Verfijn uw zoekresultaat

Zoekresultaat: 338 artikelen

x
De zoekresultaten worden gefilterd op:
Rubriek Artikel x
Artikel

Access_open Kuhn and Legal Research

A Reflexive Paradigmatic View on Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2013
Trefwoorden legal paradigm, scientific revolution, social theory, reflexivity, responsibility, risk society, cosmopolitanism
Auteurs Ubaldus de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article seeks to describe a paradigmatic view on legal research, based on the thought processes underlining Kuhn’s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, in particular as how revolutionary change is coming about through a reflexive attitude towards developments that do not fit in the prevailing assumptions in an existing paradigm or research methodology. It allows for a description of ‘normal legal research’ and the assumptions upon which normal legal research is based. It also allows for an explanation as to how these assumptions are no longer exclusively valid but carry with them limitations in the face of structural developments at the level of society. An important feature of the paradigmatic view, then, is that it is able to take issue with these developments by incorporating social theory in our understanding of law.


Ubaldus de Vries
Ulbaldus de Vries is lecturer of Legal Theory at the Department of administrative and constitutional law and jurisprudence at the Faculty of law, Utrecht University. He is a founding-member of the Working Group on Reflexive Modernisation and Law.
Artikel

Migranten, banken en veiligheid in tijden van globalisering

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Customer due diligence, w undocumented migrants, remittance investment, phone-based remittances
Auteurs Prof. mr. dr. Sarah van Walsum
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Measures to combat international crime include customer identity controls by banks and repressive measures against informal money transfer systems. While there is debate surrounding the latter strategy, customer identity controls are largely taken for granted in the Netherlands. The author argues that these controls can negatively affect migrants. Moreover, exclusion of migrants from regulated banking systems has development implications. Phone-based remittances, that are linked to the regulated banking system, could serve as an alternative for informal transfer systems. Too stringent identity controls in host countries seem to prevent this however. The author recommends that controls focus on the amount being transferred, rather than on the person making the transfer.


Prof. mr. dr. Sarah van Walsum
Prof. mr. dr. Sarah van Walsum is hoogleraar migratierecht en familiebanden aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: s.k.van.walsum@vu.nl
Artikel

Met de schrik vrij?

Een exploratief onderzoek naar de afschrikwekkende werking van vreemdelingendetentie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden Irregular migrants, immigration detention, deterrence, return
Auteurs Mieke Kox MA en Dr. Arjen Leerkes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Immigration detention is formally not a punishment, but governments do seem to use it to deter irregular migrants from staying in the territory. This study explores whether and how practices of immigration detention in the Netherlands affect detainees’ decision-making processes regarding return and result in ‘specific deterrence’. 81 unauthorized irregular migrants were interviewed in immigration detention and their casefiles were examined. We find evidence for a limited deterrence effect: a minority of the respondents indeed wanted to return to their countries of origin in order to end their (repeated) stay in immigration detention. For some respondents the detention experience contributed to a desire to migrate from the Netherlands to a different European country. We go into the relevance of these findings for the continuing societal debate on the use of immigration detention.


Mieke Kox MA
Mieke Kox MA is als wetenschappelijk docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de sectie criminologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: kox@law.eur.nl

Dr. Arjen Leerkes
Dr. Arjen Leerkes is als universitair docent verbonden aan de sectie sociologie van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en onderzoeker bij het WODC/Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. E-mail: leerkes@fsw.eur.nl
Artikel

Het effect van de slachtofferverklaring op straftoemeting: een experimenteel onderzoek onder rechtenstudenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden victim impact statement, sentence, written, videotape, injuries
Auteurs Mr. Maaike Kampen, Dr. Jan de Keijser en Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Annually hundreds of victims make use of their right to speak in court. Victims often expect this will result in more punitive sentences. According to judges this is unlikely. This experiment among law students examines the influence of victim impact statements (VIS) on the sentencing outcome. Furthermore the effect of how the statement is delivered is examined. Is there a difference between the VIS as document in the case file and one delivered by the victim in court? Does it matter if the victim still has visible injuries? Study findings indicate that neither the presence of a VIS, nor the mode of delivery and visible injuries affect sentence length.


Mr. Maaike Kampen
Mr. P.M. Kampen is parketsecretaris bij het Openbaar Ministerie in Den Haag.

Dr. Jan de Keijser
Dr. J.W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. G.K. Schoep is universitair hoofddocent straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie.
Artikel

Vrije wil en verantwoordelijkheid in de strafuitvoering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden penal execution, rehabilitation, responsibility, life course approach, motivation
Auteurs M.M. Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responsibility of the prisoner for his own rehabilitation is a central element of ‘Modernising Imprisonment’, the masterplan that aims to reform the execution of the prison sentence in the Netherlands. The Secretary of Justice strives for an individual approach based on the points of departure of the Life Course Approach in criminology. This method is designed in different ways. A central element is that rehabilitation will only be offered in the near future to prisoners that show responsibility for their rehabilitation. Based on this starting point, a far-reaching system of advancing and degrading is introduced. Prisoners can deserve freedoms by showing responsible behaviour, but loose them again in case of irresponsible or unmotivated conduct. Three objections against this aspect of Modernising Imprisonment are discussed. First, the rehabilitation principle itself does not allow for such a far-reaching exclusion of categories of prisoners. Second, the high demands put on prisoners are not realistic given the characteristics of the prison population. Third, the assumption that a strict system of advancing and degrading will increase the effectiveness of sentencing is not well founded and cannot be derived from research.


M.M. Boone
Prof. mr. Miranda Boone is als bijzonder hoogleraar penitentiair recht en penologie verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij is tevens werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Uitsluiting van ex-gedetineerden door verzekeraars

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden selective exclusion, prisoners, actuarial justice, insurance
Auteurs Lucrecia Paulina MSc en Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article we address the question of whether former prisoners are excluded by insurance companies when they apply for insurance. We found that, in several cases, ex-prisoners had been denied insurance in the Netherlands. This so-called ‘actuarial justice’ is accompanied by a great deal of discretionary power in the hands of insurance companies. Moreover, the results emphasize that former prisoners are still in an extremely vulnerable position in society. The article concludes by emphasizing that this form of ‘selective exclusion’ happens to a variety of risk groups in society.


Lucrecia Paulina MSc
Lucrecia Paulina MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg
Dr. mr. Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Tegenspraak bij de politie

Distantie, betrokkenheid en doorwerking

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden tunnel vision, critical review, criminal investigation, police
Auteurs Mr. drs. Renze Salet en Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    After some serious failures in criminal justice procedures, in 2006 ‘critical review’ was introduced in the Dutch police as a measure to prevent tunnel vision in criminal investigation. An analysis of 26 review cases and interviews with representatives of the Dutch police forces shows that in practice reviewers are confronted with a fundamental dilemma of distance vs. involvement in their relation with criminal investigation team. Critical review proves to have concrete effects on the criminal investigation process, although their scope usually appears to be limited. Although these effects are modest and review takes scarce police resources, the authors recommend a continuation of critical review.


Mr. drs. Renze Salet
Mr. drs. Renze Salet is onderzoeker aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.

Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. Jan Terpstra is hoogleraar aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Access_open Juridical Acts and the Gap between Is and Ought

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden naturalistic fallacy, duty, obligation, is/ought, contract, promise
Auteurs Jaap Hage
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article addresses the possibility of deriving ought from is. To that purpose it casts doubt on the very distinction between is and ought; distinguishes between duties, obligations, being obligated and owing to do something; revitalises Searle’s famous derivation of ought from is by replacing promises with contracts; and discusses some of the traditional objections against this derivation. The conclusions are that it is not problematic at all to ‘derive’ the existence of obligations from solely is-premises, and that it is not very problematic to ‘derive’ an ought from the existence of an obligation. The quotes around ‘derive’ signal that the nature of derivation also plays a role in this discussion.


Jaap Hage
Jaap Hage holds the chair for Jurisprudence at Maastricht University.
Artikel

Vreemdelingenbewaring in crimmigratieperspectief

Over de rol van strafrechtelijke antecedenten en het ultimum-remediumbeginsel voor de maatregel van bewaring in de rechtspraktijk

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 6 2012
Trefwoorden immigration detention, legal practice, crimmigration, ultimum remedium
Auteurs LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The judge has a very important task in reviewing cases of immigration-related detention and guaranteeing the alien’s safeguards. This study examines the legal practice of reviewing detention orders from the theoretical perspective of crimmigration. Analyses of cases and interviews with judges show that the alien’s criminal background is not important for the review of grounds, but still of significance in the balancing of interests. In addition, the data reveal a protective gap in the reviewing mechanisms for aliens arrested on the basis of identification requirements. Moreover, the ultimum remedium principle proves to be a hollow notion, but the responsibility for its erosion lies largely outside the judicial practice.


LLB. Jo-Anne Nijland
Jo-Anne Nijland LLB. is student Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Zijn veiligheidshuizen effectief?

Een onderzoek naar de stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Safety Houses, network effectiveness, governance, crime prevention, QCA
Auteurs Remco Mannak, Hans Moors en Jörg Raab
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the Netherlands ‘Safety Houses’ have been established, in which partner organizations in the field of criminal justice, crime prevention, law enforcement, public administration and social services collaborate in order to reduce crime and recidivism, and to increase public safety. This article examines why some Safety Houses are better in achieving these goals than others. The effectiveness of 39 Safety Houses is analyzed by means of QCA (qualitative comparative analysis). Results show two different paths leading to effective outcomes. Effective Safety Houses have been in existence for at least three years, show a high degree of stability and a centrally integrated collaboration structure. In addition, they either have considerable resources at their disposal or have been set up with a network administrative organization, where a neutral coordinator governs the network.


Remco Mannak
Remco Mannak MA MSC is promovendus aan het departement organisatiewetenschappen van Tilburg University. E-mail: r.s.mannak@uvt.nl

Hans Moors
Drs. Hans Moors is hoofd van de afdeling Veiligheid & criminaliteit, welzijn & zorg van IVA Beleidsonderzoek en Advies (Tilburg University). E-mail: j.a.moors@uvt.nl

Jörg Raab
Dr. Jörg Raab is universitair docent aan het departement Organisatiewetenschappen van Tilburg University.
Artikel

Twitter tijdens flitscrises

Een onderbenut potentieel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, flash crises, crisis communication, Moerdijk, social media
Auteurs Jelle Groenendaal, Martine de Bas en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By pointing to the immense use of Twitter by citizens during crises, communication experts argue that governments should participate more actively on Twitter during crises. Until now, however, little empirical research has been conducted to validate this claim. This article aims at validating this claim and putting forward building blocks for an evidence-based vision on the use of Twitter by governments during flash crises, i.e. large-scale incidents that occur unexpectedly and immediately. The authors analysed 52.806 tweets sent by citizens and governments during a large-scale industrial fire in Moerdijk (2011). They looked at the content of the tweets and sorted them into fourteen categories. The results show that most of the tweets sent by citizens contained no new or relevant information for governments. In addition, the tweets sent by governments were totally ‘snowed under’ in the huge stream of tweets from citizens. Consequently, the tweets sent by governments were very little re-tweeted by Twitter users. The authors conclude that the Moerdijk case does not show a need for a more proactive role of governments on Twitter.


Jelle Groenendaal
Jelle Groenendaal MSc is onderzoeker bij Crisislab en promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: j.groenendaal@crisislab.nl

Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas MSc is adviseur crisisbeheersing en veiligheid bij de gemeente Papendrecht. E-mail: EM.de.bas@papendrecht.nl

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voorzitter van stichting Crisislab. E-mail: i.helsloot@crisislab.nl

    A historical analysis demonstrates that religious minorities and their protection needs played an important role in the emergence and the first developments of fundamental rights. It is indeed possible to denote a close correlation between the protection needs of religious minorities on the one hand and the fundamental rights enshrined in declarations and treaties on the other. Closer scrutiny reveals that this correlation can actually be explained by evolving views about the special vulnerability of religious minorities in the periods concerned. More recent developments of the human rights paradigm reveal that in the meantime other groups in particular are considered vulnerable and thus in need of special protection.


Kristin Henrard
Prof. dr. K. Henrard is hoogleraar Minderhedenbescherming aan de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (EUR). khenrard@yahoo.com.
Artikel

Toezichthouders op de tram

Een studie naar de handhaving van het ov-verbod in Amsterdam en Rotterdam

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden beveiligers, handhavers, boa’s, openbaar vervoer, ov-verbod
Auteurs Dr. R. van Steden, Mr. drs. M.B. Schuilenburg, L. Leemeijer MSc e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Zogeheten ‘nieuwe toezichthouders’ in de vorm van buitengewoon opsporingsambtenaren (boa’s) en particuliere beveiligers moeten in Amsterdamse en Rotterdamse trams service verlenen en huisregels handhaven. Bij overtreding van deze huisregels kunnen zij in het uiterste geval een openbaarvervoerverbod (ov-verbod) aan reizigers opleggen. Onderhavige studie laat zien welke haken en ogen daar in de praktijk aan zitten.


Dr. R. van Steden
Dr. R. van Steden is universitair docent aan de afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen (Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen) van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Mr. drs. M.B. Schuilenburg
Mr. drs. M.B. Schuilenburg is universitair docent aan de afdeling Criminologie (Faculteit Rechten) van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

L. Leemeijer MSc
L. Leemeijer MSc heeft Criminologie gestudeerd aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

L. Loots MSc
L. Loots MSc heeft Bestuurswetenschappen gestudeerd aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Aansprakelijkheidsbeperking van (markt)toezichthouders: de weg naar beter toezicht?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden aansprakelijkheid, gatekeepers, preventie, rechtseconomie, toezichthouders
Auteurs Mr. drs. R.J. Dijkstra en Mr. dr. L.T. Visscher
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In dit artikel onderzoeken wij met behulp van inzichten uit de rechtseconomie of beperking van de aansprakelijkheid van toezichthouders wegens falend toezicht wenselijk is. Omdat er redenen zijn om te vrezen dat onbeperkte aansprakelijkheid tot excessief toezicht leidt, betogen wij dat de aansprakelijkheid inderdaad beperkt moet worden. Deze beperking moet niet bestaan in een maximumbedrag waarvoor de toezichthouder aansprakelijk kan zijn, maar in een soepeler gedragsstandaard, zoals ‘opzet of grove schuld’.


Mr. drs. R.J. Dijkstra
Mr. drs. R.J. Dijkstra is werkzaam als parttime promovendus bij de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Mr. dr. L.T. Visscher
Mr. dr. L.T. Visscher is werkzaam als universitair hoofddocent bij het Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics (RILE) van de Erasmus School of Law.
Artikel

Marktconforme regulering binnen het nieuwe instrumentarium van de Omgevingswet?

Een rechtseconomische beschouwing van het Europese handelssysteem in broeikasgasemissierechten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Omgevingsrecht, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden rechtseconomie, broeikasemissierecht, ETS
Auteurs Dr. J. van Zeben
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Deze bijdrage biedt een rechtseconomische beschouwing van het Europese emissiehandelssysteem voor broeikasgassen. Daarbij wordt aandacht besteed aan de ontwikkeling van de bevoegdhedenverdeling tussen Europa en de lidstaten, de wijze waarop de bevoegdhedenverdeling functioneert en worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor de toekomstige verdeling van bevoegdheden.


Dr. J. van Zeben
Mevr. dr. J. (Josephine) van Zeben is onderzoeker Europees (milieu)recht en rechtseconomie bij het Amsterdam Center for Environmental Law and Sustainability van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    Elbers et al. studied the impact of being involved in a compensation process on the health of the claimant/plaintiff. Although there is some evidence that being involved has a negative effect on health, there is contradictory evidence concerning the explanatory factors. The authors review various empirical studies, pinpoint the contradictory conclusions and analyse their methodological strengths and weaknesses. Studies concerning the influence of claim settlement processes on the wellbeing of claimants offer insights from which suggestions can be derived for improvement of the position of claimants.


Nieke Elbers
Nieke Elbers is neuropsychologist and post-doc researcher at the Faculty of Law at the VU University Amsterdam. She wrote her PhD thesis about empowerment of injured claimants, investigating claim factors, procedural justice, and e-health.

Arno Akkermans
Arno Akkermans is professor at the Faculty of Law at the VU University Amsterdam. His research interests concern the impact of law and legal procedure on the wellbeing and health of individuals, in the context of civil procedure in general, and of the settlement of personal injury claims in particular.

Pim Cuijpers
Pim Cuijpers is professor of clinical psychology and head of the Department of Clinical Psychology at the Faculty of Psychology and Education at the VU University Amsterdam. He is specialised in conducting randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses on prevention and psychological treatments of common mental disorders, especially depression and anxiety disorders.

David Bruinvels
David Bruinvels is an epidemiologist and occupational physician working at the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine (NVAB), the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), and the VU University Amsterdam. His research concerns developing and investigating interventions to improve return to work.

    Visscher gives an overview of the empirical research on the deterrent effects of tort law within the domain of traffic accidents. An impressive amount of law and economics research has been done in the last few decades. This has resulted in special attention for the deterrent effects of the financial incentives which are embedded in various legal systems. Contradictory empirical evidence motivates Visscher to reflect on methodological issues. A major shortcoming of most studies is that the dependent and independent variables are not properly defined and distinguished. Another difficulty is to properly assess the influence of the introduction of the no-fault system on incentives: no-fault not only implies that the prevalence of the tort-system is more-or-less marginalised, but also that it transforms the extent to which the damages of those injured are covered by insurances in various ways. It is not easy to isolate both factors properly. Nevertheless, Visscher finds enough support in the empirical evidence to conclude that, without added financial deterrence incentives, no-fault schemes are likely to lead to increased accident rates, more injuries and more fatalities.


Louis Visscher
Louis Visscher is associate professor in law and economics at the Rotterdam Institute of Law and Economics (RILE) of the Erasmus School of Law. He has studied both economics and law (cum laude) at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, where he also wrote a PhD dissertation on ‘An economic analysis of Dutch tort law’. Louis has published articles and book chapters in the area of the economic analysis of tort law, the law of damages, causation in tort law, insurance, contract law and law enforcement.
Artikel

Medical liability: do doctors care?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Ben C.J. van Velthoven en Peter W. van Wijck
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Van Velthoven and Van Wijck review empirical studies on the effects of tort law in the medical sector. The data they present comes mainly from the US, because from the 1970’s US states have enacted a variety of reforms in their tort systems. This variation has provided very useful data to study preventive effects. The empirical evidence analysed shows that medical malpractice risk affects the behaviour of health care providers. It has a negative impact on the supply of services and it encourages extra diagnostic testing;yet if the additional tests and procedures have any value, it is only a marginal one. Furthermore it has been found that changes in the supply of services do not affect health adversely. This suggests that the physicians who are driven out of business have a below average quality of performance. The authors conclude that, at the margin, medical liability law may have some social benefits after all.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Ben van Velthoven is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University. His research interests are: liability issues, civil litigation, and criminal law enforcement.

Peter W. van Wijck
Peter van Wijck is associate professor of law and economics at Leiden University and coordinator strategy development at the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice. His research interests concern tort law, contract law, civil litigation, and crime.
Artikel

Non-pecuniary damages: financial incentive or symbol?

Comparing an economic and a sociological account of tort law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Rob Schwitters
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Schwitters focuses on the differences between economic and a sociological perspectives on non-pecuniary damages. By exposing the alternative perspectives on this issue, he illuminates some methodological differences between both disciplines. Although law and economics has had a positive influence on empirical research, he questions the merits of this perspective when analysing non-pecuniary damages. Law and economics regards non-pecuniary damages exclusively as a financial incentive to realise optimal deterrence and maximisation of welfare. Alternatively, in sociology of law there is also attention for the symbolic dimension of law in which rules are seen as normative standards of behaviour. Compensation is a way to bring the wrongdoer to recognise that he has done wrong and has to compensate the victim, and to show the victim that his rights are taken seriously. Through a sociological lens, the adoption of an exclusively economic model of human behaviour has to be questioned. To what extent human behaviour is really influenced by either financial incentives or by normative standards of behaviour is an open empirical question. Finally, he argues that the decision to base our institutions (such as law) on economic underpinnings is a decision which itself cannot be based on an economic procedure of aggregating individual preferences and maximising welfare.


Rob Schwitters
Rob Schwitters is associate professor (sociology of law) and member of the Paul Scholten Centre (University of Amsterdam). He publishes on tort law, responsibility and liability, the welfare state, compliance and methodological issues.
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Toont 81 - 100 van 338 gevonden teksten
1 2 3 5 7 8 9 16 17
U kunt door de volledige tekst zoeken naar alle artikelen door uw zoekterm in het zoekveld in te vullen. Als u op de knop 'Zoek' heeft geklikt komt u op de zoekresultatenpagina met filters, die u helpen om snel bij het door u gezochte artikel te komen. Er zijn op dit moment twee filters: rubriek en jaar.