Zoekresultaat: 135 artikelen

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Artikel

Op zoek naar bescherming in een vrije wereld

Asielmigratie naar Europa ontleed

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden undocumented migrants, asylum seekers, refugees, Lampedusa, European migration policy
Auteurs Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The arrival of asylum seekers has become a major political and social issue in Europe recently, although not for the first time in history. This article describes and analyses the reasons why growing numbers of undocumented migrants come to Europe, many of them as asylum seekers. One important reason is growing political instability in a ring of countries that surround the EU. The article also describes the different routes undocumented migrants take to the EU, the rapid changes that occur in the choice of routes, and the backgrounds of these changes. Although most attention goes to the risky transit in the Central Mediterranean area, and the number of migrants taking this route is growing, a majority of asylum seekers has reached the EU via other routes. Finally, this article also indicates roads towards finding solutions to the issue; this can only be achieved in the context of the EU.


Prof. dr. H.B. Entzinger
Prof. dr. Han Entzinger is als hoogleraar migratie- en integratiestudies verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. Hij is tevens vicevoorzitter van het Wetenschappelijk Comité van het Bureau voor de Grondrechten (FRA) van de Europese Unie te Wenen. Informatie: www.eur.nl/fsw/sociologie/profielen/profiel_mis/10541/.
Artikel

Frontex en de grenzen van zijn mandaat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Frontex, fundamental rights, border control, push-back operations, Mare Nostrum
Auteurs Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As an EU agency operating at the external borders of the EU, Frontex is actively involved in combating illegal migration. Since a rising number of migrants drown in the Mediterranean Sea or are pushed back to unsafe third countries, Frontex is being accused by human rights organizations for violating the fundamental rights of the EU. The Agency however maintains that it can’t be held accountable for human rights violations, as it is only assisting Member States, and not taking over their responsibility. This article analyses if this position is correct in the light of the growing tasks and mandate Frontex is granted by the EU.


Mr. dr. M.H.A. Strik
Mr. dr. Tineke Strik is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. Daarnaast is zij voorzitter van de GroenLinks-fractie in de Eerste Kamer.
Artikel

De Arabische Lente en artikel 1F Vluchtelingenverdrag

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Article 1F, Islamic State, Syria, Arab Spring, refugees
Auteurs M. Bolhuis MSc en Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors discuss in general terms the relevance of Article 1F Refugee Convention in relation to the recent increased asylum influx and the ‘Arab Spring’. More specifically, they answer the question to what extent it can be expected that the application of Article 1F is an appropriate means for identifying potential IS sympathizers and thus possibly for removing the threat of future terrorist attacks. With regard to countries like Syria it is more likely that relatively low-level persons who have been employed as a soldier or officer in a repressive state apparatus are excluded on the basis of Article 1F, than IS sympathizers with future terrorist plans. When the situation in Syria does not improve, it is likely that those 1F-excluded individuals will end up in a limbo situation for a prolonged period of time. This not only has significant negative consequences for the individuals involved, but also means that every 1F-exclusion today creates a political problem for the future.


M. Bolhuis MSc
Maarten Bolhuis MSc werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. J. van Wijk
Dr. mr. Joris van Wijk werkt bij het Center for International Criminal Justice (www.cicj.org) en is als universitair hoofddocent verbonden aan de afdeling Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Dublin: blind interstatelijk vertrouwen is een fictie

Over inwilligingspercentages en overdrachten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden asylum seekers, Dublin Regulation, mistrust, distribution key, solidarity
Auteurs Mr. R. Bruin, Mr. S.G. Kok en Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In light of the high numbers of persons entering the EU via the southern borders and the current uneven distribution of asylum seekers (five Member States of the EU currently received in 2014 more than 70% of the total amount of refugees), there is a clear and urgent need for the EU ministers to ensure a fairer distribution of asylum seekers within the EU. The Dublin Regulation’s system of allocating the responsibility for an asylum request does not offer a solution for this challenge, also because Member States cannot have a blind faith in the standards of a number of states for processing asylum requests. There are significant differences in the application of the law and the procedures.


Mr. R. Bruin
Mr. René Bruin is Head of Office UNHCR te Den Haag.

Mr. S.G. Kok
Mr. Stefan Kok is docent aan het Instituut voor Immigratierecht van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. mr. dr. A. Terlouw
Prof. mr. dr. Ashley Terlouw is hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Vijf jaar bindend Handvest van de Grondrechten: wat heeft het de rechtzoekende opgeleverd?

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 4 2015
Trefwoorden Handvest van de Grondrechten, EVRM, Grondwet, eerlijk proces, persoonlijke levenssfeer
Auteurs Mr. J. Morijn, Mr. A. Pahladsingh en Mr. H. Palm
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Levert het Handvest van de Grondrechten de rechtzoekende iets op? Om dit te beantwoorden analyseren we allereerst welke procesmatige en inhoudelijke voordelen het inroepen van het Handvest kan hebben ten opzichte van andere mensenrechtenbronnen. Daarna kijken we naar de eerste Nederlandse en Luxemburgse praktijk aangaande het recht op een eerlijk proces en het recht op privéleven en gegevensbescherming. Ook brengen we de wisselwerking in kaart tussen de rechterlijke bescherming gebaseerd op het Handvest en het EVRM. Wij concluderen dat er eerste tekenen van meerwaarde van het Handvest zijn voor de rechtszoekende, maar ook mogelijkheden bestaan zijn potentie nog beter te benutten.


Mr. J. Morijn
Mr. J. (John) Morijn is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en de Vakgroep Europees en economisch recht, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

Mr. A. Pahladsingh
Mr. A. (Aniel) Pahladsingh is werkzaam bij de Raad van State. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

Mr. H. Palm
Mr. H. (Hanneke) Palm is werkzaam bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. De bijdrage aan dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel.

    The article considers the role of the liberal public-private divide in protecting religious minorities against national-majoritarian assault. It links the defence of the public-private divide to liberal neutrality and argues that it rests on two distinct propositions: that the distinction between the ’public sphere’ and the ’private sphere’ is a meaningful way to cognize and structure modern pluralistic societies; and that there is a meaningful way to distinguish what is or ought to be ‘public’ from what is or ought to be ‘private.’ While the latter proposition cannot be defended on grounds of liberal neutrality, the former proposition provides the institutional framework for conducting liberal politics by enabling the negotiation of the public and the private between national majorities and religious minorities as members of the same political community.


Daniel Augenstein
Daniel Augenstein is Associate Professor at the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University.
Artikel

Beperkingen aan en dilemma’s van de slachtoffergerichte aanpak van mensenhandel; een blik op arbeidsuitbuiting.

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Slachtoffers, Mensenhandel, Arbeidsuitbuiting, Immigratiebeleid
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren, Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun en Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In their article on the victim orientation in the combat against human trafficking – in particular labour exploitation – Cleiren, Van der Leun and Van Meeteren highlight the limitations of the protection of victims in practice. Based on a brief legal analysis and a secondary reading of the empirical literature, they conclude that the rights of victims remain subordinate to the main aims of the relevant legal domains: criminal law and immigration law. In addition, the practices-based analysis shows a mismatch between a victim-oriented approach and preferences and perceptions of many migrants involved as well as existing tensions between different legal domains.


Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren
Prof. mr. dr. Tineke Cleiren is hoogleraar Straf- en strafprocesrecht aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun
Prof. dr. Joanne van der Leun is hoogleraar Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.

Dr. Masja Van Meeteren
Dr. Masja van Meeteren is universitair docent Criminologie aan het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Praktijk

Discretie en feitenvaststelling in asielprocedures

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden discretion, asylum procedure, uncertainty, fact-finding
Auteurs Ralph Severijns
Auteursinformatie

Ralph Severijns
Ralph Severijns studeerde internationaal en Europees publiekrecht in Tilburg. Sinds 2012 is hij als promovendus verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit. Daarnaast werkt hij als senior adviseur voor de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken.

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.
Artikel

Van A tot Z; de uitspraken van het Hof van Justitie betreffende homoseksuele asielzoekers.

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Definitierichtlijn, homoseksualiteit, menselijke waardigheid, asiel, vluchteling
Auteurs Mr. dr. K. Zwaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In de zaken X, Y en Z (C-199/12, C-200/12 en C- 201/12) oordeelde het Hof van Justitie op 7 november 2013 dat homoseksuelen een bijzondere sociale groep vormen, van homoseksuele asielzoekers niet kan worden verlangd dat zij discretie betrachten en dat de enkele strafbaarstelling van homoseksualiteit onvoldoende is om gegronde vrees voor vervolging aannemelijk te achten.
    Op 2 december 2014 beantwoordde het Hof van Justitie de vraag over de toets van de geloofwaardigheid van asielrelazen van homoseksuele asielzoekers in de zaken A, B en C (C-148/13, C-149/13 en C-150/13).
    Het Hof van Justitie heeft in deze uitspraak een beperkt aantal problematische onderzoeksmethodes ter vaststelling van de geloofwaardigheid van homoseksualiteit verboden. De vraag naar de rechtmatigheid van een aantal andere methodes blijft bestaan. Het Hof van Justitie laat deze toets aan de nationale rechter, en oordeelt dat bij deze toets de eerbiediging van artikel 1 EU Grondrechtenhandvest (menselijke waardigheid) richtinggevend is.
    HvJ 2 december 2014, gevoegde zaken C-148/13, C-149/13 en C-150/13, A, B en C, ECLI:EU:C:2014:2406
    HvJ 7 november 2013, gevoegde zaken C-199/12, C-200/12 en C- 201/12, X, Y en Z, ECLI:EU:C:2013:720


Mr. dr. K. Zwaan
Mr. dr. K. (Karin) Zwaan is coördinator van het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen
Artikel

Access_open The Experience of Legal Injustice

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden legal injustice, legal subject, law and morality, Fuller, Arendt
Auteurs Wouter Veraart
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper shows that Fuller and Arendt converge on a different point than the point Rundle focuses on. What Fuller and Arendt seem to share in their legal thoughts is not so much an interest in the experience of law-as-such (the interaction between responsible agency and law as a complex institution), but rather an interest in the junction of law and injustice. By not sufficiently focusing on the experience of legal injustice, Rundle overlooks an important point of divergence between Arendt and Fuller. In particular, Arendt differs from Fuller in her conviction that ‘injustice in a legal form’ is an integral part of modern legal systems.


Wouter Veraart
Wouter Veraart is Professor of Legal Philosophy and Director of Research at the Free University Amsterdam; w.j.veraart@vu.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Political Jurisprudence or Institutional Normativism? Maintaining the Difference Between Arendt and Fuller

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden Arendt, Fuller, Hobbes, political jurisprudence, political freedom, authority, legality
Auteurs Michael Wilkinson
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Can jurisprudence fruitfully pursue a synthesis of Arendt’s political theory and Fuller’s normative legal philosophy? Might their ideas of the juridical person and the legal subject be aligned as a result of a shared concern for the value of legality, specifically of an institutional complex which is structured through the stability and predictability of the rule of law? It is doubtful that Arendt's concern for the phenomena of plurality, political freedom and action can usefully be brought into line with Fuller's normativist focus on legality, subjectivity and the inner morality of law. This doubt is explored by juxtaposing Arendt's theory of action and her remarks on the revolution, foundation and augmentation of power and authority with Fuller's philosophy that, however critical of its positivist adversaries, remains ultimately tied to a Hobbesian tradition which views authority and power in abstract, hierarchical and individualist terms.


Michael Wilkinson
Michael Wilkinson is Associate Professor of Law at the London School of Economics; m.wilkinson@lse.ac.uk

Richard Staring
Richard Staring is endowed professor of criminology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. He has published on irregular migration, human smuggling as well as human trafficking.

Willem H. van Boom
Prof dr. Willem van Boom is a professor of law. As of August 2014, he holds tenure at Leiden Law School.
Artikel

Access_open Introduction: Reciprocity and the Normativity of Legal Orders

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden reciprocity, normativity
Auteurs Prof. Dr. Hans Lindahl PhD en Bart van Klink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution introduces the special issue, which contains a selection of the lectures delivered by key-note speakers during the Summer School organized by the editors in August, 2013, at the behest of the Section of Ethics & Practical Philosophy of the Dutch Research School of Philosophy (OZSW).


Prof. Dr. Hans Lindahl PhD
Hans Lindahl is Professor of Legal Philosophy at Tilburg University.

Bart van Klink
Bart van Klink is Professor of Legal Methodology at the VU University Amsterdam.
Artikel

Access_open Liberalism and Societal Integration: In Defence of Reciprocity and Constructive Pluralism

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden societal integration, liberalism, conflict, constructive pluralism, citizenship, national communities
Auteurs Dora Kostakopoulou PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Communities can only be dynamic and projective, that is, oriented towards new and better forms of cooperation, if they bring together diverse people in a common, and hopefully more equal, socio-political life and in welfare. The latter requires not only back-stretched connections, that is, the involvement of co-nationals and naturalized persons, but also forward-starched connections, that is, the involvement of citizens in waiting. Societal integration is an unhelpful notion and liberal democratic polities would benefit from reflecting critically on civic integration policies and extending the norm of reciprocity beyond its assigned liberal national limits. Reciprocity can only be a comprehensive norm in democratic societies - and not an eclectic one, that is, either co-national or co-ethnic.


Dora Kostakopoulou PhD
Dora Kostakopoulou is currently Professor of European Union Law, European Integration and Public Policy at Warwick University. Her research interests include European public law, free movement of persons and European Union citizenship, the area of freedom, security and justice, migration law and politics, citizenship, multiculturalism and integration, democracy and legitimacy in the EU, law and global governance, political theory and constructivism, and, fairly recently, equality law.
Artikel

Access_open Idealized versus Real-Life Reciprocity: How to Strike the Balance?

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden norm of reciprocity, moral obligation, gift exchange, hospitality, intergenerational relations
Auteurs Mrs. Aafke Elisabeth Komter PhD
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rawls’s ’idealized’ notion of reciprocity is compared with the ’real-life’ concept of reciprocity as it has been developed in social scientific theory. The two perspectives appear to differ significantly as concerns dimensions related to equality, human motivation, the temporal aspects of reciprocity, and the supposed mental origin of reciprocity. Whereas norms of obligation and feelings of moral indebtedness are constitutive for reciprocity in real-life encounters, equality, freedom and rationality are the basis for reciprocity in the hypothetical world of the ’conjectural account’. Rather than being fundamentally incompatible, the idealized and the real-life perspectives on reciprocity seem to apply to different spheres of social life, the first requiring greater formality and universality than the second, which allows for more variation and particularities.


Mrs. Aafke Elisabeth Komter PhD
Aafke Komter is Emeritus Professor of Social Sciences and a Visiting Researcher at the Department of Sociology of the Erasmus University of Rotterdam. She has published many articles on (family) solidarity, reciprocity and the social and cultural meaning of the exchange of gifts.

Juan M. Amaya-Castro
Juan M. Amaya-Castro is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law of the VU University of Amsterdam. He is affiliated with the Migration and Diversity Centre.
Artikel

Access_open The Right to Have Rights as the Right to Asylum

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2014
Trefwoorden Arendt, asylum, refugeeship, right to have rights, statelessness de facto and de jure
Auteurs Nanda Oudejans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues that the right to have rights, as launched by Hannah Arendt, is relative to refugee displacement and hence translates as a right to asylum. It takes issue with the dominant view that the public/private divide is the locus classicus of the meaning of this primordial right. A different direction of thought is proposed, proceeding from Arendt’s recovery of the spatiality of law. The unencompassibility of place in matters of rights, freedom and equality brings this right into view as a claim at the behest of those who have lost a legal place of their own. This also helps us to gain better understanding of Arendt’s rebuttal of the sharp-edged distinction between refugees and stateless persons and to discover the defiant potential of the right to have rights to illuminate the refugee’s claim to asylum as a claim to an own place where protection can be enjoyed again.


Nanda Oudejans
Nanda Oudejans is an independent researcher in philosophy of law and political philosophy.
Artikel

Access_open Alternative Methodologies: Learning Critique as a Skill

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2013
Trefwoorden governmentality, methodology, method, skill
Auteurs Bal Sokhi-Bulley
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can we teach critical legal education? The article tackles this key question by focusing on the role of methodology in legal education and research. I argue that critical legal education requires marketing methodology as a ‘skill’, thereby freeing it from what students and researchers in Law often view as the negative connotations of ‘theory’. This skill requires exploring ‘alternative methodologies’ – those critical perspectives that depart from legal positivism and which Law traditionally regards as ‘peripheral’. As an example, the article explores the Foucauldian concept of governmentality as a useful methodological tool. The article also discusses the difference between theory, methodology and method, and reviews current academic contributions on law and method(ology). Ultimately, it suggests a need for a ‘revolt of conduct’ in legal education. Perhaps then we might hope for students that are not docile and disengaged (despite being successful lawyers) but, rather, able to nurture an attitude that allows for ‘thinking’ (law) critically.


Bal Sokhi-Bulley
Bal Sokhi-Bulley is Lecturer in Law atQueen’s University in Belfast.
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