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Artikel

Access_open Defensiehulp in het licht van een pluraliserende politiefunctie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden military assistance, plural policing, armed forces
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Sander Eijgenraam MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on military assistance of the Dutch police with forensic expertise by the army (not being the Dutch gendarmerie, the Koninklijke Marechaussee). The assistance basically consists of helping with search activities, with analysis and observations, all key functions within policing. The central question is: to what extent is this specific military assistance an example of plural policing? Today the armed forces are an essential part of a wider security policy, because the various types of national and international security are increasingly interconnected. This stresses the importance to involve the army in social (national) security. The forensic military assistance the authors studied does, however, not comprise law enforcement or patrolling in public spaces. With that in mind, this kind of assistance cannot automatically be labelled as plural policing. On the other hand, the military assistance contributes to a safe society and from that point of view it is an example of plural policing.


Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E. Bervoets is zelfstandig criminoloog en bestuurskundige en eigenaar van Bureau Bervoets.

Sander Eijgenraam MSc
A. Eijgenraam MSc is socioloog en nam als onderzoeker samen met Bervoets deel aan het onderzoek Defensiehulp voor het Programma Politie en Wetenschap.
Artikel

Hybridisering van de zwaardmachten: realiteit of fictie?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden militarization of the police, constabularisation of the military, peace support operations, blurring of police and military functions, high-end policing
Auteurs Dr. Peter Neuteboom en Hans Hovens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    National and international security are becoming increasingly interdependent. The question is whether this leads to a certain level of militarization of the police and constibularisation of the military. In some of their operations and units, the Dutch police apply tactics, technologies and organizational principles that resemble those of the military. The police also contribute to international peace support operations and stability missions to train or monitor police in post-conflict areas. The Dutch army has been involved in some sort of interim policing during several stability missions and increasingly support the Dutch police in law enforcement operations by providing search and analytical support. Finally, as a police force with a military status, the Royal Marechaussee has acquired a structural and strong position in the Dutch police system. Although there is some sort of convergence, the authors conclude that the level of militarization of the police and constabularisation of the military remains limited.


Dr. Peter Neuteboom
Dr. P.C.J. Neuteboom is directeur Duurzaamheid en Opsporing bij de Inspectie Leefomgeving & Transport en research fellow bij de Nederlandse Defensie Academie.

Hans Hovens
J.L. Hovens is kolonel b.d. van de Koninklijke Marechaussee.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Auteurs Dr. Eric Bervoets en Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Eric Bervoets
Dr. E.J.A. Bervoets is bestuurskundige en criminoloog en zelfstandig gevestigd onderzoeker.

Mr.drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. M.P.C. Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Krijger als opsporingsambtenaar?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2018
Trefwoorden armed forces, law enforcement, criminal investigation, military operation, Rules of Engagement
Auteurs dr. Joop Voetelink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Netherlands armed forces are increasingly involved in activities within the Netherlands as well as abroad, that can be characterized as law enforcement. Military personnel, however, are not trained as law enforcement officials and perform these non-military tasks based on their military skills and drills. Nevertheless, their efforts eventually must lead to a criminal persecution of a suspect. Therefore, it is important that military personnel are well aware of the particular requirements set out by criminal procedures while planning and executing a military action and, whenever possible, operate in close collaboration with authorized law enforcement officials.


dr. Joop Voetelink
Kolonel dr. J.E.D. Voetelink is universitair hoofddocent militair recht aan de Nederlandse Defensie Academie (NLDA).
Redactioneel

Access_open Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Auteurs dr. Marc Schuilenburg en Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

dr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr.mr. M.B. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens lid van de redactieraad van Justitiële verkenningen.

Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Opgeruimd staat netjes

Over de sociologie van gebiedsverboden en de praktijk van het Collectief Winkelverbod

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden collective shopping ban, shoplifting, public space, purification, Mary Douglas
Auteurs Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the author reports on an ethnographic research conducted on the Collective Shopping Ban, a measure taken in the Netherlands in an effort to make shopkeepers co-responsible for maintaining safety and security. By describing the practice of the Collective Shopping Ban in The Hague, he investigates how the involved shopkeepers are dealing with offenses like theft, nuisance, intimidation, and vandalism. The author describes the sociological background of banning orders and what the banning of people means in terms of purification of public space.


Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. M. Schuilenburg doceert aan de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Het gebiedsverbod als wapen tegen verspreiding van jihadistisch gedachtegoed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden freedom of movement, religion and expression, counterterrorist measure, system of restrictions on fundamental rights, constitutional censorship prohibition
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer en Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In mid-August 2017, the Minister of Justice and Security prohibited the controversial preacher Jneid from exhibiting in the vicinity of ‘his’ bookshop, annex mosque in the Schilderswijk in The Hague. By means of this ban, the minister wanted to prevent Jneid from carrying out his ‘intolerant’ message any longer in an environment where many young people are susceptible to radicalization. The Temporary Act on Counterterrorism was supposed to provide an adequate basis for such a ban. This article argues that a measure restricting the freedom of movement with the aim of preventing someone from conveying his message is against the constitutional prohibition of censorship and may therefore not be imposed.


Prof. mr. dr. Jan Brouwer
Prof. mr. dr. J.G. Brouwer is hoogleraar-directeur van het Centrum voor Openbare Orde en Veiligheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

Prof. mr. Jon Schilder
Prof. mr. A.E. Schilder is hoogleraar staats- en bestuursrecht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Staatloosheid als moderne vorm van uitsluiting

Naar een duurzame oplossing voor staatlozen in Nederland

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden statelessness, determination procedure, legislative proposal, limbo, exclusion
Auteurs Marlotte van Dael MSc, Mr. Jelle Klaas en Loïs Vaars LLM
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article maps the current Dutch practice on statelessness, and tries to expose the current issues in particular. The published legislative proposal for a statelessness determination procedure in September 2016 is an attempt by the Dutch government to solve part of these problems after wide criticism from, among others, the Advisory Committee on Migration Affairs (ACVZ) in 2013. The introduction of a statelessness determination procedure is a long awaited development and a step in the right direction with a view of improving current practice and law for stateless persons residing in the Netherlands. However, significant deficiencies in the legislative proposal risk to greatly undermine the operation and value of the new procedure, especially for those currently left in limbo and excluded from society. This article focuses on the shortcomings in the procedure and provides recommendations how to revise these to ensure that stateless persons are enabled to demonstrate their statelessness adequately and obtain the rights associated with it as intended in the Statelessness Conventions signed by the Netherlands.


Marlotte van Dael MSc
M. van Dael MSc is als projectcoördinator en onderzoeker staatloosheid verbonden aan het ASKV/Steunpunt Vluchtelingen.

Mr. Jelle Klaas
Mr. J. Klaas is mensenrechtenadvocaat en Litigation Director NJCM.

Loïs Vaars LLM
L. Vaars LLM is dossierhouder staatloosheid bij het Public Interest Litigation Project (PILP).
Artikel

Ruim baan? Uitsluiting en zelfuitsluiting van de arbeidsmarkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden criminal records, screening, young adults, labor market, self-exclusion
Auteurs Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands, the number of criminal record screenings performed each year skyrocketed to more than one million. Yet, empirical evidence on its effects has been largely absent. In this article the author addresses parts of the findings of her PhD research, which aimed to fill this gap, by providing a subjective perspective of how having a criminal record impacts the process of re-entry into society, particularly into the labor market, for young adults. It is based on the lived experiences of 31 young adults having a criminal record who were followed during their process of reintegration into the labor market. The vivid, real-life stories of young adults’ strategies of dealing with the stigma of a criminal record, and how this subsequently influences their position in the labor market, highlight the counterproductive effects of increasingly widespread criminal record screening. They provide evidence that many young adults adopt self-exclusion as a strategy for avoiding rejection and exclusion.


Dr. mr. Elina van ’t Zand-Kurtovic
Dr. mr. E.G. van ’t Zand-Kurtovic is als universitair docent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Access_open Verbanning uit het semipublieke domein

Toegangsverboden in juridisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2018
Trefwoorden The semi-public domain, Misconduct, Exclusion orders, Civil court, Complaints committees
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The semi-public domain covers the places that are accessible to the public but which are controlled by private entities. Shopping malls, public transport, bars and sports events are examples of such places. In case of misconduct, the private manager may impose exclusion orders. This sanction relies on legal contracts and the exclusive nature of the right to property. The legal framework consists therefore primarily of private law. Exclusion orders may not be imposed without reason. Prevention of disorder and harm may be a legitimate reason. The length and range of the ban must relate to the gravity of the disruption. In addition to this, public laws on non-discrimination and privacy are applicable. The civil court is competent to check the exclusion orders in de semi-public domain. The author sees added value in complaints committees, in which both public and private actors partake. Complaint committees can thrive if their assessment frameworks are transparent.


Mr. dr. Mandy van Rooij
Mr. dr. A.E. van Rooij verdedigde in 2017 aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam haar proefschrift Orde in het semipublieke domein. Particuliere en publiek-private orderegulering in juridisch perspectief, uitgegeven bij Boom juridisch (Den Haag). Deze bijdrage is gebaseerd op dit promotieonderzoek. Inmiddels is zij werkzaam als wetgevingsjurist bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en verbonden als onderzoeker aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de VU.
Artikel

Enkele kanttekeningen bij de Wiv 2017

De uitbreiding van bevoegdheden getoetst aan mensenrechten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Snowden disclosures, Dilemma’s, Checks and balances, Human rights
Auteurs Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk en Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 extends the (special) powers of the intelligence and security services and introduces a new system of checks and balances. In this article several of the most impactful changes and underlying issues are discussed. They include the technology neutral approach, the new bulk surveillance powers, oversight (its role, tasks, independence and the use of outside experts), complaints and whistleblowers procedure, the lack of appeal procedures and the exchange of information with foreign agencies.


Prof. dr. Nico van Eijk
Prof. dr. N.A.N.M. van Eijk is hoogleraar informatierecht verbonden aan het Instituut voor Informatierecht (IViR, Universiteit van Amsterdam), www.ivir.nl/employee/eijk.

Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman is ondervoorzitter van het College voor de Rechten van de Mens en lector Toegang tot het Recht bij de Hogeschool Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

De Snowden-onthullingen en ongerichte interceptie onder de Wiv 2017

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Snowden, Untargeted bulk interception, New Dutch Security Services Act, Mass surveillance, XKEYSCORE
Auteurs Mr. Peter Koop
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This year, the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017) will come into force. It’s most controversial part is the untargeted bulk interception of internet and telephone cables, where previously this was only allowed for wireless communication links. Since June 2013, the Snowden revelations led to a fear for mass surveillance of ordinary citizens by NSA and GCHQ. The original documents however show that their collection programs are actually focused at valid foreign intelligence targets. Where the British and Americans have online and realtime filtering systems, the Dutch will store the communications from untargeted cable interception for up to three years. Also the Dutch will lack the opportunity of XKEYSCORE to find anonymous internet communications, as they will select content just as targeted as is the case with traditional wiretaps. Therefore, the main improvement for Dutch intelligence appears to be a much greater access to metadata


Mr. Peter Koop
Mr. P.J.F. Koop schrijft over signals intelligence, communications security en top level telecommunications op zijn weblog www.electrospaces.blogspot.nl en is sinds kort als gastonderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute of Security and Global Affairs van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Paddenstoelen, prikkeldraadversperringen en sleepnetten

Metaforen in de Nederlandse inlichtingengeschiedenis

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Dr. Constant Hijzen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since intelligence and espionage are so secret by nature, discussing it proves to be rather difficult. Debates about intelligence therefore tend to be fought with metaphors. Using Johnson’s and Lakoff’s idea that metaphors provide conceptual frameworks and thus have real-world effects, as well as Butler’s idea of performative power, this article has explored the most widely used metaphors in Dutch intelligence history. The Dutch security services have been depicted, in a wide variety of images, broadly as remnants of the past (ruins or ‘anachronisms’), as spies on wooden shoes, as a stowaway of democracy, and as a state within the state. Since the civil servants and politicians almost always felt the need to respond to these metaphors, by providing explanation, nuance, and facts – or by introducing a competing metaphor – it is argued that these metaphors have real-world effects, showing how the security service was positioned in politics and society.


Dr. Constant Hijzen
Dr. C.W. Hijzen is gepromoveerd op het proefschrift Vijandbeelden: de veiligheidsdiensten en de democratie, 1912-1992 (2016). Hij is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs en aan het Instituut Geschiedenis (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

Intelligence leadership

Leidinggeven in het schemerdonker tussen geheim en openbaar

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence leadership, Intelligence and security services, Transparency, Political accountability, Reform
Auteurs Prof. dr. Paul Abels
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article highlights the special position of European heads of intelligence and security services. In the search for important characteristics of intelligence leadership through time, a comparison is made between five services from five different countries (Germany, France, the Netherlands, Greece and Spain). Using Anglo-American reference information and a leadership typology developed by intelligence expert Robarge, the consecutive heads of service in these European countries are profiled and categorized. This leads to a picture that has always been dominated by males, a strong military presence and many end-of-career heads. Their influence on the internal and external service development was often substantial, with alternate appointments of inside and outside reformers. The scale of openness usually constituted a struggle with both the inside and outside world. Nowadays, the heads are being confronted with new challenges and demands, which leads to the conclusion that a new form of ‘distributed’ or ‘interdependent’ leadership is required, in which old reflexes to appoint people with an operational, military or police background as heads of these services are no longer self-evident.


Prof. dr. Paul Abels
Prof. dr. P.A.H.M. Abels is bijzonder hoogleraar Governance of Intelligence and Security Services bij het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (ISGA) van de Universiteit Leiden. Hij is ook raadadviseur bij de Nationaal Coördinator Terrorismebestrijding en Veiligheid (NCTV). Dit artikel kwam tot stand met medewerking van Julia van Heesewijk, Roderik Stol, Stefanos K. Skafidas, Robin van der Burgh, Giandrick Dabian en Marijn Adams.
Artikel

Zwijgen is zilver en spreken is goud

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff en Dr. Constant Hijzen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Although traditionally, it has been argued that intelligence and security services can barely be discussed in public – a veil of secrecy makes a thorough and informed debate almost impossible, the outside world is ignorant, say the insiders – we argue that today’s mature civil society does not accept that anymore. Although the government has struggled to address social anxiety and political criticism in the past decades, communication and strategic discussions have never received proper attention. Due to the technological changes, affecting the intelligence practice as well as daily life of citizens, the authors argue that the positioning of intelligence and security services in the broader democratic state should receive structural attention and sustainable communication efforts.


Prof. dr. Bob de Graaff
Prof. dr. B.G.J. de Graaff is hoogleraar intelligence and security studies aan de Universiteit Utrecht, www.uu.nl/medewerkers/bgjgraaff/0.

Dr. Constant Hijzen
Dr. C.W. Hijzen is als universitair docent verbonden aan de vakgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs en aan het Instituut Geschiedenis (Universiteit Leiden).
Artikel

Toezicht in de Wiv 2017

Kansen en uitdagingen voor een effectief en sterk toezichtstelsel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017, Oversight, Effectiveness, Safeguards, Mass Surveillance
Auteurs Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The new Intelligence and Security Services Act 2017 has generated a lot of criticism in The Netherlands. Although the act was adopted in parliament in July 2017, the implementation will take place in May 2018. Beforehand an advisory referendum will give the public the opportunity to express their opinion on the new act: the modernisation of the investigatory powers of the services and the strengthening of the necessary safeguards and oversight mechanisms. Both have met with their share of criticism. In this paper the focus is on the enhanced oversight mechanism. It is argued that although different choices could have been made regarding the organisation of oversight, the new system fulfills the requirements set by the European Court of Human Rights. The real question is whether the new act provides for effective and strong oversight in practice to ensure a proper balance between national security and privacy protection in this digital era. The opportunities and challenges are explored.


Mr. dr. Mireille Hagens
Mr. dr. M. Hagens is senior-onderzoeker bij de Commissie van Toezicht op de Inlichtingen- en Veiligheidsdiensten (CTIVD) en gastonderzoeker bij de faculteit Recht, Economie, Bestuur en Organisatie van de Universiteit Utrecht. Deze bijdrage is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

In voor- en tegenspoed

Het huwelijk tussen parlement en inlichtingen- en veiligheidsdienst

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Auteurs Dr. Eleni Braat
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Secrecy complicates the relationship between intelligence and security services and their responsible ministers on the one hand, and members of parliament on the other. How can parliament deal constructively with intelligence and security services, despite the secrecy involved? This article presents a novel conceptual framework to analyse political relations influenced by secrecy, based on four recurring types of parliamentary reactions to intelligence and security services. The focus is a case study of the Dutch parliament and Security Service (BVD) between 1975 and 1995. The analysis demonstrates that constructive parliamentary dealings with secret services depend both on party-political responses to secrecy and strategic responses on the part of the secret services to ambiguous relationships with parliament. The presented typology of four recurring parliamentary reactions to intelligence and security services and the model for constructive parliamentary debate contribute to a better understanding of reasons and consequences of political and societal reactions to the new Dutch Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv).


Dr. Eleni Braat
Dr. E.C. Braat is als universitair docent Internationale Geschiedenis verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Voor meer informatie: www.uu.nl/medewerkers/ECBraat. Dit artikel is in uitgebreidere vorm gepubliceerd als Eleni Braat, ‘Recurring Tensions between Secrecy and Democracy: Arguments about the Security Service in the Dutch Parliament, 1975-1995’, Intelligence and National Security, vol. 31, nr. 4, p. 532-555.
Artikel

Inlichtingenwerk vanuit een methodologisch perspectief

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden Intelligence research, Methodology, Security threats, Unknown threats, a values and b values
Auteurs Dr. Gilliam de Valk en Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article compares criminal investigations and judicial research to intelligence research. Criminal investigations and judicial research focus on evidence and prosecution, while intelligence researchers don’t want to overlook any threats. Methodologically speaking: criminal investigations and judicial research focus on keeping a low α value, intelligence focusses on keeping a low ß value. This ß oriented research should lead to drastically different research design. ß-oriented research is a quest for the unknowns. Possible threats need to be neutralized, most of the times without a judicial review (by a judge). This absence of review, in combination with the additional special powers laid down in the revised Intelligence and Security Services Acts, should be reason for adjustment of the oversight.


Dr. Gilliam de Valk
Dr. G.G. de Valk is universitair docent bij de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden). Hij is gespecialiseerd in de methodologie van inlichtingenanalyses, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/giliam-de-valk#tab-1.

Mr.Drs. Willemijn Aerdts
Mr. Drs. W.J.M. Aerdts is als docent-onderzoeker verbonden aan de onderzoeksgroep Intelligence & Security van het Institute of Security and Global Affairs (Universiteit Leiden) en doet onderzoek op het terrein van inlichtingen naar methodologie, analysetechnieken en restdreiging, www.universiteitleiden.nl/medewerkers/willemijn-aerdts#tab-1.
Artikel

De Wiv 2002 en Wiv 2017 op enkele hoofdlijnen vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2018
Trefwoorden New Intelligence and Security Services Act, Advisory referendum, Powers of intelligence and security services, Safeguards, Supervision
Auteurs Drs. Rob Dielemans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Last year, Dutch parliament approved the proposal for a new Intelligence and Security Services Act (Wiv 2017). This law will replace the current Intelligence and Security Services Act 2002 (Wiv 2002). The Wiv 2017 should be considered feasible with effect from 1 May 2018. Before that time however, an advisory referendum on the new law will be held on 21 March. This article first discusses the nature of the law and the need for innovation. Subsequently, a comparison of both laws takes place in general terms, with regard to the powers of the intelligence and security services, the safeguards, the supervision, the complaint handling and the international cooperation between intelligence and security services. It is argued that the extension of the powers of the services in the Wiv 2017 is only limited in scope, while the safeguards have been considerably strengthened. The introduction of a binding judgment in complaint handling also contributes to a better and more effective legal protection for citizens.


Drs. Rob Dielemans
Drs. R.J.I. Dielemans is werkzaam bij de Directie Constitutionele Zaken en Wetgeving van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.
Artikel

Verdachten met een LVB in het politieverhoor

De invloed van verhoormethoden op de inhoud van verklaringen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2017
Trefwoorden interrogation methods and techniques, suspect and witness, (borderline) intellectual disability, false confessions, false statements
Auteurs P.R. Kranendonk MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The main goal of an interrogation is to elicit truthful information about the involvement of a suspect or witness in a criminal act. Some interrogation methods and techniques are useful for extracting information from otherwise unwilling suspects, but they can also elicit false confessions or statements from innocent (and vulnerable) suspects and witnesses. Multiple studies show that a large proportion of false confessions are made by suspects with an intellectual disability. Intellectual disabilities are often difficult to recognize, because of an individual’s streetwise behavior. This vulnerable group is extremely sensitive to suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Some interrogation methods and techniques used by the police can have a severe influence on these features and therefore on the reliability of statements. Given the overrepresentation of people with an intellectual disability in the Dutch criminal justice system, it is of great importance to prevent unwanted risks in the interrogation.


P.R. Kranendonk MSc
Robin Kranendonk MSc doet als promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) te Amsterdam onderzoek naar de knelpunten en risico’s bij het verhoren van verdachten en getuigen met een LVB.
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