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Artikel

Access_open De slimme stad: grote beloften, weerbarstige praktijk

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart lamp posts, public values, data principles, digital entanglement, Quadruple Helix
Auteurs Dr. Bart Karstens, Linda Kool MSc MA en Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The smart city is the urban ideal of our time. Yet its high expectations often run counter against the performance of smart city projects in practice. The Rathenau Institute has studied a number of such projects in the municipality of Eindhoven, a leading city with respect to digital innovation in the Netherlands. To ensure that data is used in a proper manner with respect for public values Eindhoven has applied several strategies, such as privacy by design and the active involvement of its citizens. It has also set up a number of principles for the digital society which helped to negotiate contracts with private partners. Yet the authors’ analysis shows that important legal challenges remain. Some of the principles require more detailed specification. The authors also found that the law is not yet fully appropriated to the new digital context and needs to be adjusted accordingly.


Dr. Bart Karstens
Dr. B. Karstens is onderzoeker op het gebied van kunstmatige intelligentie en de digitale samenleving bij het Rathenau Instituut.

Linda Kool MSc MA
L. Kool MSc MA is coördinator binnen het thema Digitale Samenleving verbonden aan het Rathenau Instituut.

Prof. dr. ir. Rinie van Est
Prof. dr. ir. Q.C. van Est is als coördinator binnen het thema Slimme Samenleving werkzaam bij het Rathenau Instituut. Hij is tevens hoogleraar Technology Assessment and Governance aan de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
Artikel

Voorbij het polderen in de slimme stad

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden smart city, public values, civil servants, public involvement, anchored pluralism
Auteurs Dr. Jiska Engelbert
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Steering on public values in Dutch smart cities, let alone their regulation, is complicated. This article situates this difficulty in the vested interests that Dutch local authorities have in public-private smart city projects, and in the fact that public values are narrowly defined in relation to the technology; not in relation to a vision for the city in which its communities thrive. A way out of this deadlock, the article proposes, is to understand smart cities in the Netherlands beyond the typically Dutch consensus politics (the ‘polder’) and, instead, as part of a broader (urban) governance tendency to push urban technologies through the recital of fixed urban problems and public values. Consequently, state regulation of the (Dutch) smart city should principally enable (local) public and political involvement in defining urban problems and urban dreams, and thus in deciding the public values that are at stake.


Dr. Jiska Engelbert
Dr. J. Engelbert is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Centre for BOLD Cities van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open The Effectiveness Paradigm in Financial Legislation – Is Effectiveness Measurable?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden effectiveness, effectiveness measurement methodologies, financial legislation, legislative objective, product approval governance
Auteurs Jeroen Koomans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can you determine if financial legislation is effective? This article seeks to identify three characteristics that make up the basis for an effectiveness review, being the determination what the legislative objective is, who is it aimed at and what approach is taken to achieve this objective. Determining the legislative objective may prove to be a challenging undertaking, and the uncertainties that come with that affect the other two characteristics as well. And even if a clear legislative objective can be established, how can you be sure that its achievement was in fact attributable to the legislation under review? What do you compare your results to absent a baseline measurement and how can the vast number of variables that affect the effectiveness of the legislation under review be accounted for, if at all? Is effectiveness in financial legislation at all measurable and, when measured, what is its value in practice?


Jeroen Koomans
Jeroen Koomans is affiliated to the University of Amsterdam FEB Academy for Banking and Insurance and employed by ABN AMRO Bank N.V.
Editorial

Access_open Introduction

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Auteurs Frank Weerman Ph.D.
Auteursinformatie

Frank Weerman Ph.D.
Frank Weerman is Endowed Professor of Youth Criminology at the Erasmus School of Law and a senior researcher at the NSCR (Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement). From 2021 onwards, he is the editor-in-chief of the Erasmus Law Review.
Article

Access_open Age Barriers in Healthcare

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age discrimination, age equality, health care
Auteurs Rachel Horton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Age limits, minimum and maximum, and both explicit and ‘covert’, are still used in the National Health Service to determine access to a range of health interventions, including infertility services and cancer screening and treatment. Evidence suggests that chronological age is used as a proxy for a host of characteristics in determining access to healthcare: as a proxy for the capacity of an individual to benefit from an intervention; for the type of harm that may result from an intervention; for the likelihood of such benefit or harm occurring; and, in some cases, for other indicators used to determine what may be in the patient’s interest. Age is used as a proxy in this way in making decisions about both individual patients and wider populations; it may be used where no better ‘marker’ for the relevant characteristic exists or – for reasons including cost, practicality or fairness – in preference to other available markers. This article reviews the justifications for using age in this way in the context of the existing legal framework on age discrimination in the provision of public services.


Rachel Horton
Lecturer University of Reading.
Article

Access_open Characteristics of Young Adults Sentenced with Juvenile Sanctions in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden young adult offenders, juvenile sanctions for young adults, juvenile criminal law, psychosocial immaturity
Auteurs Lise Prop, André van der Laan, Charlotte Barendregt e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 1 April 2014, young adults aged 18 up to and including 22 years can be sentenced with juvenile sanctions in the Netherlands. This legislation is referred to as ‘adolescent criminal law’ (ACL). An important reason for the special treatment of young adults is their over-representation in crime. The underlying idea of ACL is that some young adult offenders are less mature than others. These young adults may benefit more from pedagogically oriented juvenile sanctions than from the deterrent focus of adult sanctions. Little is known, however, about the characteristics of the young adults sentenced with juvenile sanctions since the implementation of ACL. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the demographic, criminogenic and criminal case characteristics of young adult offenders sentenced with juvenile sanctions in the first year after the implementation of ACL. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a juvenile sanction group and an adult sanction group. Data on 583 criminal cases of young adults, sanctioned from 1 April 2014 up to March 2015, were included. Data were obtained from the Public Prosecution Service, the Dutch Probation Service and Statistics Netherlands. The results showed that characteristics indicating problems across different domains were more prevalent among young adults sentenced with juvenile sanctions. Furthermore, these young adults committed a greater number of serious offences compared with young adults who were sentenced with adult sanctions. The findings of this study provide support for the special treatment of young adult offenders in criminal law as intended by ACL.


Lise Prop
Lise Prop is researcher at the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Den Haag, the Netherlands.

André van der Laan
André van der Laan is senior researcher at the Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Den Haag, the Netherlands.

Charlotte Barendregt
Charlotte Barendregt is senior advisor at the Health and Youth Care Inspectorate, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen
Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen is professor at Tilburg University, and treatment manager at the Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Giving Children a Voice in Court?

Age Boundaries for Involvement of Children in Civil Proceedings and the Relevance of Neuropsychological Insights

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age boundaries, right to be heard, child’s autonomy, civil proceedings, neuropsychology
Auteurs Mariëlle Bruning en Jiska Peper
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the last decade neuropsychological insights have gained influence with regard to age boundaries in legal procedures, however, in Dutch civil law no such influence can be distinguished. Recently, voices have been raised to improve children’s legal position in civil law: to reflect upon the minimum age limit of twelve years for children to be invited to be heard in court and the need for children to have a stronger procedural position.
    In this article, first the current legal position of children in Dutch law and practice will be analysed. Second, development of psychological constructs relevant for family law will be discussed in relation to underlying brain developmental processes and contextual effects. These constructs encompass cognitive capacity, autonomy, stress responsiveness and (peer) pressure.
    From the first part it becomes clear that in Dutch family law, there is a tortuous jungle of age limits, exceptions and limitations regarding children’s procedural rights. Until recently, the Dutch government has been reluctant to improve the child’s procedural position in family law. Over the last two years, however, there has been an inclination towards further reflecting on improvements to the child’s procedural rights, which, from a children’s rights perspective, is an important step forward. Relevant neuropsychological insights support improvements for a better realisation of the child’s right to be heard, such as hearing children younger than twelve years of age in civil court proceedings.


Mariëlle Bruning
Mariëlle Bruning is Professor of Child Law at Leiden Law Faculty, Leiden University.

Jiska Peper
Jiska Peper is Assistant professor in the Developmental and Educational Psychology unit of the Institute of Psychology at Leiden University.
Article

Access_open Safeguarding the Dynamic Legal Position of Children: A Matter of Age Limits?

Reflections on the Fundamental Principles and Practical Application of Age Limits in Light of International Children’s Rights Law

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age limits, dynamic legal position, children’s rights, maturity, evolving capacities
Auteurs Stephanie Rap, Eva Schmidt en Ton Liefaard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article a critical reflection upon age limits applied in the law is provided, in light of the tension that exists in international children’s rights law between the protection of children and the recognition of their evolving autonomy. The main research question that will be addressed is to what extent the use of (certain) age limits is justified under international children’s rights law. The complexity of applying open norms and theoretically underdeveloped concepts as laid down in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, related to the development and evolving capacities of children as rights holders, will be demonstrated. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child struggles to provide comprehensive guidance to states regarding the manner in which the dynamic legal position of children should be applied in practice. The inconsistent application of age limits that govern the involvement of children in judicial procedures provides states leeway in granting children autonomy, potentially leading to the establishment of age limits based on inappropriate – practically, politically or ideologically motivated – grounds.


Stephanie Rap
Stephanie Rap is assistant professor in children’s rights at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Eva Schmidt
Eva Schmidt is PhD candidate at the Department of Child Law, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.

Ton Liefaard
Ton Liefaard is Vice-Dean of Leiden Law School and holds the UNICEF Chair in Children’s Rights at Leiden University, Leiden Law School, the Netherlands.
Article

Access_open Is the CJEU Discriminating in Age Discrimination Cases?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age discrimination, old people, young people, complete life view, fair innings argument
Auteurs Beryl ter Haar
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Claims have been made that the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) is more lenient in accepting age discriminating measures affecting older people than in those affecting younger people. This claim is scrutinised in this article, first, by making a quantitative analysis of the outcomes of the CJEU’s case law on age discrimination cases, followed by a qualitative analysis of the line of reasoning of the CJEU in these cases and concluding with an evaluation of the Court’s reasoning against three theoretical approaches that set the context for the assessment of the justifications of age discrimination: complete life view, fair innings argument and typical anti-discrimination approach. The analysis shows that the CJEU relies more on the complete life view approach to assess measures discriminating old people and the fair innings argument approach to assess measures discriminating young people. This results in old people often having to accept disadvantageous measures and young workers often being treated more favourably.


Beryl ter Haar
Beryl ter Haar is assistant professor and academic coordinator of the Advanced LL.M. Global and European Labour Law at Leiden University and visiting professor at the University of Warsaw.
Article

Access_open Age Limits in Law: Between Behavioural Science and Human Rights

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden age limits, behavioural science, human rights, age, juvenile justice
Auteurs Frank Weerman en Jolande uit Beijerse
Auteursinformatie

Frank Weerman
Frank Weerman is endowed professor Youth Criminology at the Erasmus School of Law and senior researcher at the NSCR (Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement).

Jolande uit Beijerse
Jolande uit Beijerse is associate professor Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure at the Erasmus School of Law.
Article

Access_open Too Immature to Vote?

A Philosophical and Psychological Argument to Lower the Voting Age

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden voting age, children’s rights, youth enfranchisement, democracy, votes at 16
Auteurs Tommy Peto
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article argues in favour of lowering the voting age to 16. First, it outlines a respect-based account of democracy where the right to vote is grounded in a respect for citizens’ autonomous capacities. It then outlines a normative account of autonomy, modelled on Rawls’s two moral powers, saying what criteria must be met for an individual to possess a (pro tanto) moral right to vote. Second, it engages with empirical psychology to show that by the age of 16 (if not earlier) individuals have developed all of the cognitive components of autonomy. Therefore, since 16- and 17-year-olds (and quite probably those a little younger) possess the natural features required for autonomy, then, to the extent that respect for autonomy requires granting political rights including the right to vote – and barring some special circumstances that apply only to them – 16- and 17-year-olds should be granted the right to vote.


Tommy Peto
University of Oxford.
Artikel

De Nederlandse positie ten opzichte van godslastering in internationaal verband

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Godslastering, Blasfemie, vrijheid van meningsuiting, Legalisering
Auteurs Mr. Tom Huisjes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2014, the Dutch government abolished its ban on blasphemy, which had laid dormant in its criminal code for decades. Similar laws have been abolished in nine other jurisdictions in the West since an international campaign to this end started in 2015. This article first describes the tension between blasphemy laws and the freedom of expression. It then examines the Dutch position on blasphemy in its international context. This article argues against bans on blasphemy and specifically against a potential reintroduction of a de facto ban on blasphemy in the Netherlands. Moreover, it argues in favour of applying political pressure to abolish bans on blasphemy around the world as well as giving diplomatic support to those affected by these laws.


Mr. Tom Huisjes
Mr. T.S. Huisjes is onderzoeker bij het Utrecht University Centre for Public Procurement (UUCePP).
Peer reviewed

Access_open Geen aangifte, en dan?

Juridische aspecten en politiepraktijken

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden politie, autonomie, aangifte, politiestrategieën
Auteurs Mr. dr. Renze Salet, Mr. Melvin Kremers en Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In previous observational studies among operational police officers, some officers stated that if a victim is not willing to (officially) report a crime to the police, they are not able to police these cases. This rather cynical and fatalistic statement raises several questions. What do police officers mean when they say this? What do they actually do in those cases and why? In this paper we try to answer these questions based on explorative qualitative interviews with several police officers in two police teams in the Netherlands. The results show that even though police officers recognize these statements among their colleagues, they do not agree with them and in practice police officers show a lot of effort and involvement in these cases. In fact, police officers have several possible strategies available to deal with these cases. Which strategy they opt for depends on various pragmatic, organisational and moral considerations.


Mr. dr. Renze Salet
Mr. dr. R. Salet is universitair docent Criminologie, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Strafrecht & Criminologie.

Mr. Melvin Kremers
Mr. M. Kremers is docent/onderzoeker Strafrecht, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid, Strafrecht & Criminologie.

Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J. Terpstra is hoogleraar criminologie (em.), Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Hetzelfde ≠ gelijk

Aandachtspunten bij elektronische zittingen: een arbitragerechtelijk perspectief

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 3 2020
Auteurs Bas van Zelst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Nederlandse arbitragerecht geeft een scheidsgerecht de discretionaire bevoegdheid om te beslissen dat een hoorzitting ‘langs elektronische weg’ wordt gevoerd. Deze bijdrage beoordeelt het idee dat deze bevoegdheid van verplichte aard is. De bevoegdheid van arbiters om voor een elektronische hoorzitting te kiezen, is volgens haar beperkt door de fundamentele beginselen van het procesrecht, met name het gelijkheidsbeginsel. Het artikel somt relevante overwegingen op bij de keuze voor een elektronische hoorzitting in arbitrageprocedures met Nederlandse zetel en is van mening dat dergelijke overwegingen, gezien hun fundamentele karakter, ook van toepassing kunnen zijn in procedures voor de Nederlandse nationale rechtbanken.


Bas van Zelst
Prof. mr. B. van Zelst is advocaat bij Van Doorne en hoogleraar Dispute Resolution and Arbitration aan Maastricht University.
Artikel

Access_open Islamitisch begraven in Nederland ten tijde van Covid-19

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden islamitisch begraven, islamitische rituelen, islam in het Westen, Wet op de lijkbezorging, Covid-19
Auteurs Dr. mr. Khadija Kadrouch-Outmany
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The worldwide ‘lockdown’ due to Covid-19 has had an accelerating effect on the ongoing discussion of Islamic burial in the Netherlands. Because of the closure of airspace Moroccan and Turkish-Dutch deceased could no longer be repatriated to be buried in their country of origin. This increased the pressure on cemeteries in the Netherlands to provide for the requirements and rituals of an Islamic burial. And this in turn showed the importance of the discussion that is already taking place in the House of Representatives about changes to the laws and regulations concerning burials. These three dimensions of Islamic burial in the Netherlands – personal, practical and legal – are discussed in this article.


Dr. mr. Khadija Kadrouch-Outmany
Dr. mr. K. Kadrouch-Outmany is jurist en religiewetenschapper. Zij promoveerde aan de Universiteit Leiden bij het Instituut voor Antropologie en Ontwikkelingssociologie op een proefschrift naar islamitisch begraven in Nederland en België. Momenteel is zij als postdoc onderzoeker verbonden aan de faculteit Godgeleerdheid en Godsdienstwetenschap van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Objets trouvés

De rechtsstaat in discussie

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 4 2020
Trefwoorden Primaat wetgever, trias, dikastocratie, verticaal machtsevenwicht, COVID-19
Auteurs Prof. dr. R.A.J. van Gestel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Volgens de Raad van State zou de rechtsstaat in Nederland niet wezenlijk in gevaar zijn, zou de balans tussen de instituties die invulling moeten geven aan de rechtsstaat (wetgever, bestuur en rechter) tot nu toe verzekerd zijn en zou er voldoende draagvlak onder de bevolking bestaan. Daarom zou er ook geen reden zijn voor een ‘alarmerende toon’. Deze stellingen worden nauwelijks onderbouwd, staan maatschappelijk ter discussie en miskennen dat Nederland geen eiland is, maar onderdeel uitmaakt van een meergelaagde internationale rechtsorde. Het beeld dat de Raad daarbij heeft van de scheiding der machten behoeft dringend bijstelling.


Prof. dr. R.A.J. van Gestel
Prof. dr. R.A.J. (Rob) van Gestel is hoogleraar Regulering aan Tilburg Law School en hoogleraar methodologie van de rechtswetenschap aan de KU Leuven.
Digitale markten

Access_open Platformaansprakelijkheid – van ‘notice and takedown’ naar algoritmisch toezicht

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 5-6 2020
Trefwoorden Digital Services Act, Platformen, Aansprakelijkheid, Filters, Algoritmen
Auteurs Mr. dr. S. Kulk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Wat kan en moet Facebook doen om smaad en laster te stoppen? Wat kan er van YouTube verlangd worden als het gaat om onthoofdingsvideo’s? En is Twitter aansprakelijk voor haatzaaiende berichten van twittergebruikers? Deze vragen raken allemaal aan de aansprakelijkheid en verantwoordelijkheid die internetplatforms hebben voor illegale en onrechtmatige inhoud die door hun gebruikers wordt gedeeld. De Richtlijn inzake elektronische handel is vooralsnog van groot belang als het gaat om de aansprakelijkheid van platformaanbieders. Maar dat staat te veranderen. Op een aantal specifieke terreinen heeft de Europese wetgever reeds nieuwe regelgeving aangenomen die ertoe strekt dat platfor‍m­aanbieders meer moeten doen om bepaalde inhoud van hun platformen te weren. Er is bovendien een voorstel voor een ‘Digital Services Act package’ in de maak. Daarmee beoogt de Europese Commissie een nieuw kader neer te zetten voor het reguleren van digitale dienstverleners, waarin ook de aansprakelijkheid van deze dienstverleners zal worden herijkt. In deze bijdrage wordt een overzicht geboden van die ontwikkelingen en wordt in het bijzonder stilgestaan bij het gebruik van algoritmen om toezicht te houden op de online uitwisseling van informatie.


Mr. dr. S. Kulk
Mr. dr. S. (Stefan) Kulk is universitair hoofddocent bij de Universiteit Utrecht. Hij is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Montaigne Centrum voor Rechtsstaat en Rechtspleging en het Utrecht Centre for Regulation and Enforcement in Europe. Hij maakt daarnaast deel uit van het Governing the Digital Society focusgebied van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

De herstelrechtelijke reactie op extremistisch geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden extremisme, terrorisme, Spanje, Italië, Noord-Ierland
Auteurs Evelien Rens, Katrien Lauwaert en Ivo Aertsen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Organizing restorative justice practices around crimes involving extremist violence remains a difficult task. It is not self-evident to bring perpetrators with very specific and radical ideas into contact with their victims. Nevertheless, interesting initiatives have been made in a number of European countries. In Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland, among others, initiatives were taken in response to the extremist violence that these countries experienced at the end of the 20th century. These initiatives have a very specific context and praxis, initiated ad hoc with attention to the specific needs of those involved. In no case can they be considered standard models or generalized practices. This contribution describes some of these initiatives in Spain, Italy and Northern Ireland and reflects on the potential uses of these dialogues in general.


Evelien Rens
Evelien Rens is studente criminologische wetenschappen aan de KU Leuven en stagiaire bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw.

Katrien Lauwaert
Katrien Lauwaert is beleidscoördinator bij Moderator Forum voor Herstelrecht en Bemiddeling vzw en bijzonder hoogleraar restorative justice aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.
Artikel

Access_open ‘Radicalisering’ en herstelrecht: bevindingen van het Belgische CONRAD-project

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden radicalisering, CONRAD, frame, counterframe, frameanalyse
Auteurs Ivo Aertsen, Mattias De Backer en Marie Figoureux
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, some of the findings of a practice and policy oriented research project on ‘radicalisation’ are discussed. The research was carried out in a partnership between three Belgian universities and two field organisations during the years 2017-2019. The project aimed at a ‘Constructive analysis on the attitudes, policies and programmes that relate to “radicalisation”’ (CONRAD). Restorative justice offered the initial framework to design and to set up the project. This article offers some findings and reflections on the opportunities (and the limits) that were found in the project with respect to the relevance of restorative justice. This part of the research was done on the basis of a frame-analysis on the one hand, and field work on the other. The article first presents the restorative justice assumptions that formed the backbone of the project. Then, the method of ‘inductive frame-analysis’ is presented as this was applied to a sample of media and policy documents that reported about ‘radicalisation’ and ‘de-radicalisation’ related issues in Belgium. This resulted in the identification of four frames and eight counterframes. The field work in the form of ‘participatory action research’ with young persons and their organisations in the cities of Brussels and Verviers is then discussed, revealing a complex situation of social tensions. It is argued then that the use of frames and counterframes can help those involved in, or concerned about, social problems to look at these issues from another perspective, through another lens. Based on the method of photo-elicitation, cartoons related to frames and counterframes were designed in the project as a tool to facilitate talking about ‘radicalisation’ from different perspectives. The article ends with reflections on the relevance of restorative justice in dealing with ‘radicalisation’ and violent extremism. A broad relational and participatory approach to respond to these ‘phenomena’ at societal level is proposed.


Ivo Aertsen
Ivo Aertsen is emeritus hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie en hoofdredacteur van The International Journal of Restorative Justice.

Mattias De Backer
Mattias De Backer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker, KU Leuven en Université de Liège.

Marie Figoureux
Marie Figoureux is doctoraatsonderzoeker aan het Instituut voor Mediastudies, KU Leuven.
Artikel

Social engineering: digitale fraude en misleiding

Een meta-analyse van studies naar de effectiviteit van interventies

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden awareness, cybercrime, intervention, meta-analysis, social engineering
Auteurs Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée en Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The prevalence of online crime increases. Social engineering, such as email phishing, is often an important element in an attack. Several interventions have been developed to reduce the success of these types of attacks. The current study investigates whether interventions can help reduce vulnerability to social engineering attacks. The authors investigate which types of interventions and specific elements are most successful. They selected studies with an experimental design that tested at least one intervention. A total of 19 studies with 37 effect sizes, based on a total sample of N=23,146 subjects, were found. The available training courses, intervention materials and effect sizes were analysed. Overall, positive effects of interventions were found. However, there are substantial differences in effect for the different types of interventions. Effective interventions are relatively intensive and have a specific focus. The authors conclude with the design of the best possible intervention given the results of their research.


Dr. Jan-Willem Bullée
Dr. J.-W. Bullée is werkzaam bij Awareways, Computer & Network Security. Hij promoveerde in 2017 op het proefschrift Experimental social engineering aan de Universiteit Twente.

Prof. dr. Marianne Junger
Prof. dr. M. Junger is hoogleraar Cyber Security en Business Continuity aan de Universiteit Twente.
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