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Artikel

Enforceability of mediation clauses in Belgium and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2017
Trefwoorden Enforceability, Mediation clauses, contracts
Auteurs Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller en Patrick Van Leynseele
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article authors discuss (possible) legal means and methods aimed at making mediation clauses effective and/or enforceable. In particular Belgian and Dutch law are examined. In part attention is also paid to English, French and Italian law. Against the background of recent EU-legislation the validity of mediation clauses is discussed as well, with a focus on consumer related disputes. By reviewing US case law with regard to the duty to participate in good faith in the mediation process, the authors also outline the limits of this concept for the effectiveness of mediation clauses. The central theme of the enforceability of mediation clauses has been looked at both from a procedural as from a financial angle. Substantial differences can be noted between the Belgian and the Dutch approach towards what courts should do when dealing with a dispute in which parties have previously agreed to mediation. Belgian law provides in art. 1725 § 2 Judicial Code that the court, if so requested by the defendant, is in principle obliged to suspend the examination of the case until the mediation has taken place. According to current case law, the situation in the Netherlands is that mediation clauses are in principle not enforceable (Supreme Court 2006). Following the most recent legislative proposal regarding mediation (July 2016) the court should examine whether mediation can still have an added value in case one party refuses to take part in a mediation as provided for in a clause invoked by the other party, prior to (possibly) proposing mediation. Based on the plans repeatedly announced by the Belgian Minister of Justice, it is likely that there will soon be an amendment to the mediation provisions in the Judicial Code that will allow courts to ‘force’ mediation upon the parties, even in the absence of a mediation clause. If this becomes the rule, judges would be well advised to exercise this power with due care. In the authors’ opinion the Dutch approach (as suggested in the most recent legislative proposal) in connection with mediation clauses, consisting in having the court examine whether mediation may (still) have an added value for the parties, could serve as a good guideline for the Belgian judges to use.


Ellen van Beukering-Rosmuller
Ellen J.M. van Beukering-Rosmuller is Universitair Docent Burgerlijk Procesrecht, Universiteit Leiden, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid.

Patrick Van Leynseele
Patrick H. Van Leynseele is lid van de balies van Brussel en New York en partner in het Brussels advocatenkantoor DALDEWOLF, een referentie inzake ADR. Met als achtergrond het ondernemingsrecht werkt hij als litigator en arbiter in internationale zaken. Hij schreef verschillende artikels inzake mediation en Med-Arb in vooraanstaande juridische tijdschriften.

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the notion of an interest should be taken more seriously than the notion of a right. It will be argued that it should; and not only because it can be just as amenable to the institutional taxonomical structure often said to be at the basis of rights thinking in law but also because the notion of an interest has a more epistemologically convincing explanatory power with respect to reasoning in law and its relation to social facts. The article equally aims to highlight some of the important existing work on the notion of an interest in law.


Geoffrey Samuel
Professor of Law, Kent Law School, The University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent, U.K. This article is a much re-orientated, and updated, adaption of a paper published a decade ago: Samuel 2004, at 263. The author would like to thank the anonymous referees for their very helpful criticisms and observations on an earlier version of the manuscript.
Artikel

Dierenmishandelaars in beeld

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2017
Trefwoorden Dierenmishandeling, Dierenmishandelaars, Dierenbeulen
Auteurs Manon Hardeman en Anton van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the media one notices items on mistreatment of animals on a regular basis. These can cause intense agitation in the society. Think of the many horses that have been abused throughout the country in 2012. This case remains unsolved to this day. The question is: who does this, who are the animal abusers, what are their characteristics and backgrounds? After a long search in several registration systems of many institutions the characteristics and backgrounds of 97 animal abusers have been found. The data of the institutions have also been used to create an image of the nature and extent of animal abuse. Subsequently there have been interviews with several experts from different organisations to record their knowledge and experience and to indicate the results. The characteristics and backgrounds of the animal abusers are diverse. Their ages range from 7 to 85 years. The offenders are an average of 34 years old at the time of committing the animal abuse. Animal abusers are not notorious criminals. Half is reported to be the first offender according to police data. The other half commits all forms of crime. This includes the share of capital offenses (34%) and violent crimes (23%). Dogs are most often abused. The motives are diverse. Disappearing anger and frustration seems to be an important reason to abuse animals. Only nine people found that there was domestic violence in addition to animal abuse. An initial classification of types of animal traffickers in, amongst others, group planners, loners and sadists, has to be empirically substantiated.


Manon Hardeman
Manon Hardeman is criminoloog en werkzaam bij Bureau Beke te Arnhem.

Anton van Wijk
Anton van Wijk is criminoloog en werkzaam bij Bureau Beke te Arnhem.
Article

Access_open Evaluating BEPS

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden tax avoidance, tax evasion, benefits principle
Auteurs Reuven S. Avi-Yonah en Haiyan Xu
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article evaluates the recently completed Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project of the G20 and OECD and offers some alternatives for reform.


Reuven S. Avi-Yonah
Reuven Avi-Yonah is Irwin I. Cohn Professor of Law, the University of Michigan.

Haiyan Xu
Haiyan Xu is Professor of Law, University of International Business & Economics, Beijing; SJD candidate, the University of Michigan.
Article

Access_open The Integrity of the Tax System after BEPS: A Shared Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2017
Trefwoorden flawed legislation, tax privileges, tax planning, corporate social responsibility, tax professionals
Auteurs Hans Gribnau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The international tax system is the result of the interaction of different actors who share the responsibility for its integrity. States and multinational corporations both enjoy to a certain extent freedom of choice with regard to their tax behaviour – which entails moral responsibility. Making, interpreting and using tax rules therefore is inevitably a matter of exercising responsibility. Both should abstain from viewing tax laws as a bunch of technical rules to be used as a tool without any intrinsic moral or legal value. States bear primary responsibility for the integrity of the international tax system. They should become more reticent in their use of tax as regulatory instrument – competing with one another for multinationals’ investment. They should also act more responsibly by cooperating to make better rules to prevent aggressive tax planning, which entails a shift in tax payments from very expert taxpayers to other taxpayers. Here, the distributive justice of the tax system and a level playing field should be guaranteed. Multinationals should abstain from putting pressure on states and lobbying for favourable tax rules that disproportionally affect other taxpayers – SMEs and individual taxpayers alike. Multinationals and their tax advisers should avoid irresponsible conduct by not aiming to pay a minimalist amount of (corporate income) taxes – merely staying within the boundaries of the letter of the law. Especially CSR-corporations should assume the responsibility for the integrity of the tax system.


Hans Gribnau
Professor of Tax Law, Fiscal Institute and the Center for Company Law, Tilburg University; Professor of Tax Law, Leiden University, The Netherlands.
Artikel

Criminele families in Noord-Brabant

Over generatie-effecten in de zware criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden criminal family networks, organized crime, North Brabant, intergenerational transmission, opportunity structures
Auteurs Drs. H. Moors en Prof. dr. T. Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article on intergenerational transmission of crime in families is based on a study of seven families of which at least one member held a key position in an organized crime group. The authors retrieved information on at least three generations (preceding and succeeding this key member’s generation) to investigate whether transmissions occurred, and if so, how these might be explained. Throughout the generations the majority of family members indeed have criminal records. However, it seems to be less easy to transfer criminal leadership in organized crime from one generation to the next. Leading a criminal group seems to demand qualities that are not transferred easily. Successful successors appear to be able to establish their own networks within the deviant subcultures from which they stem. This also explains the persistence of criminal behavior: both men and women select their friends and partners from these closed communities and seem to prefer for their social and love relationships those who have already developed substantial criminal track records. Organized crime families in North Brabant took advantage of criminal opportunities that were presented to them over the years. Particularly XTC production, starting in the 1990s, allowed them to step up their criminal activities from the local to the global level. In addition, they may have capitalized on a moral economy with sentiments of subordination present in the province of North Brabant, dating back to the seventeenth century, which resulted in a more reserved attitude towards authorities than in other parts of the Netherlands. Finally, law enforcement agencies have been generally slow to respond to developments in criminal opportunities that benefited these seven families.


Drs. H. Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is partner van advies- en onderzoeksbureau EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Prof. dr. T. Spapens
Prof. dr. Toine Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan Tilburg University.
Artikel

Cultureel erfgoed én crimineel probleem: over de subcultuur van woonwagenbewoners

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden traveler communities, Subculture, Noord-Brabant, Criminality, multi-agency approach
Auteurs Drs. R. Witte en Dr. H. Moors
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the Province of Noord-Brabant, the ‘traveler community’ possesses a specific position, coloring the developments in crime throughout the region and being a main focus for major concern among policymakers and professionals. The authors reflect on the historical development of the ‘traveler community’ and their perceived subculture as well as on state response to these developments. Along this, the attempts of social work to contribute to social climbing of ‘travelers’ outside criminality in the 1980s and 1990s are portrayed. The contribution rounds up with some reflections on the present call for a ‘multi-agency approach’ towards organized and undermining crime in which again, and increasingly so, the importance of the so-called ‘soft side of crime prevention and repression’ is underlined.


Drs. R. Witte
Drs. Rob Witte is senior adviseur en onderzoeker bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag.

Dr. H. Moors
Dr. Hans Moors is partner bij EMMA, Experts in Media en Maatschappij, in Den Haag. www.emma.nl.
Artikel

Veroordeeld tot (g)een baan

Hoe delict- en persoonskenmerken arbeidsmarktkansen beïnvloeden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1-2 2017
Trefwoorden employment experiment, employment chances, labour market, conviction, ethnicity
Auteurs Dr. Chantal van den Berg, Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert, Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research showed that job applicants with a criminal record have lower chances of obtaining employment compared to job applicants with no criminal record. At the same time empirical studies showed that having a job is especially beneficial for ex-delinquents, as employment was found to lower recidivism. The current study uses an experimental design to look into the influence of a criminal record on employment chances. For this purpose, 520 resumes and motivation letters were sent in response to vacancies published on the internet. All were identical except for the stated offence type (no offence, violent offence, property offence, or sexual offence), duration between conviction and application, business sector and ethnicity of the applicant. Results show no effect for type of offence or no offence on employment chances. However, a strong effect is found for ethnicity. Ethnic minorities with no conviction were even found to have lower chances of receiving a positive reaction compared to applicants with a Dutch name and a conviction for a violent offence.


Dr. Chantal van den Berg
Dr. C.J.W. van den Berg is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Lieselotte Blommaert
Dr. E.C.C.A. Blommaert is postdoctoraal onderzoeker aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. mr. Catrien Bijleveld
Prof. dr. mr. C.C.J.H. Bijleveld is directeur van het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Methoden en Technieken aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Stijn Ruiter
Prof. dr. S. Ruiter is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en bijzonder hoogleraar Sociale en ruimtelijke aspecten van deviant gedrag aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Herstelgericht werken op school

Een kans voor maatschappelijk kwetsbare leerlingen?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 2 2017
Auteurs Nicole Vettenburg en Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Restorative justice has evolved from an unknown concept towards a model that is considered world-wide when it comes to changes in the penal and youth justice sector. The restorative model expands towards handling conflicts in other areas, such as neighbourhoods, business, welfare issues, family matters and behavioural problems in schools. This article deals with the latter. Restorative practices are based upon an open and respectful dialogue, which presupposes certain attitudes and capacities. The article looks into possible risks, but especially the chances restorative practices in schools can offer for socially vulnerable youth.


Nicole Vettenburg
Nicole Vettenburg is emeritus professor van de Universiteit Gent.

Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus professor van de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie.
Artikel

English and Welsh experience of marketisation, payment by results and justice devolution in the probation sector

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2017
Trefwoorden Transforming Rehabilitation, Payment by Results, Justice Devolution, Innovation
Auteurs Prof. Chris Fox
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The UK government has embarked on an ambitious programme to reform the English and Welsh probation sector. Key to these reforms has been ‘marketisation’ involving Payment by Results. More recently the devolution of justice has become a key theme. This paper describes key reforms that have taken place since 2010 and sets out evidence for their effectiveness. Currently, the available evidence is limited, but more evidence is available from other sectors where similar models have also been used. This evidence base is discussed with particular reference to the potential for the reforms to promote innovation.


Prof. Chris Fox
Prof. Chris Fox is Professor of Evaluation and Policy Analysis and Director of the Policy Evaluation and Research Unit at Manchester Metropolitan University.

Eric van Damme
Prof. dr. E.E.C. van Damme is hoogleraar economie aan de Tilburg University.
Article

Access_open Exit, Voice and Loyalty from the Perspective of Hedge Funds Activism in Corporate Governance

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Uncertainty, entrepreneurship, agency costs, loyalty shares, institutional investors
Auteurs Alessio M. Pacces
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses hedge funds activism based on Hirschman’s classic. It is argued that hedge funds do not create the loyalty concerns underlying the usual short-termism critique of their activism, because the arbiters of such activism are typically indexed funds, which cannot choose short-term exit. Nevertheless, the voice activated by hedge funds can be excessive for a particular company. Furthermore, this article claims that the short-termism debate cannot shed light on the desirability of hedge funds activism. Neither theory nor empirical evidence can tell whether hedge funds activism leads to short-termism or long-termism. The real issue with activism is a conflict of entrepreneurship, namely a conflict between the opposing views of the activists and the incumbent management regarding in how long an individual company should be profitable. Leaving the choice between these views to institutional investors is not efficient for every company at every point in time. Consequently, this article argues that regulation should enable individual companies to choose whether to curb hedge funds activism depending on what is efficient for them. The recent European experience reveals that loyalty shares enable such choice, even in the midstream, operating as dual-class shares in disguise. However, loyalty shares can often be introduced without institutional investors’ consent. This outcome could be improved by allowing dual-class recapitalisations, instead of loyalty shares, but only with a majority of minority vote. This solution would screen for the companies for which temporarily curbing activism is efficient, and induce these companies to negotiate sunset clauses with institutional investors.


Alessio M. Pacces
Professor of Law & Finance, Erasmus School of Law, and Research Associate, European Corporate Governance Institute.

    This article provides an overview of the coming into being and functioning of the Commercial Court in England and Wales.


Lord N.A. Phillips
Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG is the former president of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and currently a visiting professor at King's College London.

    This article examines the main assumptions and theoretical underpinnings of case study method in legal studies. It considers the importance of research design, including the crucial roles of the academic literature review, the research question and the use of rival theories to develop hypotheses and the practice of identifying the observable implications of those hypotheses. It considers the selection of data sources and modes of analysis to allow for valid analytical inferences to be drawn in respect of them. In doing so it considers, in brief, the importance of case study selection and variations such as single or multi case approaches. Finally it provides thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses associated with undertaking socio-legal and comparative legal research via a case study method, addressing frequent stumbling blocks encountered by legal researchers, as well as ways to militate them. It is written with those new to the method in mind.


Lisa Webley

James Davies
James Davies is Joint Head of Employment team at Lewis Silkin LLP in London, www.lewissilkin.com.
Artikel

Viermaal auteursrecht in de digitale eengemaakte markt

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 8 2016
Trefwoorden Digitale eengemaakte markt, Auteursrecht, Digitaal en grensoverschrijdend gebruik, Online-uitzendingen van omroeporganisaties, Visueel gehandicapten
Auteurs Prof. mr. D.J.G. Visser
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Als onderdeel van haar strategie voor een ‘digitale eengemaakte markt’ (Digital Single Market, afgekort DSM) heeft de Europese Commissie op 14 september 2016 voorstellen gedaan voor maar liefst vier verschillende instrumenten op het gebied van het auteursrecht: een richtlijn en een verordening over digitaal en grensoverschrijdend gebruik én een richtlijn en een verordening over gebruik voor visueel gehandicapten. Deze voorstellen worden in deze bijdrage besproken.

    • Voorstel voor een richtlijn van het Europees Parlement en de Raad inzake auteursrechten in de digitale eengemaakte markt- COM(2016)593. (‘DSM-richtlijn’)

    • Voorstel voor een verordening van het Europees Parlement en de Raad tot vaststelling van voorschriften inzake de uitoefening van auteursrechten en naburige rechten die van toepassing zijn op bepaalde online-uitzendingen van omroeporganisaties en doorgifte van televisie- en radioprogramma’s - COM(2016)594. (‘Online Omroep verordening’, (OOV))

    • Voorstel voor een verordening van het Europees Parlement en de Raad inzake de grensoverschrijdende uitwisseling tussen de Unie en derde landen van exemplaren in toegankelijke vorm van bepaalde door het auteursrecht en naburige rechten beschermde werken en ander materiaal ten behoeve van personen die blind zijn, visueel gehandicapt of anderszins een leeshandicap hebben - COM(2016)595 (‘Marrakesh’-verordening).

    • Voorstel voor een richtlijn van het Europees Parlement en de Raad inzake bepaalde toegestane vormen van gebruik van door auteursrechten en naburige rechten beschermde werken en ander materiaal ten behoeve van personen die blind zijn, visueel gehandicapt of anderszins een leeshandicap hebben, en tot wijziging van Richtlijn 2001/29/EG betreffende de harmonisatie van bepaalde aspecten van het auteursrecht en de naburige rechten in de informatiemaatschappij - COM(2016)596. (‘Marrakesh’-richtlijn)


Prof. mr. D.J.G. Visser
Prof. mr. D.J.G. (Dirk) Visser is hoogleraar Intellectuele Eigendom in Leiden en advocaat in Amsterdam.
Artikel

40 jaar Europa en mediation

Beschouwing naar aanleiding van het eindverslag van de Europese Commissie inzake toepassing van de Mediationrichtlijn in de lidstaten

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Mediation Directive, Geschiedenis ADR, Verslag Europese Commissie, Mediationrichtlijn
Auteurs Annie de Roo en Rob Jagtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Taking the recent European Commission’s Report on the application of Mediation Directive 2008/52/EC as a starting point, the authors set out to reconstruct the pattern of ADR/mediation activities undertaken by the EU and the Council of Europe over the past 40 years. The authors conclude that the European initiatives have been conducive to a broadening and deepening of the ADR debate. Remarkable shifts can be observed in the emphasis placed by the European agencies during this period, notably a shift from emancipatory to efficiency-based arguments. The inherent coupling of private mediation and public adjudication entails risks however for each of these distinct conflict resolution strategies. The authors call for advanced research designs to generate the data needed for a genuine evidence-based policy in this domain.


Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is hoofdredacteur van TMD, hoofddocent aan de Erasmus Universiteit en vicevoorzitter van de examencommissie Stichting Kwaliteit Mediators. Zij heeft diverse malen als key expert voor de Europese Commissie meegewerkt aan projecten,met name op het gebied van arbeidsrechtelijke mediation.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is onder andere verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit en is TMD redactielid. Hij trad enkele malen op als rapporteur-generaal voor de Raad van Europa op het gebied van ADR/mediation.
Diversen: Artikelen

Drie drugsnetwerken in een kleine stad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden drug trafficking networks, criminal networks, social opportunities
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Dr. mr. Anton Van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recently, we conducted a study on drug trafficking criminal networks in a Dutch town. In this article, we examine the results of this study by assessing the development of criminal networks and the way in which individuals get involved with these networks. Our analysis of the qualitative data focuses on three central empirical findings derived from earlier (mainly Dutch) research on criminal networks. A first outcome of earlier studies was that criminal networks are not based on a specific kind of crime and therefore do not resemble goal driven companies. Our fieldwork suggests, however, that the networks seemed less ‘flat’ and more goal driven than previously assumed. Second, earlier studies conclude that the structure of social opportunities facilitates a subjects’ inclination towards committing crime. Our study seems to confirm this finding: social pressure from peers and family is strong and encourages involvement in drug trafficking networks. Finally, earlier research pointed out that involvement in criminal networks was not a result of intentional recruitment. In our study we found – anecdotic – evidence of the opposite. We found evidence that suggests that most youth criminals are not ‘persisters’, however, mobs may serve as gateways to organised crime.


Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E.J.A. Bervoets is zelfstandig onderzoeker bij Bureau Bervoets.

Dr. mr. Anton Van Wijk
Dr. mr. A.Ph. van Wijk is directeur van Bureau Beke.
Article

Access_open Harmony, Law and Criminal Reconciliation in China: A Historical Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Criminal reconciliation, Confucianism, decentralisation, centralisation
Auteurs Wei Pei
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2012, China revised its Criminal Procedure Law (2012 CPL). One of the major changes is its official approval of the use of victim-offender reconciliation, or ‘criminal reconciliation’ in certain public prosecution cases. This change, on the one hand, echoes the Confucian doctrine that favours harmonious inter-personal relationships and mediation, while, on the other hand, it deviates from the direction of legal reforms dating from the 1970s through the late 1990s. Questions have emerged concerning not only the cause of this change in legal norms but also the proper position of criminal reconciliation in the current criminal justice system in China. The answers to these questions largely rely on understanding the role of traditional informal dispute resolution as well as its interaction with legal norms. Criminal reconciliation in ancient China functioned as a means to centralise imperial power by decentralizing decentralising its administration. Abolishing or enabling such a mechanism in law is merely a small part of the government’s strategy to react to political or social crises and to maintain social stability. However, its actual effect depends on the vitality of Confucianism, which in turn relies on the economic foundation and corresponding structure of society.


Wei Pei
Wei Pei, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Beihang School of Law in the Beihang University.
Article

Access_open A Law and Economics Approach to Norms in Transnational Commercial Transactions: Incorporation and Internalisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Incorporation and internalisation, transnational commercial transactions, transnational commercial norms
Auteurs Bo Yuan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s global economy, a noticeable trend is that the traditional state-law-centred legal framework is increasingly challenged by self-regulatory private orders. Commercial norms, commercial arbitration and social sanctions at the international level have become important alternatives to national laws, national courts and legal sanctions at the national level. Consisting of transnational commercial norms, both codified and uncodified, and legal norms, both national and international, a plural regime for the governance of transnational commercial transactions has emerged and developed in the past few decades. This article explores the interaction between various kinds of norms in this regime, identifies the effects of this interaction on the governance of transnational commercial transactions and shows the challenges to this interaction at the current stage. The central argument of this article is that the interaction between social and legal norms, namely incorporation and internalisation, and the three effects derived from incorporation and internalisation, namely systematisation, harmonisation and compliance enhancement, are evident at both the national and international levels. In particular, the emergence of codified transnational commercial norms that are positioned in the middle of the continuum between national legal norms and uncodified transnational commercial norms has brought changes to the interaction within the international dimension. Although the development of codified transnational commercial norms faces several challenges at the moment, it can be expected that these norms will play an increasingly important role in the future governance of transnational commercial transactions.


Bo Yuan
Bo Yuan is a Ph.D. candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Law and Economics.
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