Zoekresultaat: 112 artikelen

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Artikel

Access_open On Presuming Innocence

Is Duff’s Civic Trust Principle in Line with Current Law, Particularly the European Convention on Human Rights?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden Presumption of innocence, Art. 6(2) ECHR, Duff’s civic trust
Auteurs Geert Knigge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Duff sets out to present, not theoretical concepts, but ‘real’ principles that underlie positive law. This paper examines whether Duff’s analysis really reflects current law. To that end, this paper analyses the case law of the European Court on Human Rights. As far as his preposition that there are many presumptions of innocence is concerned, Duff seems to be right. In the case law of the European Court different presumptions can be discerned, with different rationales. However, these presumptions are a far cry from the trust principle Duff advocates. Indeed, a principle that prescribes trust cannot be found in the Court’s case law. There might be a unifying principle but if so this principle is about respect for human dignity rather than trust. This analysis serves as a basis for criticism. It is argued that the approach Duff proposes is in tension with the Court’s case law in several respects.


Geert Knigge
Geert Knigge is Advocate General of the Supreme Court of the Netherlands and Professor of Criminal Law at the University of Groningen.
Jurisprudentie

Of Crosses and Homophobia

The European Court of Human Rights on which Manifestations of Religion One May Bring to Work

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden freedom of religion, Christian cross, Eweida, equality, same-sex partnerships, European Court of Human Rights
Auteurs J.D. Temperman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    To what extent must employers accommodate manifestations of religion within the workspace and what should be the role of the state in that respect? In the joint case of Eweida and others the European Court of Human Rights discusses this question from four different angles as urged on by four different complaints. Two complaints concern the banning of Christian crosses, either for reasons of protecting the corporate image of a private company, or for reasons of health and safety within a care institution. The remaining complaints concern employers that, through their equal rights policies, notably equality on grounds of sexual orientation, may effectively force employees to act contrary to the religious dictates of their conscience.


J.D. Temperman
Mr. dr. J.D. Temperman is assistant professor of public international law and EUR-Fellow, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

    In this paper, I will firstly illustrate the broader context of the contractualisation of family law by drawing upon the oscillations in family regulation between private and public regulators, in the light of the so-called family law exceptionalism. I consider the contractualisation of family law to be the ordering of the family by families and individuals through the use of legally binding private instruments. I will elaborate upon the substantive and jurisdictional contractualisation of family law in Sections 2 and 3 of this paper respectively. The deliberately 'impressionist' presentation of Section 1-3 leads onto the conclusion which proposes that States benevolently tolerate substantive contractualisation through a lower standard of judicial review, and that, whilst they actively stimulate jurisdictional contractualisation of the content of family relations, the formation and dissolution of family relations still appear to fall within the State's exclusive domain (Section 4).
    ---
    In deze bijdrage situeer ik eerst de 21ste eeuwse contractualisering van het familierecht in de historische pendelbeweging tussen publieke en private regulering van familieleven. Die leidde in de 19de en 20ste eeuw tot de aanneming van een bijzondere, niet-contractuele, aard van het familierecht (sectie 1). Ik beschouw als contractualisering van het familierecht: de regulering van familieleven door de familie en door individuen, door middel van juridisch bindende privaatrechtelijke instrumenten. Ik zal ingaan op de inhoudelijke en jurisdictionele contractualisering van het familierecht in respectievelijk de secties 2 en 3 van deze bijdrage. De bewust 'impressionistische' uiteenzetting in secties 1-3 leidt naar de conclusie dat Staten enerzijds een welwillende houding aannemen ten opzichte van inhoudelijke contractualisering, doordat een lagere norm van rechterlijke toetsing wordt gehanteerd. Anderzijds stimuleren zij actief de jurisdictionele contractualisering van de inhoud van familierelaties. Het aangaan en de beëindiging van familierelaties blijven daarentegen het exclusieve domein van de Staat (sectie 4).


Prof. dr. Frederik Swennen
Frederik Swennen is a senior lecturer at the University of Antwerp and an attorney at the Brussels Bar.
Artikel

Access_open Private law and ethical life

Honneth on legal freedom and its pathologies

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Honneth, Hegel, social freedom, legal freedom, law, pathologies
Auteurs Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Das Recht der Freiheit Axel Honneth develops his concept of social freedom. In this article I discuss Honneth’s project and critique one of its crucial aspects: Honneth’s views on the disruptive role of legal freedom in our society and its dependent relation to the sphere of social freedom. I argue that in his attempt in Das Recht der Freiheit to reactualize Hegel’s discourse on the realization of freedom for our time, Honneth risks mistranslating Hegel’s discourse of ‘right’ by denying the sphere of legal relations a constitutive role for true freedom, and that because of this Honneth’s own theory of social freedom suffers: it becomes less clear whether it can still offer helpful insights into the proper place of legal freedom in our society.


Jan Ph. Broekhuizen
Jan Broekhuizen is an attorney (advocaat) in Amsterdam and a deputy judge at the Court of Appeals in Den Bosch (the Netherlands). He holds degrees in both law and philosophy.

Lucas Lixinski
Lecturer, University of New South Wales (Sydney, Australia); PhD in Law, European University Institute (Florence, Italy).
Artikel

Access_open The Value of Narratives

The India-USA Nuclear Deal in Terms of Fragmentation, Pluralism, Constitutionalisation and Global Administrative Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden India-US Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Energy Cooperation, Non-Proliferation Treaty, Fragmentation, Constitutionalisation, Pluralism, Global Administrative Law
Auteurs Surabhi Ranganathan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    ‘Fragmentation’, ‘pluralism’, ‘constitutionalisation’ and ‘global administrative law’ are among the most dominant narratives of international legal order at present. Each narrative makes a descriptive claim about the current state of the international legal order, and outlines a normative vision for this order. Yet we must not lose sight of the conflicts between, and the contingency of these, and other narratives. This article seeks to recover both conflicts and contingency by showing how each may be used to explain a given event: the inauguration of a bilateral civil nuclear cooperation between the United State and India, better known as the ‘India-US nuclear deal’. I explain how the four narratives may be, and were, co-opted at different times to justify or critique the ‘deal’. This exercise serve two purposes: the application of four narratives reveal the various facets of the deal, and by its example the deal illuminates the stakes attached to each of the four narratives. In a final section, I reflect on why these four narratives enjoy their influential status in international legal scholarship.


Surabhi Ranganathan
Junior Research Fellow, King’s College/Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge.
Artikel

Access_open Revisiting the Humanisation of International Law: Limits and Potential

Obligations Erga Omnes, Hierarchy of Rules and the Principle of Due Diligence as the Basis for Further Humanisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden humanisation, constitutionalism, legal positivism, human rights, erga omnes, due diligence, positive obligations, normative hierarchy, proportionality
Auteurs Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article critically evaluates the theory of the humanisation of international law. First, it argues that despite human rights having impact on (other areas of) international law, this trend has in the past been somewhat inflated. A number of examples are given where human rights have been tested against other objectives pursued by international law, with humanisation revealing its limits and actual dimensions. The second argument consists in identifying and highlighting obligations erga omnes (partes) and the principle of due diligence as two ‘systemic’ tools, that are central to the humanisation of international law. Both these tools form part of modern positive law, but may also make a positive contribution towards the direction of deeper humanisation in international law, having the potential, inter alia, to limit state will, establish occasional material normative hierarchy consisting in conditional priority in the fulfilment of human rights, give a communitarian tone to international law and invite states to be pro-active in the collective protection of their common interests and values. In its conclusions, the article offers a plausible explanation about the paradox it identifies of the limits of the humanisation on the one hand, and its potential for further development on the other. For, it is inherent in international law that the line separating the law from deontology is thin. The process of humanisation needs to be balanced with the other objectives of international law as well as reconciled with the decentralised and sovereignist origins of the pluralistic international legal system.


Dr. Vassilis P. Tzevelekos
Lecturer in Public International Law, University of Hull Law School; Attorney, Athens’ Bar. PhD and M.Res, European University Institute; MA, European Political and Administrative Studies, College of Europe; DEA Droit international public et organisations internationales, Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne; LLB, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.
Artikel

Het ex-Monti II-voorstel: ‘Paard van Troje’ of zege voor sociale grondrechten?

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden grondrechten, vrij verkeer, stakingsrecht, proportionaliteitstoets, sociaal beleid, Monti II
Auteurs Mr. dr. S.A. de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Nu de poging van de EU-wetgever om met het zogenoemde Monti II-voorstel economische en sociale rechten te verzoenen voorlopig gestrand lijkt, wordt het juridisch kader voor de uitoefening van het recht op collectieve actie in grensoverschrijdende situaties in de EU nog steeds bepaald door de jurisprudentie van het Hof van Justitie, in het bijzonder door de Viking-, Laval- en Rüffert-zaken.
    Centraal in deze bijdrage staat de vraag: in hoeverre was de Monti II-verordening in staat om een bijdrage te leveren aan een beter evenwicht tussen sociale grondrechten en economische Verdragsvrijheden? En wat zijn, nu het voorstel is ingetrokken, mede in het licht van het Verdrag van Lissabon, alternatieven om tot een meer harmonische relatie tussen de botsende sociale en economische rechten te komen?
    Voorstel voor een verordening van de Raad betreffende de uitoefening van het recht om collectieve actie te voeren in de context van de vrijheid van vestiging en de vrijheid van dienstverrichting van 21 maart 2012, COM(2012) 130.


Mr. dr. S.A. de Vries
Mr. dr. S.A. de Vries is universitair hoofddocent Europees recht en Jean Monnet-leerstoelhouder EU-internemarktrecht en grondrechten.
Discussie

Access_open ‘Nothing Spells Freedom Like a Hooters Meal’

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden Enlightenment universalism, self-governance, freedom, moral point of view, political participation
Auteurs Ronald Tinnevelt
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Winter’s criticism of the conventional account of freedom and democracy is best understood against the background of the history of Enlightenment critique. Winter claims that our current misunderstanding of freedom and self-governance is the result of the strict dichotomy between subject and object. This paper critically reconstructs Winter’s notion of freedom and self-governance which does not adequately address (a) the details of his anti-collectivist claim, and (b) the necessary conditions for the possibility of a moral point of view. This makes it difficult to determine how Winter can distinguish between freedom and lack of freedom, and to assess the limited or radical nature of his critique of Enlightenment universalism.


Ronald Tinnevelt
Ronald Tinnevelt is Associate Professor Philosophy of Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen.
Artikel

De bestrijding van etnische discriminatie: van speerpunt tot non-issue?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden discrimination, ethnicity, antidiscrimination policy in the Netherlands, human rights, right-wing extremism
Auteurs R. Witte en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of various measures, initiatives and developments regarding to the fight against discrimination in the Netherlands since 1971. It also gives a short overview of relevant international treaties on discrimination and the obligations for the parties involved. The political and societal attention for combating discrimination has decreased in recent years. There is a tendency to deny that discrimination is a real problem. Also the tone of voice in the public debate on integration of ethnic minorities has hardened. Nowadays, antidiscrimination policies and initiatives take place at the local level and state involvement is limited to facilitating support. The registration of discrimination complaints continues to be a problem and minor progress has been made in the last twenty years.


R. Witte
Dr. Rob Witte is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan IVA Beleidsonderzoek & Advies te Tilburg.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Mr. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. M.J.C. van der Heijden LL.M. M.Phil
Mr. M.J.C. van der Heijden LL.M. M.Phil is verbonden aan het UD Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Access_open De Drittwirkung van grondrechten

Retorisch curiosum of vaandel van een paradigmatische omwenteling in ons rechtsbestel?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden Drittwirkung, horizontal effect of human rights, constitutionalisation of private law
Auteurs Stefan Somers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses whether the horizontal effect of human rights marks a new paradigm in legal systems or is merely a new style in legal rhetoric. In doing so, much attention is paid to the differences between direct and indirect horizontal effect. Departing from social contract theory the article explains that the protection of human right values in horizontal relations is an essential feature of modern constitutionalism. It also analyses whether these values in horizontal relations should be protected by private law or by human rights. This question is looked at from a substantial, a methodological and an institutional perspective. In the end, because of institutional power balancing, the article argues in favor of an indirect horizontal effect of human rights.


Stefan Somers
Stefan Somers is a researcher at the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at the VUB (Free University of Brussels) and prepares a PhD on the relationship between human rights and tort law.
Artikel

Vrijwilligers binnen een gematigde visie op herstelrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden restorative justice, volunteers, citizenship, participation, communicative justice
Auteurs Erik Claes en Emilie Van Daele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In restorative thinking it is often assumed that the involvement of volunteers, almost naturally, flows from its values and aims. But are there really convincing arguments that account for, justify or even necessitate an active policy on volunteering in restorative justice practices?This contribution focuses on the moderate view on restorative justice as developed in the Belgian context. It is argued that this approach offers a variety of reasons for developing a volunteers-programme. Two central issues in a moderate view on restorative justice are essential to understand the value of volunteering in restorative justice practices. Such a view sees 1) crime as a multi-layered phenomenon, and 2) takes participative and communicative justice as its central aim.


Erik Claes
Erik Claes is docent sociaal werk aan de HUB en onderzoeker op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB). Hij begeleidt een praktijkgericht wetenschappelijk onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.

Emilie Van Daele
Emilie Van Daele is onderzoekster op het Centrum Pragodi (HUB) en doet onderzoek rond vrijwilligers en herstelrecht.
Jurisprudentie

Vrijheid van meningsuiting op de werkplek in twee maten en gewichten: de werknemer mag blaffen, de ‘watchdog’ wordt gemuilkorfd

EHRM 21 juli 2011, Application nr. 28274/08 (Heinisch/Duitsland) en EHRM 12 september 2011, Application nr. 28955/06, 28957/06, 28959/06 en 28964/06 (Palomo Sanchez e.a./Spanje)

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden klokkenluiders, vrijheid van meningsuiting op de werkplek, private en publieke sector, vakverenigingsvrijheid, EVRM
Auteurs Prof. dr. F. Dorssemont
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Tijdens de zomermaanden oordeelde het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens over twee verzoekschriften waarin de vrijheid van meningsuiting van werknemers centraal stond. De eerste zaak (Heinisch/ Duitsland) betrof naar de woorden van het Hof een zaak van whistle-blowing (klokkenluiders). Een werkneemster maakte van haar vrijheid van meningsuiting gebruik om extern wantoestanden in de onderneming aan te klagen die een kwestie van algemeen belang raken. In de tweede zaak (Sanchez e.a./Spanje) onderzocht een Grote Kamer het ontslag op staande voet van enkele vakbondsleden wegens een naar de mening van de werkgever diffamerende cartoon in een interne vakbondspublicatie. Deze cartoon hield verband met een juridisch geschil tussen de vakbond en de werkgever dat in de Spaanse rechtbanken werd uitgevochten. In deze zaak wordt ook aan de vakverenigingsvrijheid getoetst. Een onderliggende vergelijking van beide zaken laat toe te appreciëren of werknemers in de uitoefening van een vertegenwoordigend mandaat dat zij van aangesloten vakbondsleden hebben gekregen, over een grotere dan wel een kleinere expressievrijheid beschikken dan geïsoleerde werknemers die ‘onrecht’ aanklagen. De relevantie van de aard van de ondernemingsactiviteit (publieke of private sector) en de arbeidsverhouding (ambtenaar/contractueel) wordt bekeken. Na een afzonderlijke analyse van beide zaken, een beschouwing over de tussenkomst van de vakbond in de zaak Heinisch en een beschouwing over de formele methodologie van het Hof worden beide arresten vanuit enkele kernvragen rond expressievrijheid op de werkplek op een meer vergelijkende wijze beschouwd.


Prof. dr. F. Dorssemont
Prof. dr. F. Dorssemont is als hoogleraar verbonden aan onderzoekscentrum Crides Jean Renauld van de Université catholique de Louvain.
Artikel

Een victimologisch perspectief op het internationale strafrecht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden international crimes, victimology, (international) criminal justice, victims’ rights
Auteurs Dr. Antony Pemberton, Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert, Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article develops a victimological perspective on international criminal justice, based on a review of the main victimological characteristics of international crimes. These include the complicity or active involvement of government agencies, the large numbers of victims and the peculiar position of international crime victims who, at the time the crimes are committed, are usually not viewed as victims by the perpetrators, but placed outside the moral sphere or even depicted as perpetrators rather than victims.Key elements of this perspective concern the external coherence of the criminal justice reaction - the interlinking of criminal justice with other reparative efforts - as well as its internal coherence - the extent to which the procedures of international criminal justice are aligned with what it realistically can and should achieve. With internal coherence in mind, the article examines the victimological findings relating to the main rights of victims in the criminal procedure (recognition/acknowledgement, information/participation and compensation/reparation) and subsequently analyzes how the specifics of international crimes moderate them.


Dr. Antony Pemberton
Dr. A. Pemberton is associate professor of victimology aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, a.pemberton@uvt.nl.

Prof. mr. dr. Rianne Letschert
Prof. mr. dr. R.M. Letschert is professor of victimology and international law aan het International Victimology Institute Tilburg van Tilburg University, r.m.letschert@uvt.nl.

Dr. mr. Anne-Marie de Brouwer
Dr. mr. A.-M. de Brouwer is associate professor of international criminal law aan het Department of Criminal Law van Tilburg University, a.l.m.debrouwer@uvt.nl.

Mr. dr. Roelof Haveman
Mr. dr. R.H. Haveman is freelance Rule of Law Consultant, momenteel gestationeerd in Côte d’Ivoire, roelof.haveman@gmail.com.
Artikel

Regulering in een hybride veiligheidszorg

Over de bewaking van een publiek goed in een deels geprivatiseerd bestel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden regulation, security, privatization, public good, self-regulation
Auteurs Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper deals with the question of how a partly privatized security sector could be regulated. A central aim of this regulation should be the control of security as a public good. Three models of regulation are analyzed. The current practice of this regulation in the Netherlands shows a serious lack of effectiveness. One of our main conclusions is that neither the state nor the private sector is able to enforce this regulation on their own. However, it is assumed that the state should have a central and integrated regulatory role in this field, with more attention paid to the practical implementation of it, with the power and will to sanction private agencies if necessary. In addition managers of private security companies should adopt a role as public managers with a public moral duty. Regulation of security is faced with a double problematic, not only the horizontal fragmentation of the field, but also the vertical fragmentation, often resulting in a serious gap between managers and those in the field, both in the public and the private sector. This implies that the regulation should not only rest on the state and on self-regulation by the sector at management level, but also on the promotion of a practical ethic for security workers to steer and regulate their daily work.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J.B. (Jan) Terpstra is werkzaam bij het Criminologisch Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl
Artikel

Citizenship in Transnational Social Spaces

New Ways to Study Socio-legal Boundaries

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Thomas Faist
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In order to establish and evaluate the significance of changing socio-legal boundaries and how these are mirrored in citizenship, cross-border formations of the social and citizenship rules must be discussed. The first part of this paper deals with changes in social boundaries across state borders and presents three generations of transnational studies. Based on this, the second part asks how legal boundaries have changed in the case of dual citizenship and supranational social citizenship. Citizenship is a particularly important issue because it sits at the intersection of social and legal boundaries. There is a growing tolerance toward dual citizenship and the evolution of supranational citizenship, one in which migrants enjoy a transnational life that is supported by the implementation of human rights principles in national constitutions, legislation and in European Union court rulings.


Thomas Faist
Thomas Faist is professor in the Department of Sociology, Bielefeld University. His fields of interest are transnational relations, citizenship, development and migration. He held visiting professorships at Brandeis University, Malmö University and the University of Toronto. Thomas Faist serves on the editorial board of The Sociological Quarterly, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Migration Letters, and South Asian Diaspora. He recently co-edited Migration, Development and Transnationalisation: A Critical Stance (Berghahn 2010), Diaspora and Transnationalism: Concepts, Theories and Methods (Amsterdam University Press 2010) and The Migration Development Nexus: Transnational Perspectives (Palgrave Macmillan 2011).

    In this feature authors review recently published books on subjects of interest to readers of Recht der Werkelijkheid.


Adriaan Bedner
Adriaan Bedner is a senior lecturer at the Van Vollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Development of Leiden University. Most of his research has been on law in Indonesia, with a particular focus on access to justice, dispute resolution and the judiciary. He has also done work of a more theoretical and comparative nature, notable on rule of law and access to justice.
Discussie

Access_open Horizontal Effect Revisited

A Reply to Four Comments

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Auteurs Gunther Teubner
Samenvatting

    In this concluding article, Gunther Teubner addresses his critics.


Gunther Teubner
Discussie

Access_open Hybrid Constitutionalism, Fundamental Rights and the State

A Response to Gunther Teubner

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden societal constitutionalism, Gunther Teubner, system theory, fundamental rights
Auteurs Gert Verschraegen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explores how much state is necessary to make societal constitutionalism work. I first ask why the idea of a global societal constitutionalism ‘beyond the state-and-politics’ might be viewed as a significant and controversial, but nonetheless justified innovation. In the second part I discuss what Teubner calls ‘the inclusionary effects of fundamental rights’. I argue that Teubner underplays the mediating role of the state in guaranteeing inclusion or access, and in a way presupposes well-functioning states in the background. In areas of limited statehood there is a problem of enforcing fundamental rights law. It is an open question whether, and under which conditions, constitutional norms within particular global social spheres can provide enough counter-weight when state constitutional norms are lacking.


Gert Verschraegen
Gert Verschraegen is Assistant Professor of Theoretical Sociology at the University of Antwerp, Belgium.
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