Verfijn uw zoekresultaat

Zoekresultaat: 220 artikelen

x
De zoekresultaten worden gefilterd op:
Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen x
Artikel

Wilsvrijheid en strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid

Een rondgang langs fysicalisme, connectionisme en belichaamde cognitie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden free will, criminal responsibility, fysicalism, connectionism, embodied cognition
Auteurs F. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author defends two propositions related to the concepts of free will and criminal responsibility. Free will is defined as the capability of distancing oneself from one’s immediate surroundings and reflect on impulses. The first proposition is that it is a mistake to suppose – as do many neuroscientists adhering to objectivist theories on the human mind – that the concept of free will refers to a postulated natural phenomenon, the existence of which could, in principle, be established or falsified. Instead, the concept of free will constitutes a practice; it is a human artefact that is part and parcel of the differing means by which mankind structures intersubjective life. The second proposition is that the criminal law legitimately presupposes that persons normally act out of free will and that they, consequently, are morally responsible and accountable for the wrongful actions they perform. The author claims that his arguments for both propositions are supported by insights from the neuroscientific fields of connectionism and embodied cognition.


F. de Jong
Mr. dr. Ferry de Jong is als universitair docent strafrecht verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. E-mail: f.dejong1@uu.nl.
Artikel

De psychiater en toerekeningsvatbaarheid

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatrists, criminal responsibility, administration of criminal justice, legal insanity, legal insanity standard
Auteurs G. Meynen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Currently, there is a vivid debate in the Netherlands about the possible non-existence of free will and its implications for criminal law, in particular for the concept of ‘criminal responsibility’. Especially forensic psychiatrists who advise the court on a defendant’s legal insanity feel uneasiness because of this discussion on free will. In this contribution the author suggests to reconsider the current practice in the Netherlands in which psychiatrists explicitly advise the court on legal insanity and to consider the option to leave the judgment on legal insanity entirely to the judge. Meanwhile, of course, psychiatrists will have to inform the judge about the defendant’s mental condition at the time of the crime and its influence on the defendant’s behaviour. If needed, in order to optimize communication between the medical domain (psychiatrist) and the legal domain (judge), a legal insanity standard could be developed and introduced.


G. Meynen
Prof. dr. Gerben Meynen is als bijzonder hoogleraar forensische psychiatrie verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Vrije wil en verantwoordelijkheid in de strafuitvoering

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden penal execution, rehabilitation, responsibility, life course approach, motivation
Auteurs M.M. Boone
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Responsibility of the prisoner for his own rehabilitation is a central element of ‘Modernising Imprisonment’, the masterplan that aims to reform the execution of the prison sentence in the Netherlands. The Secretary of Justice strives for an individual approach based on the points of departure of the Life Course Approach in criminology. This method is designed in different ways. A central element is that rehabilitation will only be offered in the near future to prisoners that show responsibility for their rehabilitation. Based on this starting point, a far-reaching system of advancing and degrading is introduced. Prisoners can deserve freedoms by showing responsible behaviour, but loose them again in case of irresponsible or unmotivated conduct. Three objections against this aspect of Modernising Imprisonment are discussed. First, the rehabilitation principle itself does not allow for such a far-reaching exclusion of categories of prisoners. Second, the high demands put on prisoners are not realistic given the characteristics of the prison population. Third, the assumption that a strict system of advancing and degrading will increase the effectiveness of sentencing is not well founded and cannot be derived from research.


M.M. Boone
Prof. mr. Miranda Boone is als bijzonder hoogleraar penitentiair recht en penologie verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Zij is tevens werkzaam bij het Willem Pompe Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Strafrechtelijke verantwoordelijkheid en de neurowetenschappen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden neuroscience, legal responsibility, mental capacities, brain mechanisms, brain imaging techniques
Auteurs N. Vincent
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper argues that to the extent that legal responsibility hinges on mental capacities – capacities which are implemented in (brain) mechanisms – scientists working in the fields of behavioural genetics and neuroscience can assist courts to adjudicate responsibility in several ways. First, by studying what mechanisms paradigmatically fully responsible agents possess and how those mechanisms operate. Second, by developing techniques to more individually, accurately and less subjectively inspect people’s mechanisms to gauge their true mental capacities. Third, by studying how youth, advanced age, and mental disorders affect these mechanisms. And fourth, by developing interventions to create, restore and enhance the function of these mechanisms in order to create, restore and enhance people’s responsibility-relevant mental capacities.


N. Vincent
Prof. Nicole Vincent is verbonden aan de Macquarie University in Sidney en aan de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

De rol van Falck in de Deense brandbestrijding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden firefighting Denmark, history of Falck, private fire brigade, public private partnership, regional crisis management
Auteurs P. Kruize
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In Denmark fire fighting is a responsibility of the local authorities, but since nearly a century communities have the possibility to outsource these duties to private companies. Falck is the dominant player on this private market. The same goes for other emergency services. The author describes the story of its founder Sophus Falck, the historical roots of Falck and how the company achieved the status of a reliable partner for the authorities. The legal basis for private firms in fire fighting is discussed as well as costs and quality of the services in an international perspective. The author concludes that Falck is a typical Danish phenomenon and the Danish model cannot be copied by other countries without restriction. At the same time the Danish experience learns that market competition may have a positive effect on the cost efficiency of fire fighting.


P. Kruize
Dr. Peter Kruize is lector bij de juridische faculteit van de Universiteit van Kopenhagen. Daarnaast is hij partner bij Ateno – bureau voor criminaliteitsanalyse in Amsterdam.
Boekbespreking

Een pleidooi voor kleine verhalen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden book review, public private partnerships, security governance
Auteurs A.B. Hoogenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This is a review of the book (dissertation) Orde in veiligheid. Een dynamisch perspectief (Order in security; a dynamic perspective) from the Dutch criminologist and philosopher Marc Schuilenburg. The reviewer characterises the book as ‘courageous’ because of its multidisciplinary approach of the phenomenon ‘public private partnerships’ (ppp’s) in security, its rupture with solidified thinking and its use of empirical studies to show what really happens in the workplace of ppp’s. The reviewer welcomes the application of concepts of the French philosophers Foucault, Deleuze and Tarde, but feels at the same time that the author could have done more to explain their thinking. Also he disagrees with the author about the role of the state in security governance, which is according to the reviewer much more dominant than suggested in this book.


A.B. Hoogenboom
Prof. dr. Bob Hoogenboom is hoogleraar Forensic Business Studies aan de Nyenrode Business Universiteit. Daarnaast is hij bijzonder hoogleraar Politie en Veiligheidstudies aan de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

De privatisering van politietaken in Engeland en Wales

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Trefwoorden police in England and Wales, budget cuts, privatisation, back office work, new localism
Auteurs B. Loveday
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The period of austerity which most of Europe is now experiencing is for the first time impacting on law and orders services, particularly the police service. This article gives an overview of the debate in England and Wales on the decision of the Coalition government to cut 20% to police spending and police numbers. An important instrument to reach this goal is the private outsourcing of tasks performed in the back office. The author discusses the public views on the performance and reliability of private security companies. Also the high rise of public police expenses are discussed against the background of declining crime levels.


B. Loveday
Barry Loveday is als reader in criminal justice administration verbonden aan het Institute of Criminal Justice Studies van de University of Portsmouth.
Redactioneel

Voorwoord

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2012
Auteurs Jaap de Waard en Marit Scheepmaker
Auteursinformatie

Jaap de Waard
Drs. Jaap de Waard is werkzaam bij de directie Rechtshandhaving van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.

Marit Scheepmaker
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Deuren op slot

Naar een verklaring voor de internationale daling van criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2012
Trefwoorden Crime Victim Survey, Crime levels, Marxist criminology, Crime opportunity theory, Crime prevention
Auteurs J.J.M. van Dijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the opening section the author refers to the classical book of Dutch criminologist Willem Bonger on the links between poverty/social injustice and levels of crime. He then introduces his own work on the International Crime Victim Survey (ICVS) since 1989. The ICVS trend data on crime in Western countries during 1989 up to 2010 show a curvilinear movement peaking around 2000. The upward trend seems to track economic growth and to have mainly been caused by increased opportunities of crime. His analytical results concerning car theft and household burglary suggest that the international falls in crime since 2000 are largely caused by improved security. A comparative analysis shows for example that burglary rates have fallen in countries with high levels of home security such as Great Britain and the Netherlands and have continued to rise in low security countries such as Denmark and Switzerland. The author concludes that criminology has evolved both methodologically and theoretically since the publication of Bonger’s book in 1905. Some fundamental principles of the discipline, however, appear to have remained unchanged. Van Dijk’s own work is, just like that of Bonger, policy- oriented. It is driven by the motivation to assist governments in finding better ways to reduce suffering of human beings from crime, either as victims or as offenders.


J.J.M. van Dijk
Prof. dr. mr. Jan van Dijk is als hoogleraar verbonden aan Intervict, het International Victimology Institute van de Universiteit van Tilburg. De oorspronkelijke Engelse titel van deze lezing luidt Closing the doors, een verwijzing naar een boek over suïcidepreventie van Ron Clarke, getiteld Suicide: Closing the exits. In dit boek en in een daarna verschenen artikel van Ron Clarke en Pat Mayhew werd empirisch bewijs gepresenteerd van het feit dat een verandering in de samenstelling van het aardgas in huishoudens in Groot-Brittannië en Nederland halverwege de jaren tachtig leidde tot een abrupte daling van het aantal mensen dat zelfmoord pleegde met behulp van gas, zonder dat er een duidelijke verschuiving naar andere manieren van zelfdoding optrad (Clarke & Mayhew 1989). Als een zeer gemotiveerde daad zoals zelfmoord kan worden teruggedrongen door eenvoudige situationele maatregelen, waarom, vroegen de auteurs zich af, zou dat dan niet kunnen met diverse vormen van opportunistische diefstal, zoals joyriding of inbraken in de wijk? Inderdaad, waarom niet?
Artikel

De valkuilen van de probleemgerichte politiezorg

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden policing, police strategies, problem-oriented policing, intelligence-led policing, reactive policing
Auteurs A.C. Berghuis en J. de Waard
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch police has embraced the concept of problem-oriented policing as an effective strategy to combat crime. This police strategy is based on information, analyses and cooperation with relevant stakeholders outside the police. The authors argue that the implementation of the concept of problem-oriented policing is essentially still in an infant stage due to tenacious internal en inter-organizational difficulties. More fundamental, the concept of problem-oriented policing is used in an intuitive and superficial manner, instead of introducing a more rigorous analytical one. Suggested is a more modest and disciplined approach, which functions not as an alternative for, but as a supplement to classical reactive policing.


A.C. Berghuis
Drs. Bert Berghuis en drs. Jaap de Waard zijn werkzaam op het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Zij schrijven deze bijdrage op persoonlijke titel.

J. de Waard
Artikel

De kenmerken van high reliability organizations (HRO’s)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden high reliability organizations (HROs), high reliability organizing, system safety, accident prevention
Auteurs K.M. Sutcliffe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic and professional disciplines, such as organization and management theory, psychology, sociology and engineering, have, for years, grappled with the multidisciplinary issues of safety and accident prevention. This article examines a domain of research on system safety – the high reliability organization (HRO) paradigm. HROs operate in hazardous conditions, but have fewer than their fair share of adverse events. HROs, traditionally found in the domain of aviation and aircraft carriers, are committed to safety at the highest level and adept a special approach to its pursuit. The attributes and operating dynamics of the best HROs provide a template on which to better understand how safe and reliable performance can be achieved under trying conditions.


K.M. Sutcliffe
Prof. Kathleen Sutcliffe is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Department of Management and Organizations van de University of Michigan.
Artikel

De bijrol voor professionals in evidence-based criminaliteitspreventie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden professionalization, evidence-based practice, crime prevention, What Works, treatment program
Auteurs Dr. B. Rovers
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The role of professionals in evidence-based crime prevention is a topic of discussion. The dominant view in the criminal justice field is that professionals are to support and faithfully execute evidence-based treatment programs based on risk factors for future crime. In other disciplines we find alternative approaches to evidence-based practice (EBP) in which the professionals, and more specifically features of the working alliance between professional and client, are considered to be the treatment program. In general, these approaches focus on treatment motivation and behavioural change. ‘Common factors’ like faith in outcome, trust between professional and client, et cetera, are considered as specific treatment factors. Empirical evidence shows that this may be a more fruitful approach towards effective interventions. The article looks into the scientific background of both perspectives and explains the key differences. It is concluded that EBP in criminal justice can gain from a (research) perspective in which professionals play a more central role.


Dr. B. Rovers
Dr. Ben Rovers is directeur van het Bureau voor Toegepast Veiligheidsonderzoek (BTVO) te Den Bosch en tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Gimme hope

De rol van hoop in het werk van groepsleiders in een justitiële jeugdinrichting

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden juvenile detention, What Works, motivation, Pygmalion effect, practitioners
Auteurs Drs. M.J. Geenen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The relationship between group workers and their pupils in a youth prison influences treatment outcome. A positive relationship stimulates treatment motivation and readiness for change. The aim of this study was to review the role of hope in a correctional institutional setting for youth. Hope is defined as having a goal and a positive outcome expectation. Hope keeps group workers positive, motivated and inspired to overcome difficulties, and the hope of group workers stimulates pupils to openly reflect on the past, reconsider future possibilities, and become motivated to change their behaviour. There are obstacles, however, which hamper the hope of group workers and may instead trigger negative expectations, cynicism, and despair. Key elements for dealing with potential negative influences on a hopeful orientation are leadership and training. Also conscious reflection on one’s acts, thoughts and feelings can help group workers to deal with resistance reactions and aggression, and to remain hopeful.


Drs. M.J. Geenen
Drs. Marie-José Geenen is als docent en supervisor verbonden aan de Academie voor Sociale Studies en als onderzoeker aan het lectoraat Jeugd & Veiligheid van Avans Hogeschool. Zij doet promotieonderzoek naar de aard van de relatie tussen groepsleiders en jongens in een justitiële jeugdinrichting.
Artikel

Bronnen van professionele effectiviteit

Over verantwoordelijkheid en ruimte van reclasseringswerkers

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden professionalism, probation history, probation workers, evidence-based practice
Auteurs Drs. A. Menger en Dr. A.G. Donker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the authors question the relation between professionalism in Dutch probation work and the tendency to create protocols for work processes that used to be under the rather autonomous control of the professionals themselves. Starting point is the professionalism model of De Jonge, placing professional space as key element of professionalism under the restriction that there is an acknowledged societal position as well as an explicitly recognized knowledge base for the professional. A brief historical overview of the probation work itself and the way it has been organized over the decades is described, resulting in the identification of five decisive developments in the initial (but recently changing) perception among Dutch probation workers of gradually restricted professional space despite the growing body of knowledge.


Drs. A. Menger
Drs. Anneke Menger is lector Werken in Justitieel Kader bij Hogeschool Utrecht.

Dr. A.G. Donker
Dr. Andrea Donker is lector Sociale Veiligheid bij Hogeschool Utrecht. Zij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen.
Artikel

Veilig politiewerk: de basispolitie over geweld

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden police personnel, police training, police violence, police safety, police standards
Auteurs M. Gieling en E.J. van der Torre
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The ideologies of community policing are central to the work of the Dutch police. The aim is to combine a focus on relations with the community with law enforcement, including the use of physical force. The balance has shifted, however, in favour of social relations. This article reports on the findings of a recent study among executive police officers. It is shown that the physical demands of police work are neglected in the selection and education of policemen and -women. Furthermore, there is a need for improving the training of standard procedures and interventions with respect to the use of physical force. In addition, it is found that a majority of the respondents feel that the use of force – in a correct way and in appropriate situations – is underappreciated by those in higher positions, while at the same time the issue of avoidance behaviour is not addressed.


M. Gieling
Dr. Maike Gieling is als onderzoeker verbonden aan MGTO Onderzoek & Advies te Utrecht.

E.J. van der Torre
Dr. Edward van der Torre is lector Gemeenschappelijke Veiligheidskunde aan de Politieacademie te Apeldoorn.

    Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide: 50 million tons of electronic waste each year. Part of it is exported, often illegally, from industrialised countries to e-waste hubs like Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China. E-waste often contains both valuable metals as well as toxic substances. The high value of metal is the main reason for imports by countries like Ghana, Nigeria, and China. However, the recycling methods in these countries are not tailored to responsible recycling of the toxic elements of e-waste, thereby causing major negative environmental and health effects. Also, the recycling methods in those countries are less efficient, which leads to the loss of valuable metals and to an increase in the mining of virgin metals. In this way the e-waste problem is directly related to the social and environmental problems at the beginning of the electronics chain. This article explores the e-waste problem from a value chain perspective and proposes policy measures that could diminish Europe's contribution to the problem.


M. van Huijstee
Dr. Mariëtte van Huijstee is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

T. Steinweg
Tim Steinweg MSc is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.
Artikel

Zin en onzin van het downloadverbod

Actuele ontwikkelingen in digitale piraterij nader beschouwd

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs H.B.M. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution, the author explores some of the issues that are currently dominant in the debate revolving illegal downloading (also known as digital piracy). Four specific issues are addressed. Firstly, the legal status of downloading is discussed, followed by a brief analysis of a debate currently being held within the Dutch parliament dealing with this issue. Of particular interest is the proposed ‘download-ban’ which is intended to decrease digital piracy and increase legitimate sales. However, as will be demonstrated, this proposed ban is not without criticisms. Following this analysis, the question is raised what is actually empirically known about the impact of illegal downloading on the involved industries, and whether proposed measures such as a ‘download-ban’ can have the desired impact. Finally, the role of copyrights in the digital environment is explored.


H.B.M. Leeuw
Bastiaan Leeuw UM Mcrim is promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van Maastricht University. Hierbinnen is hij verboden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. Zijn onderzoek heeft betrekking op een (criminologische) studie naar downloadgedrag op het internet, waarbij de vraag centraal staat welke mogelijke interventies effectief kunnen zijn om downloadgedrag aan te passen.
Toont 81 - 100 van 220 gevonden teksten
1 2 3 5 7 8 9 10 11
U kunt door de volledige tekst zoeken naar alle artikelen door uw zoekterm in het zoekveld in te vullen. Als u op de knop 'Zoek' heeft geklikt komt u op de zoekresultatenpagina met filters, die u helpen om snel bij het door u gezochte artikel te komen. Er zijn op dit moment twee filters: rubriek en jaar.