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Artikel

Strafrecht en Verlichting

Over het karakter van een waarlijk verlicht strafrechtssysteem

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden criminal law system, Enlightenment, legal theory, retribution, risk assessment
Auteurs J.A.A.C. Claessen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article examines the influence of the Enlightenment on the development of our criminal law system, using a legal theory perspective. On the basis of the dialectical character of this movement and the enlightened view on mankind, it is postulated that a true enlightened criminal law system is one in which there is both room for retribution, free will and responsibility as well as for prevention, causal determinism and risk. Furthermore, it is put forth that the daily practice of the criminal law has by now moved too far into the direction of prevention, causal determinism and risk, due to the ‘scientification’ and the simultaneous demoralisation of criminal law. As a result of these developments, it is out of the question to talk of a balanced and, consequently, of a truly enlightened criminal law system. Within the framework of the ‘scientification’ of the criminal law system, additional attention is devoted to the recent topic of neuroscience.


J.A.A.C. Claessen
Mr. dr. Jacques Claessen is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht. Hij is tevens rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Limburg.
Artikel

Wilsvrijheid en strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid

Een rondgang langs fysicalisme, connectionisme en belichaamde cognitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, fysicalism, connectionism, embodied cognition
Auteurs F. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author defends two propositions related to the concepts of free will and criminal responsibility. Free will is defined as the capability of distancing oneself from one’s immediate surroundings and reflect on impulses. The first proposition is that it is a mistake to suppose – as do many neuroscientists adhering to objectivist theories on the human mind – that the concept of free will refers to a postulated natural phenomenon, the existence of which could, in principle, be established or falsified. Instead, the concept of free will constitutes a practice; it is a human artefact that is part and parcel of the differing means by which mankind structures intersubjective life. The second proposition is that the criminal law legitimately presupposes that persons normally act out of free will and that they, consequently, are morally responsible and accountable for the wrongful actions they perform. The author claims that his arguments for both propositions are supported by insights from the neuroscientific fields of connectionism and embodied cognition.


F. de Jong
Mr. dr. Ferry de Jong is als universitair docent strafrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: f.dejong1@uu.nl.
Artikel

De psychiater en toerekeningsvatbaarheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatrists, criminal responsibility, administration of criminal justice, legal insanity, legal insanity standard
Auteurs G. Meynen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, there is a vivid debate in the Netherlands about the possible non-existence of free will and its implications for criminal law, in particular for the concept of ‘criminal responsibility’. Especially forensic psychiatrists who advise the court on a defendant’s legal insanity feel uneasiness because of this discussion on free will. In this contribution the author suggests to reconsider the current practice in the Netherlands in which psychiatrists explicitly advise the court on legal insanity and to consider the option to leave the judgment on legal insanity entirely to the judge. Meanwhile, of course, psychiatrists will have to inform the judge about the defendant’s mental condition at the time of the crime and its influence on the defendant’s behaviour. If needed, in order to optimize communication between the medical domain (psychiatrist) and the legal domain (judge), a legal insanity standard could be developed and introduced.


G. Meynen
Prof. dr. Gerben Meynen is als bijzonder hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Vrije wil en verantwoordelijkheid in de strafuitvoering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden penal execution, rehabilitation, responsibility, life course approach, motivation
Auteurs M.M. Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responsibility of the prisoner for his own rehabilitation is a central element of ‘Modernising Imprisonment’, the masterplan that aims to reform the execution of the prison sentence in the Netherlands. The Secretary of Justice strives for an individual approach based on the points of departure of the Life Course Approach in criminology. This method is designed in different ways. A central element is that rehabilitation will only be offered in the near future to prisoners that show responsibility for their rehabilitation. Based on this starting point, a far-reaching system of advancing and degrading is introduced. Prisoners can deserve freedoms by showing responsible behaviour, but loose them again in case of irresponsible or unmotivated conduct. Three objections against this aspect of Modernising Imprisonment are discussed. First, the rehabilitation principle itself does not allow for such a far-reaching exclusion of categories of prisoners. Second, the high demands put on prisoners are not realistic given the characteristics of the prison population. Third, the assumption that a strict system of advancing and degrading will increase the effectiveness of sentencing is not well founded and cannot be derived from research.


M.M. Boone
Prof. mr. Miranda Boone is als bijzonder hoogleraar penitentiair recht en penologie verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij is tevens werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Welke vrije wil heeft het strafrecht nodig?

Over bewustzijn, brein en capaciteitsverantwoordelijkheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, metaphysics, causal control, capacity control
Auteurs D. Roef
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Various leading neuroscientists argue that free will does not exist and that therefore any traditional notion of criminal responsibility is based upon an illusion. This article attempts to make clear that the ‘free will’, which is now empirically denied, is conceptually not the one we use and need in criminal law. The neuroscientific argument depends on the assumption that undetermined causal control is necessary to responsibility. It supposes that someone has no free will when his conscious will is not the ultimate cause of his behaviour. However, the legal practice of criminal responsibility is not rooted in such a metaphysically free will, but on an alternative, more realistic understanding of control, i.e. the capacity sense of control. Criminal law bases responsibility on certain mental capacities people have, for instance the capacity to act for reasons, according to socially constructed standards. The so-called illusion of free will forms therefore not a serious threat to the foundations of our criminal responsibility system.


D. Roef
Dr. David Roef is als universitair docent straf(proces)recht verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Maastricht.
Artikel

Strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid en de neurowetenschappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden neuroscience, legal responsibility, mental capacities, brain mechanisms, brain imaging techniques
Auteurs N. Vincent
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper argues that to the extent that legal responsibility hinges on mental capacities – capacities which are implemented in (brain) mechanisms – scientists working in the fields of behavioural genetics and neuroscience can assist courts to adjudicate responsibility in several ways. First, by studying what mechanisms paradigmatically fully responsible agents possess and how those mechanisms operate. Second, by developing techniques to more individually, accurately and less subjectively inspect people’s mechanisms to gauge their true mental capacities. Third, by studying how youth, advanced age, and mental disorders affect these mechanisms. And fourth, by developing interventions to create, restore and enhance the function of these mechanisms in order to create, restore and enhance people’s responsibility-relevant mental capacities.


N. Vincent
Prof. Nicole Vincent is verbonden aan de Macquarie University in Sidney en aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Data en interpretaties in de cognitieve neurowetenschap

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden cognitive neuroscience, criminal law, single cell recording, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, interpretation of neuroscientific data
Auteurs W.F.G. Haselager, F. Leoné en D.A.G. van Toor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research in cognitive neuroscience may have significant implications for law. In order to assess such implications properly, a basic knowledge of the complexities involved in the acquisition and interpretation of brain data could be helpful. In this paper the authors will discuss some of the issues involved in two basic techniques of cognitive neuroscience: single cell recordings and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The authors aim to improve the reader’s understanding of the kind of assumptions and inferences that help to bridge the gap between data and interpretation.


W.F.G. Haselager
Dr. Pim Haselager is als associate professor verbonden aan het Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour van de Radboud Universiteit.

F. Leoné
Frank Leoné, MSc is promovendus bij het Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour van de Radboud Universiteit.

D.A.G. van Toor
Dave van Toor, LLM, BSc is als junior docent/promovendus verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit.
Artikel

Actieve verantwoordelijkheid in het strafrecht

Naar een brede opvatting van ‘recht doen’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden retrospective responsibility, prospective responsibility, virtues, therapeutic jurisprudence, rehabilitation
Auteurs B.A.M. van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Criminal justice is oriented at retrospective responsibility: examining whether the defendant is guilty and imposing a punishment that fits the crime. In this article it is argued that prospective responsibility needs more attention: taking responsibility. We have to remind the offender of his obligations: pay his debt, repair the harm done, work to change his behaviour and enhancing his situation. We should also take account of the interests and needs of the persons concerned. It is also argued that stimulating active responsibility should take place within the logics of ‘doing justice’. Criminal justice cannot respond to the imperatives of care, well-being and problem-solving.


B.A.M. van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Particuliere beveiligers als publieke handhavers

De inzet van private boa’s door gemeenten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden private security officers, public surveillance, public private partnership, local government, police work
Auteurs J. Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch local governments increasingly decide to contract private security officers for surveillance and enforcement tasks in the public space. This article presents an analysis of the daily work of these private security officers. Local governments contract these private workers because they are faced with problems of social disorder and crime. Although the police should formally manage the work of these private security workers, in practice this task is hardly realized. These private workers are faced with four problems: their work is boring, they are uncertain about what they are expected to do, don’t know exactly what their formal powers are, and are unsatisfied about their lack of means for self-defence. Although they don’t differ in their work style from their public colleagues, their position as private worker and the flexible job they have, are hard to reconcile with what they are expected to do (like reassuring citizens).


J. Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar Criminologie verbonden aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

De opmars van de private veiligheidszorg

Een nationaal en internationaal perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden private security companies, private security figures, public-private partnership, police, crime prevention
Auteurs J. de Waard en R. van Steden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Private security is traditionally a highly fragmented industry with a national focus. However, with the arrival of multinational brands in the market such as Group 4 Securicor and Securitas, we are witnessing a rise of global private security. After providing the latest statistics on the growth of this industry in the Netherlands, the authors give examples of how private security is evolving throughout the world. Issues that are further addressed include the opportunities and challenges (multinational) private security companies present to the Netherlands.


J. de Waard
Drs. Jaap de Waard is werkzaam bij de directie Rechtshandhaving van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

R. van Steden
Dr. Ronald van Steden is als universitair docent verbonden aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De rol van Falck in de Deense brandbestrijding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden firefighting Denmark, history of Falck, private fire brigade, public private partnership, regional crisis management
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Denmark fire fighting is a responsibility of the local authorities, but since nearly a century communities have the possibility to outsource these duties to private companies. Falck is the dominant player on this private market. The same goes for other emergency services. The author describes the story of its founder Sophus Falck, the historical roots of Falck and how the company achieved the status of a reliable partner for the authorities. The legal basis for private firms in fire fighting is discussed as well as costs and quality of the services in an international perspective. The author concludes that Falck is a typical Danish phenomenon and the Danish model cannot be copied by other countries without restriction. At the same time the Danish experience learns that market competition may have a positive effect on the cost efficiency of fire fighting.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is lector bij de juridische faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse in Amsterdam.
Artikel

De privatisering van politietaken in Engeland en Wales

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden police in England and Wales, budget cuts, privatisation, back office work, new localism
Auteurs B. Loveday
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The period of austerity which most of Europe is now experiencing is for the first time impacting on law and orders services, particularly the police service. This article gives an overview of the debate in England and Wales on the decision of the Coalition government to cut 20% to police spending and police numbers. An important instrument to reach this goal is the private outsourcing of tasks performed in the back office. The author discusses the public views on the performance and reliability of private security companies. Also the high rise of public police expenses are discussed against the background of declining crime levels.


B. Loveday
Barry Loveday is als reader in criminal justice administration verbonden aan het Institute of Criminal Justice Studies van de University of Portsmouth.
Artikel

Private rechtspraak: online én offline een realiteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden E-courts, alternative dispute resolution, online dispute resolution, eBay, Paypal
Auteurs C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh en T. van Zuijlen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Private administration of justice is an online and offline reality. In this article the reality of online dispute resolution (ODR) is explored, using the example of eBay (60 million conflicts taken on each year). The issue of jurisdiction in online cases is clarified and an analysis is made of the causes of the propagation of ODR. Finally the new phenomenon of online dispute prevention (ODP) is examined. This leads to the conclusion that ODR started as an alternative form of dispute settlement, but more and more becomes a substitute for the public administration of justice.


C.N.J. de Vey Mestdagh
Dr. mr. Kees de Vey Mestdagh is hoofd van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Groningen, www.rechtenict.nl, e-mail c.n.j.de.vey.mestdagh@rug.nl.

T. van Zuijlen
Tim van Zuijlen is student van de master Recht & ICT van het Centrum voor Recht & ICT.
Artikel

Marktwerking in het forensisch onderzoek: toekomst of toekomstmuziek?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden forensic research in the Netherlands, competition in forensic research, pilot project commercial forensic research, quality of forensic research, closure of Forensic Science Service United Kingdom
Auteurs N. Struiksma en H.B. Winter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For a long time the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) was the sole provider of forensic services in the Netherlands. Since the beginning of this century, several other private forensic institutes have been established. These institutes partly deliver the same products and services as the NFI, including for the police and judicial authorities. This article discusses the results from a pilot project in which police and judicial authorities were given additional opportunities for furnishing assignments to private investigation agencies instead of the NFI. A budget of EUR 3.5 million was provided. Many respondents viewed the speed of the investigations and reports by private forensic institutes as a very positive aspect of outsourcing to these institutes. On four out of five aspects (transparency, clarity, bureaucracy and readability), the private institutes scored better than the NFI. The NFI scored better on ‘safety’. Despite the positive experiences with outsourcing, the Minister of Security and Justice decided not to follow up the pilot. Although the police and prosecution are free to use the services of the private institutes, it is unlikely that they’ll do so very often because the investigation costs will be at the expense of their budget. The bill for the services provided by the NFI however is sent to the ministry. Therefore the NFI can continue operating as a monopolist.


N. Struiksma
Mr. Niko Struiksma is directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek en advies.

H.B. Winter
Prof. dr. Heinrich Winter is directeur van Pro Facto, bureau voor bestuurskundig en juridisch onderzoek en advies. Winter is daarnaast als universitair hoofddocent en bijzonder hoogleraar Toezicht verbonden aan de Juridische Faculteit van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Artikel

De evaluatie van Nederland in het kader van de Universal Periodic Review

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review, human rights in the Netherlands, human rights policy, international human rights treaties
Auteurs P.A.M. Verrest en T. Dopheide
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) was created by the Human Rights Council in 2006 as a tool to evaluate human rights standards in all 192 countries of the United Nations. It should be distinguished from the reviews by treaty-based bodies. These bodies are composed of independent experts and monitor the implementation of the human rights treaties. The UPR, on the other hand, is a peer review among countries on the whole spectrum of human rights. The Netherlands was evaluated for the second time in 2012. This article describes the background and procedure of the UPR. It then focuses more specific on the session of the Netherlands, by giving an impression of topics that were raised, as well as some reflections on both the session and the UPR itself.


P.A.M. Verrest

T. Dopheide
Mr. dr. Pieter Verrest en mw. mr. Tessa Dopheide waren namens het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie betrokken bij respectievelijk het tweede en eerste landenexamen van Nederland in het kader van de UPR. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

De bestrijding van etnische discriminatie: van speerpunt tot non-issue?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden discrimination, ethnicity, antidiscrimination policy in the Netherlands, human rights, right-wing extremism
Auteurs R. Witte en M.P.C. Scheepmaker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of various measures, initiatives and developments regarding to the fight against discrimination in the Netherlands since 1971. It also gives a short overview of relevant international treaties on discrimination and the obligations for the parties involved. The political and societal attention for combating discrimination has decreased in recent years. There is a tendency to deny that discrimination is a real problem. Also the tone of voice in the public debate on integration of ethnic minorities has hardened. Nowadays, antidiscrimination policies and initiatives take place at the local level and state involvement is limited to facilitating support. The registration of discrimination complaints continues to be a problem and minor progress has been made in the last twenty years.


R. Witte
Dr. Rob Witte is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan IVA Beleidsonderzoek & Advies te Tilburg.

M.P.C. Scheepmaker
Mr. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

De inbreng van ngo’s bij het Nederlandse mensenrechtenexamen

Een terug- en vooruitblik door Amnesty International

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Human Rights Council, Universal Periodic Review, human rights in the Netherlands, Amnesty International, non-governmental organizations
Auteurs C. Mommers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The UPR is an increasingly important instrument for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to advocate for the protection and promotion of human rights in the Netherlands. In this article, the way that NGOs have used the UPR in relation to the Netherlands will be discussed. This will be done primarily from the perspective of Amnesty International. The article first outlines how NGOs can contribute to the UPR process. Subsequently, it discusses the substantive input provided by Amnesty International for the review of the Netherlands. Finally, the potential impact of this intervention on the promotion and protection of human rights on the ground in the Netherlands will be considered. This impact will depend, inter alia, on the de-politicization of the UPR, the credibility of the process, the follow-up of recommendations made during the review and, prominently, the political will of the incoming government.


C. Mommers
Drs. Christian Mommers is als senior medewerker Politieke Zaken verbonden aan Amnesty International, afdeling Nederland.
Artikel

Het internationaal recht en de gesloten jeugdzorg

Adviezen voor de praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden closed youth care, International Child Rights Convention, freedom of expression, standard of living, education
Auteurs S.J. Höfte, G.H.P. van der Helm en G.J.J.M. Stams
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During childhood, a child is entitled to receive special care and assistance. The child’s best interest should be a primary objective. The Dutch government has an obligation to guarantee the children rights. But do the closed youth care accommodations meet the requirements as stated in the International Child Rights Convention, as far as deprivation of liberty and treatment under coercion are concerned? The study concluded that some closed youth care institutions do not meet the requirements as stated in the above mentioned Convention. There is often no possibility of free expression, physical complaints may not be taken seriously, an adequate standard of living is not always provided and the level of education is often too low. Most of the minors indicate that they are bored during their stay in the accommodations. On this basis, limiting the fundamental rights of these youngsters is currently surrounded with inadequate guarantees.


S.J. Höfte
Mr. Susanne Höfte is jurist. Zij studeerde recent af aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen met een scriptie over de gesloten jeugdzorg.

G.H.P. van der Helm
Dr. Peer van der Helm is werkzaam bij het lectoraat Jeugdzorg en Jeugdbeleid van de Hogeschool Leiden.

G.J.J.M. Stams
Prof. dr. Geert Jan Stams is hoogleraar Forensische Orthopedagogiek aan de Faculteit der Maatschappij- en Gedragswetenschappen van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het Nederlandse detentierecht naar internationale maatstaven

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden Dutch detention law, human rights, prison conditions, female prisoners, prison staff
Auteurs G. de Jonge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch detention law seems to meet all standards of the normative European Prison Rules. There is however no reason for self-satisfaction, because other relevant international standards have so far received little attention. The author discusses the Bangkok Rules, the Istanbul Protocol, the Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikers and the European Code of Ethics for Prison Staff. All of these documents give rise to adaptations or additions of existing Dutch penitentiary law. The author suggests that it would be best to develop a new general detention law containing basic norms for the treatment of everyone deprived of his freedom, irrespective of the detention’s legal title.


G. de Jonge
Prof. dr. Gerard de Jonge is emeritus bijzonder hoogleraar Detentierecht aan de Universiteit Maastricht.
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