Zoekresultaat: 174 artikelen

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Artikel

‘Boeven vangen’

Het spel tussen politieagenten en de Ander

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden ethnic profiling, policing, othering, proactive stop
Auteurs dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool en dr. Wouter Landman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on ethnographic research over recent years in eight Dutch police teams. It focuses on the othering process in which police officers define ‘crooks’ as the Other and chase, catch and arrest them. Catching crooks is perceived as an assignment as well as a game. Street cops construct detailed subcategories of the crook which influence their daily practices. They select crooks by recognition (the permanent suspects), by abnormalization (out of placeness) and by profiling (regardless of place). In addition to the discussion on ethnic profiling, we argue that profiling is a contextual practice. The contents of the profiles depend on the demographic characteristics of the district in which a police team operates. Interacting mediaframes of both the crook and the police reinforce the mutual caricatures and tense relationships.


dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool
Dr. Lianne Kleijer-Kool is cultureel antropoloog en criminoloog en werkzaam als onderzoeker/docent bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

dr. Wouter Landman
Dr. Wouter Landman is bestuurskundige en werkzaam als onderzoeker/adviseur bij Twynstra Gudde.

    In this paper, an attempt is made to work out a methodology for comparative legal research, which goes beyond the ‘functional method’ or methodological scepticism.
    The starting point is the idea that we need a ‘toolbox’, not a fixed methodological road map, and that a lot of published, but largely unnoticed, research outside rule and case oriented comparative law offers varying approaches, which could usefully be applied in comparative research. Six methods have been identified: the functional method, the structural one, the analytical one, the law-in-context method, the historical method, and the common core method. Basically, it is the aim of the research and the research question that will determine which methods could be useful. Moreover, different methods may be combined, as they are complementary and not mutually exclusive.This paper focuses on scholarly comparative legal research, not on the use of foreign law by legislators or courts, but, of course, the methodological questions and answers will largely overlap.


Mark Van Hoecke
Professor of Comparative Law at Queen Mary University of London, and Professor of Legal Theory and Comparative Law at Ghent University
Artikel

Afgeschermd wonen in Nederland: een studie naar waarom mensen hiervoor kiezen en hoe zij omgaan met interne regelgeving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 0304 2015
Trefwoorden Gated communities, afgeschermde woondomeinen, Vondelparc, Haverleij
Auteurs Marc Schuilenburg en Ronald Van Steden
Samenvatting

    Protected living in some sort of gated community is popular. However Dutch protected living differs from, for instance, the living in American gated communities, the development tends to social discussions whether it is undesirable or not. Safety seems in the Netherlands not the first reason for protected living. Here, domestic and aesthetic reasons are much more important.


Marc Schuilenburg

Ronald Van Steden
Artikel

Access_open Religion Ain’t Sacrosanct

How to Fight Obsolete Accounts of Religious Freedom

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Hobby Lobby, Hosanna-Tabor, tolerance-leaning liberalism, equality-leaning liberalism
Auteurs Roland Pierik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper is largely an endorsement and a further elaboration of Cohen’s critical discussion of the Hobby Lobby and Hosanna-Tabor cases and the conceptual overstretch of religious freedom they embody. I disagree with Cohen, however, on the proper interpretation of this debate. Cohen construes the ominous Court cases as an anti-liberal attack on the liberal state order. My main thesis is that the root of this dispute can be traced back to a fault line within liberalism between a more tolerance-leaning and a more equality-leaning tradition. I argue that the ominous cases are instances of the tolerance-leaning tradition in liberalism, which once was characteristic of the liberal tradition. Still, I agree with Cohen that this tradition should be rejected because it reverts to an obsolete interpretation of religious freedom that defends unwarranted privileges for certain groups that are out of sync with the egalitarian underpinnings of contemporary liberal political orders.


Roland Pierik
Roland Pierik is Associate Professor of Legal Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam Law School.
Artikel

Vervolg je reis en struikel niet: antropologie van dood en taboe

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Death, denial, taboo, anthropology, Suriname
Auteurs dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the relation between death, the fear and denial of it, and the appeal of mortuary rites attempting to transcend senses of mortality. It aims to show how our Own death, as a shamefull and solitary characteristic of modernity, has become a taboo and how it simultaneously continues to spur our imagination of the way Others die. Building on research in Suriname, it argues that both colonial compulsion and anthropological gazing have contributed to distorted and ambiguious attitudes toward death cross-culturally. As such, the article seeks to advance discussions on death and taboo as a perpetuum mobile of dread and everlasting enchantment.


dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl
Dr. ir. Yvon van der Pijl is werkzaam bij de afdeling culturele antropologie, Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De seksuele tiener en de sociale orde

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden youth, sex, transgression, criminal law
Auteurs Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A taboo serves the social order for it facilitates social control. This article will focus on taboos related to sexual contact by youngsters. The way authorities guard sexual taboos is indicative of the way authorities envision the organization of society. It is this organization through the control of youth and sex which will receive attention. In the classic study by Mary Douglas on pollution and taboo dirt is understood as ‘matter out of place’. The sexual teenager is an illustration of this ‘matter out of place’ because it is difficult to categorize sexual teenagers on the basis of asexual children and sexual adults as an organizing principle for society. In criminal law lewd conduct by youngsters refers to wrong sex at the wrong age. By criminalizing these sexual transgressions the proper place of youth and sex is once again restored. This is necessary for it will be argued that the interests of society are somewhat under pressure because of transgressions when it comes to children as asexual and when it comes to sex as something for within a relationship. The perpetrator of lewd conduct should be understood as a scapegoat reestablishing when and how sex should take place. By restoring the asexual child and the sexual relationship it is hoped sex and youngsters can once again offer some guidance in a social order lacking these clear markers.


Mr. drs. Juul Gooren
Mr. drs. Juul Gooren is docent voor Safety & Security Management Studies aan De Haagse Hogeschool.

Roel Pieterman
Roel Pieterman is als rechtssocioloog verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law. Hij houdt zich bezig met onderzoek naar de maatschappelijke omgang met risico’s en potentiële dreigingen. Daarover publiceerde hij recent De voorzorgcultuur (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2008), een themanummer van de Erasmus Law Review over ‘The many facets of precautionary culture’ (2009) en samen met Ira Helsloot en Jaap Hanekamp Risico’s en redelijkheid (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2010).

Maaike Voorhoeve
Maaike Voorhoeve (Amsterdam, 1979) is Humboldt Fellow aan het Forum Transregionale Studien van het Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin en de Philipps Universität Marburg. Ze schreef een proefschrift over de rechtspraktijk van twee vrouwelijke familierechters aan de rechtbank in Tunis (UvA, 2011, gepubliceerd door I.B. Tauris als Gender and Divorce Law in North Africa). Zij voltooide post-docposities aan Harvard University, het Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin en de Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Parijs. Voorhoeves onderzoek concentreert zich op de rechtsantropologische studie van hedendaags Tunesië.
Artikel

Van secularisering naar securitisering

Een beschouwing over de relatie tussen religie, criminaliteit en veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden religion and crime, secularization, radicalization, surveillance
Auteurs Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Western world seems to be a secular one. Although secularization has long roots, from the sixties onwards the role of religion in public life has diminished. How did that affect the crime and security issue? Criminological literature learns that there is a two-sided relationship: (1) in a religious context there is an inhibiting effect of being religious; and (2) religion can also legitimize or neutralize criminal or violent behavior – for example in the case of Islam-related terrorist acts. Secularization did indeed contribute to the rise of crime; in nowadays secular context religion can – the other way around – legitimize criminal behavior. The author argues that secularization also has facilitated the growth of the security issue as such. Fear of crime was the driving force behind a process in which secularization resulted in securitization of Western society.


Prof. dr. Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. Boutellier is wetenschappelijk directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en bijzonder hoogleraar Veiligheid en Burgerschap aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen en Politicologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Kelsen, Secular Religion, and the Problem of Transcendence

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Kelsen, secular religion, Voegelin, Schmitt, transcendence
Auteurs professor Bert van Roermund
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An alleged ‘return to religion’ in contemporary western politics (and science) prompted the Trustees of the Hans Kelsen Institut to posthumously publish Kelsen’s critique of the concept of ‘secular religion’ advanced by his early student Eric Voegelin. This paper identifies, firstly, what concept of transcendence is targeted by Kelsen, and argues that his analysis leaves scope for other conceptions. It does so in two steps: it summarizes the arguments against ‘secular religion’ (section 2) and it gives an account of the differences between Voegelin’s and Schmitt’s conception of transcendence – both under attack from Kelsen (section 3). It then submits an alternative account of the relationship between politics and religion in Modernity, building on the concept of a ‘civil religion’ as found in Rousseau’s Social Contract. Giving a Rousseauist slant to Claude Lefort’s analysis of political theology (section 4) it concludes that a thin concept of transcendence is part and parcel of every, in particular a democratic, account of politics. It should be a stronghold against any resurgence of religion that feeds on hypostatized transcendence. In closing (section 5), it is argued that two key concepts in Kelsen’s legal philosophy may well be understood as paradigms of thin transcendence, namely ‘the people’ and ‘the Grundnorm’.


professor Bert van Roermund
Bert van Roermund is professor (em.) of philosophy at Tilburg Law School and international correspondent of the Hans Kelsen Institute in Vienna.
Artikel

Waarom is er zo weinig wetgevingsonderwijs in de universitaire rechtenopleiding?

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden academische rechtenopleiding, wetgevingsonderwijs, socialiseringsproces, rechtswetenschap, judocentrisme, jurist, rechtsvorming, civiel effect
Auteurs W.J.M. Voermans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage wordt de vraag gesteld waarom er zo weinig wetgevingsonderwijs terug te vinden is in de academische opleidingen rechtsgeleerdheid, en dat terwijl wetgeving toch de voornaamste bron van rechtsvorming is. Dat is waarschijnlijk te wijten aan een combinatie van cultuurelementen in de juridische curricula, die juristen opleiden – socialiseren – in redeneer- en argumentatievaardigheden en het rolmodel van de rechtsvindende rechter centraal stellen. Nu de aard van het juridische werk en de rechtswetenschap van karakter veranderen, is er alle aanleiding de juridische academische opleidingen nader te doordenken. Wie die wil herzien, dient zich wel goed rekenschap te geven van de culturele aspecten van de rechtenopleiding.


W.J.M. Voermans
Prof. dr. W.J.M. Voermans is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.
Artikel

Positieve veiligheid: een kwestie van vertrouwen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden positive security, trust, agency, public familiarity, social engineering
Auteurs Fenna van Marle
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The concept of security is mainly used in a negative way as it is related to the prevention and repression of matters which are perceived as not secure or not safe. This article provides a definition of positive security in order to provide a starting point for research and for working on positive security in the field. The influence of the belief in the idea of social engineering on the negative view of security is discussed and the way in which this is a hindrance to security. The meaning of the concept of security is outlined by focusing on the origin of this concept, the difference between objective and subjective security and by distinguishing it from the absence of crime. Research on public familiarity is covered which is argued to be an important concept in relation to positive security as it shows the importance of trust and predictability. The statement that trust is crucial to security is further supported by examining this relationship from a psychological perspective. In addition agency is introduced as the second factor, next to trust, as conditions for creating positive security. Finally, the focus is on the practical utility of the operationalisation of positive security for further research on the way positive security is shaped in practice.


Fenna van Marle
Fenna van Marle is Hogeschooldocent Integrale Veiligheidskunde aan de De Haagse Hogeschool.
Artikel

Durven we de vrijheid nog wel aan?

De bijdrage van een religieus mensbeeld aan het strafrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden secular state, civil society, harm principle, responsibility, moral weakness, forgiveness, image of God
Auteurs T.W.A. de Wit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The modern secular democratic state rests on a new portrayal of man and a new status of religions and other comprehensive doctrines compared to the period before the sixteenth and seventeenth century. In this new view of man, as incarnated in the modern rule of law, other persons and communities are no longer seen as a condition for personal aspirations and development, but rather as a limit. This is expressed in the ‘harm principle’ of the French Revolution and John Stuart Mill. Freedom is at the center of this new constellation, so the homogeneity of the state must be generated from below, by a free civil society and also by religious organizations and traditions. Three problematic developments since the nineteenth century make the Christian view of man as free, responsible and undefinable ‘image of God’ relevant: the zoological, ‘scientific’ description of man that reduces man to a risk factor and an object of security management; the disappearance of ‘innocent’ disasters and calamities that increases human responsibility and the temptation to blame ‘others’ for our faults; and the growing gap between a legal and a moral public response to criminal acts that opens the need for forgiveness.


T.W.A. de Wit
Prof. dr. Theo de Wit is als universitair docent sociale en politieke filosofie en bijzonder hoogleraar vraagstukken geestelijke verzorging in justitiële inrichtingen verbonden aan de Faculteit Katholieke Theologie van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Bescherm het slachtoffer, begin bij de verdachte

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden victimhood, Christ, art history, Enlightenment, secularization
Auteurs W.J. Veraart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the notion of ‘victim’ primarily refers to the position of the person who, in the course of a (sacred, religious, legal, etc.) procedure, is ritually sacrificed to avert the wrath of the gods or to preserve peace in the community. In early modernity the Latin victima (sacrificial animal) was also used as a reference to Jesus Christ. Christ was seen as the Lamb of God, the innocent sacrificial lamb which, after an unfair trial, was crucified and died for the sins of the world. In the eighteenth century, under influence of the Enlightenment, the victim concept has been secularized and come to refer to every casualty of bad luck, crime, or disaster. Art history, however, offers interesting examples of pictures of mythical figures such as Sisyphus and Prometheus, representing early images of secularized victimhood in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the present day, the concept of victimhood is often used to define the position of the injured party in criminal proceedings. In this frame, the injured victim, looking for legal recognition, is juxtaposed against the position of the accused who is characterized as the possible culprit. However, reflection on the history of the victim concept reveals that it primarily refers to the position of the wrongly or falsely accused or condemned in the course of legal (or pseudolegal) proceedings. A state governed by the rule of law (‘rechtsstaat’) can be defined as a legal form of society which does its utmost to avoid the justice system producing its own victims. In this approach, a victim-oriented criminal justice system is fully aware of the need to protect precisely those who are threatened by the power of the state and public opinion because they are in the dock.


W.J. Veraart
Prof. mr. Wouter Veraart is hoogleraar Encyclopedie der Rechtswetenschap en Rechtsfilosofie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Over mens- en wereldbeelden en hun bijbehorende misdaadrecht

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2015
Trefwoorden worldview, view of man, (pre-/trans-)modernity, science and religion, restorative justice
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal law is embedded in a specific view of man and the world. This thesis implies that a change of the view of man and the world leads necessarily to a change of criminal law. Since our view of man and the world is constantly changing, the same applies for our law governing wrongful conduct. In this article is described how our view of man and the world has changed through the ages (during pre-modernity and modernity) and what changes have occurred under the influence thereof. Given the limited size of this article, a macro-perspective is utilized. At the end of the article, the author advocates a new (trans-modern) view of man and the world and a new corresponding law governing wrongful conduct.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Daarnaast is hij rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg en redacteur van de Nieuwsbrief Strafrecht en het Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht.
Artikel

Hoe Europa zijn zigeuners uitvond

Over een schaduwzijde van de moderniteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2014
Trefwoorden European culture, history of gypsies, modernity, images of gypsies, European literature
Auteurs Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Europe is commonly depicted as the cradle of modernity. But this image usually has a blind eye for marginal communities and cultures existing seemingly apart of the big developments. An example of this is the neglect of the Roma people who settled here early, on the threshold of the Middle Ages and the modern era. The attitude of the European people towards this mobile ethnic group can be described as moving between contempt and fascination. Referring to images of gypsies in literature and other cultural expressions the author shows how during the Romantic era the gypsies were serving as a projection object for desires and fantasies about socially deviant lifestyles. The subsequent process of ‘de-Europeanization’ together with the creation of exotic images through ethnology is described as well as the racial theories and their political consequences for the Roma people in the twentieth century. Instead of contributing to the creation of borderlines and fuelling destruction fantasies, art and sciences should give more attention to the undividedness of humankind and to human dignity.


Prof. dr. K.M. Bogdal
Prof. dr. Klaus-Michael Bogdal is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Germanistische literatuurwetenschap van de Universiteit Bielefeld. Zijn boek Europa erfindet die Zigeuner. Eine Geschichte von Faszination und Verachtung (Bogdal 2011) werd in 2013 bekroond met de Leipziger Buchpreis für Europäische Verständigung.
Artikel

De achterkant van Vrijheid, Gelijkheid, Broederschap

Nederland en zijn slavernijverleden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden slavery, Dutch history, abolishment, Christianity, enlightenment
Auteurs prof. dr. Alex van Stipriaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question of this contribution is whether slavery was considered in the Netherlands at the time as something normal, an argument which is often heard in debates about this phenomenon today. This paper shows that during the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, slavery was indeed something that happened far away from home, however, all the time voices could be heard in this country opposing at least the cruelties of the slave system, or even the basic incompatability of slavery and christianity. It even turned out to be a public problem with the hundreds of enslaved people who came over time with their owners from Suriname or the Dutch Antilles to this country, and after a while became free citizens, because in the Netherlands itself slavery was not allowed.
    During the second part of the eighteenth century in literary and political Dutch circles the individual voices against (the cruelties of) slavery turned more or less into a choir. These opponents of the system were obviously influenced by and often fervent supporters of the Enlightenment and its ideals for mankind of freedom, equality and brotherhood. Eventually, however, in 1797 the revolutionary Dutch National Assembly in its first constitution voted against an article meant to abolish slave trade and slavery in the near future. It took more than two generations to finally settle this question in 1863.


prof. dr. Alex van Stipriaan
prof. dr. A.A. (Alex) van Stipriaan is hoogleraar Caraïbische geschiedenis aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Bestuurlijke transities in de rooms-katholieke kerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden rooms-katholieke kerk, bestuursstructuur, vereniging/netwerk, digitalisering, universele kerk – bisdom – parochie
Auteurs Prof. dr. Henk Witte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Roman Catholic Church experiences a transition from the highly centralized Church formation of Ultramontane Mass Catholicism into a more decentralized and pluralistic Choice Catholicism. With respect to governance, this transition concerns the increasing importance of the diocesan intermediate level in the Church on the one hand, and a transition from a union-oriented organization model into a network-oriented model on the other. The network model is catalyzed by the digitalization of daily life and its polycentrism. This contribution discusses these developments in a systematic way with the help of sociological and theological insights. By way of conclusion it summarizes some challenges from a policy and governmental point of view. They concern the ecclesial leadership style, membership and participation, catholicity, online community building, and self-presentation in the social media.


Prof. dr. Henk Witte
Prof. dr. H. Witte is bijzonder hoogleraar Xaverius-leerstoel voor spiritualiteit en theologie vanuit ignatiaans perspectief en emeritus universitair hoofddocent Dogmatiek aan de Tilburg School of Catholic Theology, Tilburg University.
Artikel

From graffiti to pixação

Urban protest in Brazil

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Brazilian graffiti, pichação, pixação, criminalization, resistance
Auteurs Paula Gil Larruscahim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper explores the hypothesis that the process of rupture in Brazilian graffiti writer’s subculture resulting in different groups - pichadores, pixadores and grafiteiros - took place in two different, though complementary, stages. The first stage is the commodification of graffiti by successive media campaigns and its penal control by the state. The second stage - which may be considered as a side effect of the first one - consists of the emergence of a new transgressive pixação movement. Instead of merely writing or tagging their signatures and messages on the walls of the city, they claim the freedom of usage of the urban space and contest the importance that property has in the late modernity context.


Paula Gil Larruscahim
Paula Gil Larruscahim is promovenda binnen het Erasmus Mundus Doctoral Programme on Cultural and Global Criminology aan de Universiteit Utrecht en de University of Kent: www.dcgc.eu.
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