Zoekresultaat: 149 artikelen

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Artikel

Stapels koopwaar als eene bestendige aanlokking voor dieven’. De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

De economische visie op criminaliteit en criminaliteitscontrole in de haven van Antwerpen (1880-1940)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden governance of security, private security, crime control, situational crime prevention, loss prevention
Auteurs Drs. P. Leloup
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on the manner in which between 1880 and 1940 private actors in the port of Antwerp, whether or not in cooperation with the public authorities, interpreted crime and crime control in terms of risk management, loss prevention and situational crime prevention through a strict economic approach, as opposed to the then dominant institutionalized and criminological discourse. Whereas crime control by the major criminal justice institutions put an emphasis on the biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of the offender, measures taken by maritime, industrial and commercial organizations were aimed exclusively at manipulating the temporal and spatial dimensions of the opportunity structures in which criminal activities, which posed a threat to the economic profitability, could develop.


Drs. P. Leloup
Drs. P. Leloup is verbonden aan de Crime & Society (CRiS)-onderzoeksgroep van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Recht en Criminologie, is houder van masterdiploma’s geschiedenis (Universiteit Gent, 2009) en criminologische wetenschappen (Universiteit Gent, 2012) en werkt aan een proefschrift over de ontwikkeling van de private veiligheidszorg in België, getiteld ‘The development of the private security industry in Belgium (1907-1990). A historical-criminological perspective on contemporary changes in security and crime control’.
Artikel

A comparative analysis of the Dutch specific instance procedure

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Dutch specific instance procedure, National Contact Point, OECD, MNE Guidelines
Auteurs Sander van ’t Foort en Joseph Wilde-Ramsing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article investigates the functioning of the Dutch National Contact Point (NCP) during the specific instance procedure based on shared experiences of parties involved in a specific instance procedure, the stipulations of the OECD’s Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and the Dutch Government Decree 2014. NCPs function as a unique implementation mechanism of these guidelines by providing mediation and conciliation services during specific instance procedures. The recent debate in the Netherlands on the functioning of the Dutch NCP and the lack of rigorous up-to-date research necessitate further research on this topic. Hence, this article shares more in-depth knowledge about the functioning of the Dutch NCP, contributes to the ongoing debate in Parliament and in the OECD on the functioning of NCPs, and presents suggestions for further improvement.


Sander van ’t Foort
Sander van ’t Foort is researcher en doet promotieonderzoek aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Hij is lid van het academisch netwerk van de OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.

Joseph Wilde-Ramsing
Joseph Wilde-Ramsing is senior researcher aan het Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO), coördinator van de OECD Watch network, en co-auteur van de OECD Watch’s 2015 report ‘Remedy Remains Rare’, www.oecdwatch.org/remedy-remains-rare.
Artikel

The legacy and current relevance of Cappelletti and the Florence project on access to justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden definition and dimensions access to justice, recommendations, historic context access to justice, current context access to justice
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explains what access to justice can encompass and how the ideals about access to justice have developed in time. The way to do this is going back to the work of the famous scholars Cappelletti and Garth, who were responsible for a worldwide project on access to justice in the 1970s. Their main issue was to explain access to justice is more than the access to a judge and the organization of courts. Primarily, the system must be equally accessible to all, irrespective of social or economic status or other incapacity. But it also must lead to results that are individually and socially just and fair. Equal access and effective access are the central notions. Their work is put in perspective. The importance of their legacy and the question how we can get along with their work are stressed. Their definition is compared to a few other authoritative definitions. The waves in the history of access to justice are described and putting them in the current context illustrates why a fourth waved can be observed. The major question to be answered is how one can assess the challenges and obstacles of access to justice in the current context. Therefore, some recent dimensions and developments within access to justice are presented: the democratic dimension, the effectiveness of new social rights, the attention for poor and vulnerable people, further juridification, expanding frontiers of and monitoring access to justice, e-justice, and self-help. Finally, a few building blocks for reforms are presented.


Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.
Artikel

Social security and social welfare: barriers and retrograde policies, but cause for optimism?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden social security, legal representation, means-testing, Britain, fees
Auteurs Amir Paz-Fuchs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution addresses the limits placed on access to justice in the context of social services, with a particular, but not exclusive, focus on the UK, across five central platforms: legal representation, the financial barriers, the structure of the programme, the attitude of the bureaucracy, and the personal attributes of the client. The contribution finds that there exist, for decades, problematic elements that constitute barriers to justice in this area: the means-tested element in the programmes and the bureaucracy’s double role as provider of services and detector of fraud. But to them, in recent years, significant barriers were added: recent cuts in legal aid and the imposition of tribunal fees in the UK are retrograde steps, reverting 40 years of impressive achievements in the field.


Amir Paz-Fuchs
Amir Paz-Fuchs (D. Phil Oxford) is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Sussex, where he teaches employment law, public law, and legal theory. In addition, he is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and a Research Associate at Wolfson College, both at the University of Oxford. He is also Co-Director of the ‘The Limits of Privatization’ research project, based at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem. He also served on the board of several human rights and social justice NGOs.

Roel Pieterman
Roel Pieterman is als rechtssocioloog verbonden aan de Erasmus School of Law. Hij houdt zich bezig met onderzoek naar de maatschappelijke omgang met risico’s en potentiële dreigingen. Daarover publiceerde hij recent De voorzorgcultuur (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2008), een themanummer van de Erasmus Law Review over ‘The many facets of precautionary culture’ (2009) en samen met Ira Helsloot en Jaap Hanekamp Risico’s en redelijkheid (Den Haag: Boom Juridische uitgevers 2010).
Jurisprudentie

Collectieve acties uit solidariteit, als correlarium van de vrijheid van collectief overleg (artikel 6 ESH) en van de vrijheid van vakvereniging (artikel 11 EVRM)

HR 31 oktober 2014, JAR 2014/298 (Enerco)

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Staking, Enerco, Solidariteit, Euopees Sociaal Handvest, EVRM
Auteurs F. Dorssemont
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    HR 31 oktober 2014, JAR 2014/298 (Enerco)
    In 2014 dienden twee hoge rechtscolleges een uitspraak te doen over de rechtmatigheid van collectieve acties die in het teken stonden van solidariteit. Het meest recente arrest is van Hollandse bodem. Op 31 oktober 2014 sprak de Hoge Raad zich uit over de voorziening in cassatie die FNV Bondgenoten en de vakvereniging Het Zwarte Korps inleidden tegen een arrest van het Gerechtshof Arnhem-Leeuwarden. Nagenoeg acht maanden eerder diende het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens zich uit te spreken over de vraag of de Britse wettelijke bepalingen die solidariteitsstakingen (secondary actions) verboden een aantasting inhielden van de door artikel 11 EVRM gewaarborgde vrijheid van vakvereniging. In deze bijdrage wordt het arrest van de Hoge Raad geanalyseerd en geduid. Het Enerco-arrest wordt in drievoud gecontextualiseerd. De eerste contextualisering is van rechtsvergelijkende aard. In een tweede beweging wordt onderzocht hoe de door de Hoge Raad gegeven interpretatie van artikel 6 ESH zich verhoudt tot de ‘jurisprudentie’ (lees: de conclusies van het Europees Comité voor Sociale Rechten) en met enkele spraakmakende commentaren van het Europees Sociaal Handvest in verband met de rechtspositie van de uit solidariteit gevoerde collectieve actie. Tot slot wordt het Enerco-arrest geconfronteerd met het arrest RMT/VK


F. Dorssemont
F. Dorssemont is hoogleraar aan de UCLouvain (België).
Redactioneel

De bestudering van criminaliteit op macroniveau: een inleiding

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden macro criminology, theory, crime drop, punitive turn, micro-macro problem
Auteurs Dr. Frank Weerman, Dr. André van der Laan, Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory article we introduce the subject of our thematic issue on ‘macro criminology’, and illustrate it with a short historical overview and examples of ‘typical macro criminological’ research. Successively we address the recent decrease in crime in many Western countries (the ‘crime drop’), the increased tendency to punish more severely in the last decennia (the ‘punitive turn’), and historical developments in homicide (‘history of violence’). After that we address an important theoretical and philosophical problem with regard to macro criminology: the balance between micro and macro factors in explaining macro phenomena. Finally, the contributions of this thematic issue are introduced.


Dr. Frank Weerman
Dr. F.M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. André van der Laan
Dr. A.M. van der Laan is senior onderzoeker bij de afdeling Criminaliteit Rechtshandhaving en Sancties (CRS) van het WODC.

Prof. Ineke Haen Marshall
Prof. I.H. Marshall is Professor bij de School of Criminology and Criminal Justice en de Department of Sociology & Anthropology van de Northeastern University in Boston (VS).

Prof. dr. Lieven Pauwels
Prof. dr. L.J.R. Pauwels is directeur van de Onderzoeksgroep Sociale Veiligheidsanalyse binnen de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent.

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.
Artikel

Naar marktgerichte regulering van netwerksectoren

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden tariefregulering, natuurlijk monopolie, marktproces, deregulering, onderhandelingsmodel
Auteurs Dr. Bert Tieben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Toezichthouders concluderen te snel dat netwerkgebonden markten een natuurlijk monopolie zijn waarvoor regulering nodig is. Marktprocestheorieën leggen de nadruk op de betwistbaarheid van ieder monopolie, ook in infrastructurele markten. Het gevolg is dat regulering en toezicht meer op afstand geplaatst kunnen worden. De marktprocesbenadering is ook toepasbaar in Nederlandse markten, zoals de energie, de telecommunicatie, luchthavens en de loodsen.


Dr. Bert Tieben
Dr. L.A.W. Tieben is Hoofd cluster Mededinging en Regulering, SEO Economisch Onderzoek.
Artikel

Scientific misconduct: how organizational culture plays its part

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden scientific misconduct, organizational culture, social control
Auteurs Rita Faria PhD student
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Scientific misconduct takes place at the heart of higher education organizations. Organizational culture (meso level) shapes scholars’ behaviors and perceptions (micro level) about what should be problematized while conducting research and teaching. In this paper it is argued that there are organizational mechanisms at place by which organizational goals (funding) and professional goals (recognition) become indistinguishable. The mechanisms are: pressure, loose social control, scarce resources and lack of alternatives. Scholars may strategically react to these mechanisms by accepting, fitting in, resisting or giving up. It is at the heart of these mechanisms and strategies that problematic behaviors may emerge.


Rita Faria PhD student
Rita Faria is Lecturer at the School of Criminology – Faculty of Law of the University of Porto (Portugal).
Hoofdartikel

The Challenge of Empirical Method to Labour Law Theory and Practice

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Empirical research, Shaping of labour law, Methodology
Auteurs Simon F. Deakin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The aim of the paper is to consider the significance for labour law theory and practice of empirical research into the operation and effects of this branch of law. It will be argued that empirical research has an important role to play in the methodology of labour law, even if it is ancillary, much of the time, to doctrinal approaches. Secondly, and relatedly, the paper will address the historical role of empirical research in the shaping of labour law as a field distinct from both private law and public law, and, in particular, as transcending the categories of property and contract that were inherited from the individualist private law of the nineteenth century. The third and last theme of the paper is that of the role of empirical research in addressing contemporary issues of labour law doctrine and policy.


Simon F. Deakin
Simon F. Deakin is prof. of law at the University of Cambridge.
Article

Access_open The Role of Private International Law in Corporate Social Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden CSR, conflicts of law, Kiobel, Shell
Auteurs Geert Van Calster Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution firstly reviews developments in the EU and in the United States on corporate social responsibility and conflict of laws. It concludes with reference to some related themes, in particular on the piercing of the corporate veil and with some remarks on compliance strategy, and compliance reality, for corporations.


Geert Van Calster Ph.D.
Geert van Calster is professor at the University of Leuven and Head of Leuven Law's department of European and international law.

Laura Carballo Piñeiro
Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Santiago de Compostela.

Xandra Kramer
Professor at Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, visiting scholar at Stanford Law School.
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

The government’s roles in transnational forest governance

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden transnational governance, forest certification, legality verification, emerging economies, public-private interaction
Auteurs Liu Jing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Forest certification schemes and the legality regime are two main methods of transnational forest governance. A recent review of the literature has revealed that the government and forest certification are often intertwined. Based on that review, this contribution argues that governments play divergent roles in forest certification schemes in different aspects of the regulatory process: namely, agenda and standard setting, implementation, monitoring, and enforcement. In most FSC schemes, governments in developed countries play a less active role in most of these aspects than they do in context-based industry-dominated schemes. In the three emerging economies examined – Indonesia, Brazil, and China – the government sometimes plays a more active role in context-based, industry-dominated schemes than it does in developed countries. The rising legality regime might further strengthen the role of the government in forest governance in these emerging economies. Moreover, China may exemplify the fact that forest governance is entering a new phase, because the country not only exports to countries demanding legal verification, but also imports from countries where the risk of illegal logging is high. This illustrates that the role of governments in forest governance is constantly evolving.


Liu Jing
Liu Jing is a postdoctoral researcher in Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). She is conducting research on ‘smart mixes in relation to transboundary environmental problems’, especially in the areas of forest, fishery, oil and climate change governance. Her research interests cover regulation and governance, environmental law as well as law and economics.
Artikel

Regulatory governance by contract: the rise of regulatory standards in commercial contracts

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden contracts, transnational regulation, codes of conduct, private standards, supply chain
Auteurs Paul Verbruggen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper a literature review is used to explore the role that commercial contracts concluded between private actors play as instruments of regulatory governance. While such contracts are traditionally seen as a means to facilitate exchange between market participants, it is argued in the literature that commercial contracts are becoming increasingly important vehicles for the implementation and enforcement of safety, social and sustainability standards in transnational supply chains. The paper maps the pervasiveness of this development, its drivers, and the governance challenges that arise from it. While doing so, the paper more generally explores the relationship between regulation and contract law.


Paul Verbruggen
Paul Verbruggen is Assistant Professor of Private Law at the Business and Law Research Centre of Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He conducted his PhD research at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, which resulted in the monograph Enforcing Transnational Private Regulation: A Comparative Analysis of Advertising and Food Safety (Edward Elgar, 2014). Paul writes on the design and operation of regulatory frameworks (both public and private), focusing on questions of legitimacy, accountability and enforcement. His research interests concern European private law, regulatory policy, risk regulation and certification.
Artikel

The food label as governance space: free-range eggs and the fallacy of consumer choice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food label, free-range eggs, animal welfare, regulatory governance
Auteurs Christine Parker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a neoliberal age governments, NGOs, food producers and retailers all state that the food system can be governed via consumer choice aka voting with your fork. This makes the retail food label an important space for contests between different actors who each seek to govern the food system according to their own interests and priorities. The paper argues that this makes it crucial to ‘backwards map’ the regulatory governance networks behind the governance claims staked on food labels. The paper uses the example of the contested meaning of ‘free-range’ claims on animal products in Australia to propose and illustrate a methodology for this backwards mapping.


Christine Parker
Christine Parker is a Professor of Law at Monash University, Melbourne Australia. She conducts socio-legal research on business regulation enforcement and compliance and lawyer ethics. Her books include The Open Corporation (2002), Explaining Compliance (edited with Vibeke Nielsen, 2011), and Inside Lawyers Ethics (with Adrian Evans, 2014).
Article

Access_open The Ambivalent Shadow of the Pre-Wilsonian Rise of International Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden American Society of International Law, Peace-Through-Law Movement, Harvard Law Library: League of Nations, President Woodrow Wilson, Pre-Wilsonianism
Auteurs Dr Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The generation of American international lawyers who founded the American Society of International Law in 1906 and nurtured the soil for what has been retrospectively called a 'moralistic-legalistic approach to international relations' remains little studied. A survey of the rise of international legal literature in the United States from the mid-nineteenth century to the eve of the Great War serves as a backdrop to the examination of the boosting effect on international law of the Spanish American War in 1898. An examination of the Insular Cases before the US Supreme Court is then accompanied by the analysis of a number of influential factors behind the pre-war rise of international law in the United States. The work concludes with an examination of the rise of natural law doctrines in international law during the interwar period and the critiques addressed by the realist founders of the field of 'international relations' to the 'moralistic-legalistic approach to international relations'.


Dr Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral Ph.D.
Ignacio de la Rasilla del Moral is Lecturer in Law at the Brunel Law School of Brunel University, London. In the Spring of 2014 he served as Visiting Research Fellow at the Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law of the University of Cambridge as recipient of a British Academy/Leverhulme Small Research Grant.
Artikel

Kwantificering van schadevorderingen in mededingingszaken

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 4 2014
Trefwoorden schadevordering, Richtlijn betreffende bepaalde regels voor schadevorderingen volgens nationaal recht wegens inbreuken op bepalingen van het Europese mededingingsrecht, artikel 101 en 102 VWEU, kwantificering, schade
Auteurs Prof. dr. Wim Driehuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De recentelijk aanvaarde Richtlijn betreffende bepaalde regels voor schadevorderingen wegens inbreuken op artikel 101 en 102 EU in nationale civiele rechtszaken wordt vergezeld van een gids voor het kwantificeren van de schade. De gids behandelt de meest gangbare methoden en technieken, maar spreekt geen expliciete voorkeur uit aan de hand van hun voor- en nadelen. Dit artikel bespreekt de inhoud van de gids en komt tot de conclusie dat de Commissie wel degelijk een bepaalde rangorde prefereert.


Prof. dr. Wim Driehuis
Prof. dr. W. Driehuis is emeritus hoogleraar Toegepaste Economie aan de UvA en verbonden aan ACLE (Amsterdam Center for Law and Economics, UvA).
Hoofdartikel

De binding van werkgevers aan collectieve arbeidsovereenkomsten

Enkele beschouwingen over juridische factoren die binding bevorderen of verzwakken

Tijdschrift Arbeidsrechtelijke Annotaties, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden cao, alternatieve binding, vakbonden, rechtsvergelijking, representativiteit
Auteurs Prof. F. Dorssemont
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De dekkingsgraad (vertaling van coverage) van cao's wordt gedefinieerd als de verhouding van het aantal werknemers dat gebonden is aan een cao tot het geheel van de werkende bevolking. In deze bijdrage beperk ik me tot een analyse van de juridische factoren die de binding van werkgevers bevorderen dan wel bemoeilijken. De volgende nationale rechtsordes worden in het onderzoek op systematische wijze betrokken: België, Nederland, Italië, Frankrijk en Duitsland. De problematiek van de binding aan (Europese) cao's wordt eveneens onderzocht binnen de rechtsorde van de Europese Unie.
    Het klassieke scenario van cao-binding (door een cao te sluiten dan wel door lidmaatschap van een ondertekenende werkgeversorganisaties) kan worden bevorderd door een verplichting voor werkgevers in te bouwen om tot onderhandelingen over te gaan. Omgekeerd kan de toegang tot de onderhandelingstafel worden belemmerd door aan werkgeversorganisaties representativiteitseisen op te leggen. Voor het klassieke bindingsscenario bestaan in een aantal nationale rechtsordes enkele ‘alternatieven’. Deze alternatieven leiden ertoe dat een werkgever die noch aan de onderhandelingen heeft deelgenomen, noch aangesloten is bij een onderhandelende organisatie alsnog verplicht wordt bepaalde cao-bepalingen toe te passen. De vraag of een gebondenheid (aan een sectorale of intersectorale cao) die niet op de wilsuiting van de werkgever berust per se strijdig is met de (negatieve) vakverenigingsvrijheid, komt aan bod. In de slotbeschouwingen wordt onderzocht welke 'alternatieven' dienstig kunnen zijn om de dekkingsgraad op te voeren.


Prof. F. Dorssemont
Prof. F. Dorssemont is hoogleraar Arbeidsrecht aan de Universiteit catholique de Louvain (België)
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