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J.J. van Duijn
Prof. dr. Jaap van Duijn is oud-hoogleraar economie en oud-hoogleraar beleggingsleer. Van 1983 tot 2005 was hij verbonden aan de Robeco Groep en daar verantwoordelijk voor het beleggingsbeleid.

    The concept of risk and the practice of financial risk management are important factors in the present-day financial world. Handbooks explain this focus on risk as a reaction to increased volatility of prices, interest rates and exchange rates since the early 1970s. Financial economists have developed mathematical models and quantitative techniques to hedge the risks of financial transactions. The financial innovations developed in this process, so-called derivatives, are derived from older forms of intertemporal transactions, such as options, futures, forwards and warrants. The use of derivatives has grown rapidly since the early 1970s. A number of authors has pointed out that the widespread use of these financial instruments to hedge risks at the level of banks and corporations has increased systemic risk at the macro-level. Some authors think that risk management is principally impossible, as uncertainty reigns the world. Others have pointed out that financial organizations have used derivatives not only for risk management, but also for other less lofty organizational purposes, such as creating excessive credit and taking highly leveraged positions. While this criticism is generally valid, it should be realized that the use of quantitative techniques and the practice of derivatives cannot be banned from the present-day financial world.


W.G. Wolters
Prof. dr. Willem Wolters is als emeritus hoogleraar economische antropologie verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit in Nijmegen.

    The notion that animal abuse and domestic violence are related has been existing for centuries. Recent studies in the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Netherlands report evidence for this relation. In the western world, more than 50% of families have pets. They are often valued as members of the family. It is obvious that pets can be victims of family violence as well. The relation between animal abuse and domestic violence has many manifestations. Abused women reported violence against their pets, reported that their children abused the pets. Abused children, especially severely abused and/or sexually abused children, are more often than other children animal abusers. Animal abuse is often related to other violent behaviour or severe criminal acts later in life. Besides, animal abuse is an early diagnostic marker for psychopathology. Animal abuse is always a signal of a problematic situation. A greater awareness of the possible link between animal abuse and domestic violence could contribute to saving men, women, children and animals from violent situations.


M.J. Enders-Slegers
Dr. Marie-José Enders-Slegers is verbonden aan het departement Klinische en Gezondheidspsychologie van de Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2009
Auteurs M.P.C. Scheepmaker

M.P.C. Scheepmaker

    In March 2008 the Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality put forward a bill on animal welfare and animal health to the Dutch Parliament. In this bill five acts on kept animals are integrated. The authors discuss whether the integration is a goal in itself or means to an end. In their view the choice of legislation involved in the integration is not a logical one, and it is questionable whether this integration is necessary at all. Furthermore, the bill in its present form is not an adequate instrument to attain the policy goals in the field of animal welfare and animal health.


I.E. Boissevain
Mr. ing. Iaira Boissevain is als junior universitair docent verbonden aan de Leerstoel Dier en Recht en tevens docent Gerechtelijke Diergeneeskunde bij de faculteit Diergeneeskunde van de Universiteit Utrecht.

A.A. Freriks
Prof. mr. Annelies Freriks is hoogleraar Dier en Recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en tevens advocaat/partner bij AKD Prinsen Van Wijmen NV in Breda.
Artikel

‘There is no justice, just us’

Hoe de overheid dierenextremisme in de hand werkt

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2009
Auteurs E. Eskens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years the Dutch radical animal movement has manifested itself through arson, threats and destruction of property. This article describes the rise of the radical movement and its tendency towards violence. While the animal movement has its roots in nineteenth century romanticism, the anarchism of the sixties and the squatting movement of the eighties gave way to a more radical animal movement. The anti-establishment movement of the sixties turned against intensive farming. When the punk movement of the eighties freed itself from an overwhelming sense of doom, it gave rise to a new attitude, which rejected drugs, alcohol, and meat. The so-called Straight Edge Movement developed into one of the driving forces behind the recent animal related violence. Hiding behind the facade of the Animal Liberation Front the activists are strongly convinced that they have morality on their side while targeting farms, cattle trucks, and animal test facilities. Many animal activists feel that Dutch law as it is, does not protect animals in a sufficient way. Another problem is that animal laws are hardly being upheld. Inspections of farms, slaughterhouses and transportation vehicles are rare, prosecutors usually give no priority to animal cases, and judges and the rare judicial sentences are usually extremely mild. This leads radical activists to a conclusion that one of them wrote on a wall: ‘There is no justice, just us’.


E. Eskens
Drs. Erno Eskens studeerde filosofie en politicologie en is uitgever en bestuurslid van stichting Dier en Recht Nederland. Hij publiceerde onlangs het boek Democratie voor dieren (uitg. Contact).

    The increase of piracy attacks in the Horn of Africa as of 2007-2008 as well as its changing face towards types of maritime terrorism, has given rise to the question as to whether the contemporary system on the Laws of the High Seas needs to be revisited.
    In particular, the question merits thought as to the effectiveness of the adjudicatory system in piracy cases. At present, this is left into the hands of national jurisdictions to decide whether to investigate and prosecute such cases. However, the discretionary powers of states as to such prosecutions result in many lacunae. Should or could the International Criminal Court, instead of national jurisdictions, assume jurisdiction in these matters? If not, is there ample argument for the advent of an ad hoc international criminal tribunal on this area? In this article, answers to these queries will be provided.


G.G.J. Knoops
Prof. dr. mr. Geert-Jan Alexander Knoops is hoogleraar internationaal strafrecht en internationaal strafrechtadvocaat bij Knoops & Partners Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2009
Auteurs M.P.C. Scheepmaker

M.P.C. Scheepmaker

    In the past few years, an increasing number of Private Security Companies (PSCs) - also sometimes referred to as Private Military Companies (PMCs) - have emerged offering and conducting anti-piracy services. These companies offer services in addition to security provided by states and their government agencies. PSCs are today hired to provide anti-piracy services in different parts of the world, but mostly in strategically important waterways where piracy is a serious security concern. This article examines the employment of PSCs in two such waterways, namely the Malacca Straits and the Gulf of Aden, and discusses the risks, challenges and benefits of privatising maritime security.


C. Liss
Carolin Liss is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Asia Research Center van de Murdoch University in Perth, Australië.
Artikel

Zeeroof in Afrika

Mondiale en lokale verklaringen voor piratenactiviteit in Nigeria en Somalië

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2009
Auteurs S. Eklöf Amirell
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article aims to explain where, when, how and why piratical activity has taken off in Nigeria and Somalia since the 1970s. The geographical and historical conditions of the continent are compared with those of the other main region of piratical activity in the world during recent decades, Southeast Asia. A critical evaluation is then made of the available information concerning the problem and the different possible, local and global, explanations for the recent surge in African piracy, including opportunity, inequality and the proliferation of small and light weapons. The widespread notion that contemporary piracy can be explained with reference to state failure is challenged, and the rise of organized piratical activity, particularly in the Niger Delta and off the Somali coast, is instead understood as a result of the interaction of local social and political dynamics with transnational and global influences.


S. Eklöf Amirell
Dr. Stefan Eklöf Amirell is als associate professor verbonden aan het Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm.

    Recent years have seen a surge in piracy in the Gulf of Aden, followed by growing international involvement in pursuing pirates off the Somali coast. The piracy problem is multifaceted and includes complex geopolitical, regional, legal and operational challenges. But the commitment demonstrated by a broad range of actors to fight piracy in Somali waters also offers unique opportunities. The unprecedented awareness of and attention to the region's insecurity provides international stakeholders with the momentum to strengthen their ties and address the root causes. This article gives a comprehensive account of the piracy issue and presents recommendations to nations engaged in counter-piracy activities.


B. van Ginkel
Mr. Bibi van Ginkel is verbonden aan het Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme van het Instituut Clingendael in Den Haag.

J. Hemmer
Drs. Jort Hemmer is verbonden aan het Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme van het Instituut Clingendael in Den Haag.

S. Kamerling
Drs. Susanne Kamerling is verbonden aan het Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme van het Instituut Clingendael in Den Haag.

F.-P. van der Putten
Dr. Frans-Paul van der Putten is verbonden aan het Clingendael Security and Conflict Programme van het Instituut Clingendael in Den Haag.
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