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    The dismissal of an employee for gross misconduct was unfair because the investigating officer failed to share significant new information with the manager conducting the disciplinary hearing who decided to dismiss, the Employment Appeal Tribunal has ruled.


Ludivine Gegaden
Ludivine Gegaden is an Associate at Lewis Silkin LLP.

    The notice of collective redundancies required to be given to an employment agency pursuant to Section 17(1) of the German Protection Against Unfair Dismissal Act (Kündigungsschutzgesetz, ‘KSchG’) can only be effectively submitted if the employer has already decided to terminate the employment contract at the time of its receipt by the employment agency. Notices of termination in collective redundancy proceedings are therefore effective – subject to the fulfilment of any other notice requirements – if the proper notice is received by the competent employment agency before the employee has received the letter of termination.


Marcus Bertz
Marcus Bertz is an attorney-at-law at Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft mbH.

    In a recent Supreme Court decision, it was held by a 4-1 majority that there is no reason, in principle, why the provision of ‘reasonable accommodation’ for an employee with a disability should not involve the redistribution of duties.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is an attorney-at-law at Mason Hayes & Curran, Dublin.
Artikel

Over autonome auto’s, een bestuurderloze toekomst en nieuwe risico’s

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Bijzonder Strafrecht & Handhaving, Aflevering 5 2020
Trefwoorden bestuurder, autonome auto, hacken, cybersecurity, zelfrijdende auto
Auteurs Mr. dr. N.E. Vellinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    De komst van volledig zelfrijdende of autonome auto’s doet vele juridische vragen rijzen doordat zelfrijdende auto’s geen bestuurder hebben. Deze vragen rijzen onder meer ten aanzien van de toepassing van bepalingen van het RVV 1990 en de WVW 1994 die de bestuurder als normadressaat hebben. Daarnaast komen aspecten van cybersecurity aan bod in dit artikel. Er wordt in deze bijdrage onder meer een voorstel tot wijziging van artikel 6 WVW 1994 gedaan, om zo te voorzien in een bestuurderloze toekomst.


Mr. dr. N.E. Vellinga
Mr. dr. N.E. Vellinga is postdoc bij de vakgroep Transboundary Legal Studies aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Restraint as a Source of Judicial ‘Apoliticality’

A Functional Reconstruction

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Urgenda, Miller v. Secretary of State, Norm of judicial apoliticality, Ronald Dworkin, Judicial restraint
Auteurs Maurits Helmich
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Few legal theorists today would argue that the domain of law exists in isolation from other normative spheres governing society, notably from the domain of ‘politics’. Nevertheless, the implicit norm that judges should not act ‘politically’ remains influential and widespread in the debates surrounding controversial court cases. This article aims to square these two observations. Taking the Miller v. Secretary of State and Urgenda cases as illustrative case studies, the article demonstrates that what it means for judges to adjudicate cases ‘apolitically’ is itself a matter of controversy. In reflecting on their own constitutional role, courts are forced to take a stance on substantive questions of political philosophy. Nevertheless, that does not mean that the ‘norm of judicial apoliticality’ should therefore be rejected. The norm’s coherence lies in its intersocial function: its role in declaring certain modes of judicial interpretation and intervention legitimate (‘legal’/‘judicial’) or illegitimate (‘political’).


Maurits Helmich
Maurits Helmich is promovendus aan de afdeling Sociologie, Theorie en Methodologie van het Recht aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam.

    The Federal Labour Court of Germany (Bundesarbeitsgericht, ‘BAG’) had to decide on a case in which an employee argued that his contract was not terminated by a provision that restricted the mutual duties to a certain time period for the yearly season within his contract and that the employer had to employ him during the off season. However, his lawsuit was unsuccessful as the Court found that, even though he did have an indefinite contract, the employer was not obliged to employ and pay him during the off season due to the valid provision of fixed-term employment for the time from April to October during the time of the season.


Othmar K. Traber
Othmar K. Traber is a partner at Ahlers & Vogel Rechtsanwälte PartG mbB in Bremen, www.ahlers-vogel.com.
Case Reports

2020/34 Challenge to validity of Workplace Relations Act 2015 unsuccessful (IR)

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden Unfair Dismissal, Fair Trial, Miscellaneous
Auteurs Orla O’Leary
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A recent challenge to the constitutionality of the Irish Workplace Relations Commission (WRC) has failed. The applicant in the case at hand argued that the WRC was unconstitutional for two reasons: (a) that the WRC carries out the administration of justice in breach of the general constitutional rule that only the courts may administer justice; and (b) several of the statutory procedures of the WRC were so deficient that they failed to vindicate the applicant’s personal constitutional rights. The High Court of Ireland dismissed both arguments.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is a Senior Associate at Mason Hayes & Curran.

    The central question in this case was what was the objectively applicable law to an employment contract concluded between a Turkish airline and a Dutch co-pilot, in accordance with Article 8 Rome I. The ruling is particularly interesting for the relation between the habitual place of work and the exception clause and points to the elements that should be taken into account.


Amber Zwanenburg
Amber Zwanenburg is a PhD candidate at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam and member of the editorial board of EELC.

Jan-Pieter Vos
Jan-Pieter Vos is a teacher and PhD candidate at Erasmus University Rotterdam, and member of the editorial board of EELC.

    The Irish Workplace Relations Commission has found that the termination of a franchise arrangement between a post office and a retail partner and a subsequent arrangement with another retail partner constituted a transfer of undertaking.


Orla O’Leary
Orla O’Leary is a Senior Associate at Mason Hayes & Curran LLP

    The UK Employment Tribunals and England and Wales Court of Appeal (case [2018] EWCA Civ 2748) have ruled that any Uber driver who has the Uber App switched on, is in the territory where he/she is authorised to work, and is able and willing to accept assignments, is working for Uber under a worker contract. The UK courts disregarded some of the provisions of Uber’s driver agreement. They had been entitled to do so because the relevant provisions of the driver agreement did not reflect the reality of the bargain made between the parties. The fact that Uber interviews and recruits drivers, controls the key information, requires drivers to accept trips, sets the route, fixes the fare, imposes numerous conditions on drivers, determines remuneration, amends the driver’s terms unilaterally, and handles complaints by passengers, makes it a transportation or passenger carrier, not an information and electronic technology provider. Therefore the UK courts resolved the central issue of for whom (Uber) and under a contract with whom (Uber), drivers perform their services. Uber is a modern business phenomenon. Regardless of its special position in business, Uber is obliged to follow the rules according to which work is neither a commodity nor an online technology.


Andrzej Świątkowski
Andrzej Marian Świątkowski is a professor at Jesuit University Ignatianum in Krakow. ((ORCID: 0000-0003-1753-7810))
Artikel

Pracademia: a personal account of a mediation clinic and its development

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden mediation clinic, students, practicing, Circle of engagement, Susskind
Auteurs Charlie Irvine
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article tells the story of University of Strathclyde Mediation Clinic through the eyes of its founder. Taking its first case in 2012, by the start of 2021 it will be providing a free mediation service in 16 of Scotland’s 39 sheriff courts, covering more than half the country’s population. Yet it started with no plan, no budget and a few volunteers. The article makes the case that mediation clinics, like mediation itself, call for improvisation, coining the term ‘pracademia’ to describe how such clinics straddle the two worlds of practice and theory.


Charlie Irvine
Charlie Irvine has been working as a mediator since the early 1990s; he developed and runs the Mediation and Conflict Resolution masters programme at University of Strathclyde Law School, Glasgow. He is also Director of Strathclyde Mediation Clinic. His academic work is focused on mediation and justice, in particular the neglected justice reasoning of ordinary people.
Artikel

De mediator buddy

Reflecties bij de persoonlijkheid van de mediator, de nood aan ‘de-bias’ en de haalbaarheid van een mediator ‘buddy’

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden mediator buddy, bias, integrity, 5MBP, reflection
Auteurs Alain Laurent Verbeke
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As mediators we should be aware of our biases. We cannot avoid them, although we need integrity and impartiality while helping people communicate and negotiate in their search for conflict resolution. The mediator’s job is delicate and important, as we ‘play’ with people and their underlying interests, emotions and identity. That is also the case in business mediation, where it all seems to be just professional and some feel emotions are to be avoided.
    Mediators need much intrapersonal work to stay balanced and to manage their own biases. In this article a 5 step Managing Biases Process (5MBP) is suggested.
    To do this honestly and seriously, and to keep growing, we need a ‘sparring partner”. Such mediator buddy contributes to our checks and balances, and better guarantees the integrity of the mediator.


Alain Laurent Verbeke
Alain Laurent Verbeke is gewoon hoogleraar aan de KU Leuven, Full Professor of Law & Negotiation-Mediation Leuven, Harvard, Tilburg, UCP Lisbon en advocaat.
Article

Access_open The Relationship between Empirical Legal Studies and Doctrinal Legal Research

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden empirical legal studies, legal research methods, doctrinal legal research, new legal realism, critical legal studies, law and policy
Auteurs Gareth Davies
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article considers how empirical legal studies (ELS) and doctrinal legal research (DLR) interact. Rather than seeing them as competitors that are methodologically independent and static, it suggests that they are interdependent activities, which may each be changed by interaction with the other, and that this change brings both opportunities and threats. For ELS, the article argues that DLR should properly be understood as part of its theoretical framework, yet in practice little attention is given to doctrine in empirical work. Paying more attention to DLR and legal frames generally would help ELS meet the common criticism that it is under-theorised and excessively policy oriented. On the other hand, an embrace of legal thinking, particularly of critical legal thinking, might lead to loss of status for ELS in policy circles and mainstream social science. For DLR, ELS offers a chance for it to escape the threat of insular sterility and irrelevance and to participate in a founded commentary on the world. The risk, however, is that in tailoring legal analysis to what can be empirically researched legal scholars become less analytically ambitious and more safe, and their traditionally important role as a source of socially relevant critique is weakened. Inevitably, in offering different ways of moving to normative conclusions about the law, ELS and DLR pose challenges to each other, and meeting those challenges will require sometimes uncomfortable self-reflection.


Gareth Davies
Gareth Davies is Professor of European Law at the Faculty of Law of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Article

Access_open Basel IV Postponed: A Chance to Regulate Shadow Banking?

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden Basel Accords, EU Law, shadow banking, financial stability, prudential regulation
Auteurs Katarzyna Parchimowicz en Ross Spence
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the aftermath of the 2007 global financial crisis, regulators have agreed a substantial tightening of prudential regulation for banks operating in the traditional banking sector (TBS). The TBS is stringently regulated under the Basel Accords to moderate financial stability and to minimise risk to government and taxpayers. While prudential regulation is important from a financial stability perspective, the flipside is that the Basel Accords only apply to the TBS, they do not regulate the shadow banking sector (SBS). While it is not disputed that the SBS provides numerous benefits given the net credit growth of the economy since the global financial crisis has come from the SBS rather than traditional banking channels, the SBS also poses many risks. Therefore, the fact that the SBS is not subject to prudential regulation is a cause of serious systemic concern. The introduction of Basel IV, which compliments Basel III, seeks to complete the Basel framework on prudential banking regulation. On the example of this set of standards and its potential negative consequences for the TBS, this paper aims to visualise the incentives for TBS institutions to move some of their activities into the SBS, and thus stress the need for more comprehensive regulation of the SBS. Current coronavirus crisis forced Basel Committee to postpone implementation of the Basel IV rules – this could be perceived as a chance to complete the financial regulatory framework and address the SBS as well.


Katarzyna Parchimowicz
Katarzyna Parchimowicz, LLM. Finance (Frankfurt), is PhD candidate at the University of Wrocław, Poland, and Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute, Frankfurt, Germany.

Ross Spence
Ross Spence, EURO-CEFG, is PhD Fellow at Leiden University Law School, and Young Researcher at the European Banking Institute and Research Associate at the Amsterdam Centre for Law and Economics.
Discussie en debat

Overdaad schaadt

Pleidooi voor een verlichte consumptiedruk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Trefwoorden Consumer society, Excess consumption, Consumer culture, Green criminology, Corona crisis
Auteurs Dr. Hans Dagevos
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The lifeblood of contemporary consumer capitalism is ever-growing and accelerating human needs for new consumer goods and services. Needs that remain unsatisfied on the one hand but defy the carrying capacity of planet Earth on the other. Anything but a win-win situation. Although excess harms, the infrastructure of consumption pays full service to perpetuate and cultivate the ‘more and faster’ orientation of today’s consumers. It is believed that we can cope with excess by taking efficiency measures and paying attention to recycling and refurbishing. This article, however, points out that there is need to rethink consumption and reconsider prevalent orientations dedicated to excess consumption more fundamentally.


Dr. Hans Dagevos
Hans Dagevos is consumptiesocioloog en als senior scientist verbonden aan Wageningen University & Research.
Artikel

Access_open Macht, misdaad en exces

Enkele inleidende reflecties

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2020
Auteurs Dr. Bas van Stokkom en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Auteursinformatie

Dr. Bas van Stokkom
Dr. Bas van Stokkom is senior onderzoeker bij de Vaksectie Strafrecht & Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg is universitair docent Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Actualia contractspraktijk

Lessen uit de eerste rechterlijke uitspraken over de COVID-19-crisis en onvoorziene omstandigheden en overmacht bij commerciële contracten

Tijdschrift Contracteren, Aflevering 3 2020
Trefwoorden COVID-19, Onvoorziene omstandigheden, Overmacht, Commerciële contracten, Overheidsmaatregelen
Auteurs Prof. mr. R.P.J.L. Tjittes en Mr. J.V. Tetelepta
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie


Prof. mr. R.P.J.L. Tjittes
Prof. mr. R.P.J.L. Tjittes is advocaat bij BarentsKrans en hoogleraar Privaatrecht VU.

Mr. J.V. Tetelepta
Mr. J.V. Tetelepta is advocaat en senior medewerker bij BarentsKrans.
Artikel

Access_open Bemiddeling na, maar ook voor het openvallen van de nalatenschap van het familiebedrijf

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden familiebedrijf, nalatenschap, conflictvaardigheden, familievermogen
Auteurs Alain Laurent Verbeke en Katalien Bollen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the authors describe briefly the legal aspects of liquidation of an estate and the alternative way of mediation. Besides that they investigate what should better be done before the estate will be liquidated. It turns out that also in that case the facilitation of mediation is a wise choice.


Alain Laurent Verbeke
Alain Laurent Verbeke is gewoon hoogleraar familiaal vermogensrecht en onderhandelen & bemiddelen KU Leuven. Hij is ook Professor of Law aan Harvard, UCP Lisbon en Tilburg. Als advocaat en partner bij Deloitte Legal is hij medeverantwoordelijk voor het Greenille Private Client Team, met diensten in (internationale) tax en estate planning, conflict handling en family & business dynamics.

Katalien Bollen
Katalien Bollen is gastdocent en praktijklector aan de KU Leuven, en werkzaam als Family & Business Dynamics Expert bij het Greenille Private Client Team van Deloitte Legal.
Artikel

De nationale contactpunten voor de OESO-Richtlijnen

Een uniek systeem voor alternatieve geschillenbeslechting

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 2 2020
Trefwoorden OESO, nationaal contactpunt, multinationale onderneming, maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen, due diligence
Auteurs Marianne Gratia en Cyril Liance
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 1976 the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, about corporate social responsibility and sustainability, were carried. To implement the guidelines national contact points inform people and enterprises, and mediate in case of a complaint. This article describes the structure, procedure and role of the Dutch and Belgian National Contact Points.


Marianne Gratia
Marianne Gratia is werkzaam bij de Federale Overheidsdienst Economie in Brussel.

Cyril Liance
Cyril Liance is werkzaam bij de Federale Overheidsdienst Economie in Brussel.

Mr. K. Frielink
Mr. K. Frielink is advocaat, docent Verdiepend ondernemingsrecht aan de University of Curaçao en redacteur van het Caribisch Juristenblad.

Mr. dr. M.V.R. Snel
Mr. dr. M.V.R. Snel is als wetenschappelijk hoofdmedewerker privaatrecht verbonden aan de University of Curaçao en als research fellow aan het Tilburgs Instituut voor Privaatrecht, en redacteur van het Caribisch Juristenblad.
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