosocial problems. After a discussion of empirical studies which support his view, he speculates that these false beliefs are grounded in the Western tendency to qualify stressful events as (potentially) traumatic. This tendency to medicalize stressful events is reflected both in the history of the diagnostic criteria for PTSD in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the empirical literature. The author concludes with pointing out a potential negative by-effect of this medicalization tendency: simulating PTSD (symptoms) for external motives, such as financial gain.


M.J.J. Kunst
Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Frontlijnwerken in de grote stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden frontline social work, Rotterdam, crisis situations, tailor-made approach, protection of the less-privileged
Auteurs B. Rombout
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article focuses on the activities and working methods of the Rotterdam social aid agency Bureau Frontlijn. It is based on the personal views and experiences of the author, Bureau Frontlijn director Barend Rombout, a former policeman who switched to social work in the disadvantaged districts more than ten years ago. The teaching of skills, coaching and training are key concepts in the work of Bureau Frontlijn. Many people suffering from a crisis because of unemployment, divorce, homelessness or early pregnancy are not adequately helped by state institutions, but instead get entangled in all kinds of bureaucratic procedures. What is needed in social aid is a more comprehensive and tailor-made approach. Even though individual responsibility is important, society has a moral obligation to protect the less privileged, because many of them have been in a disadvantaged situation since their birth or even earlier.


B. Rombout
Barend Rombout is hoofd van Bureau Frontlijn in Rotterdam.
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