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Law Review

2019/1 EELC’s review of the year 2018

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 1 2019
Auteurs Ruben Houweling, Catherine Barnard, Filip Dorssemont e.a.
Samenvatting

    For the second time, various of our academic board analysed employment law cases from last year. However, first, we start with some general remarks.


Ruben Houweling

Catherine Barnard

Filip Dorssemont

Jean-Philippe Lhernould

Francesca Maffei

Niklas Bruun

Anthony Kerr

Jan-Pieter Vos

Luca Ratti

Daiva Petrylaite

Andrej Poruban

Stein Evju

Mr. F.M.H. Hoens
Redactioneel

Clash of Markets

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Cees Dekker
Auteursinformatie

Cees Dekker
Mr. C.T. Dekker is advocaat bij Nysingh advocaten-notarissen N.V. en redacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Kroniek

Kroniek concentratiecontrole 2018

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Bart de Rijke en Vivian van Weperen
Auteursinformatie

Bart de Rijke
Mr. B. de Rijke is partner en advocaat bij De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek in Amsterdam en Brussel.

Vivian van Weperen
Mr. V.Y.H. van Weperen is advocaat bij De Brauw Blackstone Westbroek in Amsterdam.
Annotatie

Servier: een bittere pil voor de Commissie

Uitspraak van het Gerecht van 12 december 2018, zaak T- 691/14, ECLI:EU:T:2018:922 (Servier e.a./Commissie)

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Pepijn van Ginneken en Gaëlle Béquet
Auteursinformatie

Pepijn van Ginneken
Mr. P.P.J. van Ginneken is advocaat bij Brinkhof N.V. in Amsterdam.

Gaëlle Béquet
Mr. G.D.G.M.G. Béquet is advocaat bij Brinkhof N.V. in Amsterdam.
Kroniek

Kroniek economie in het mededingingsrecht 2018

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Nicole Rosenboom, Anna den Boer en Maurice de Valois Turk
Auteursinformatie

Nicole Rosenboom
N. Rosenboom is werkzaam als senior consultant bij Oxera LLP Amsterdam.

Anna den Boer
A. den Boer is werkzaam als consultant Oxera LLP Amsterdam.

Maurice de Valois Turk
M. de Valois Turk is werkzaam als partner bij Oxera LLP Amsterdam.
Annotatie

Onderzoeksplicht of zorgvuldigheidsplicht bij de Wet Markt en Overheid? Het CBb verleent park-assist aan gemeenten

Rb. Rotterdam 21 september 2017, ECLI:NL:RBROT:2017:7170; Rb. Rotterdam 22 maart 2018, ECLI:NL:RBROT:2018:2123; Rb. Rotterdam 22 maart 2018, ECLI:NL:RBROT:2018:2119; CBb 18 december 2018, ECLI:NL:CBB:2018:660

Tijdschrift Markt & Mededinging, Aflevering 2 2019
Auteurs Jasper Sluijs
Auteursinformatie

Jasper Sluijs
Dr. J.P. Sluijs is universitair docent aan de vakgroep economisch publiekrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht. De auteur dankt Willem Janssen voor behulpzaam commentaar op een eerdere versie van deze annotatie, en Gijs van Midden voor waardevolle discussies over Wet M&O-jurisprudentie.
Artikel

Een tweelingstudie naar indicatoren van genetische en culturele transmissie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational continuity, rule-breaking behavior, genes, environment, twin study
Auteurs Camiel van der Laan MSc, Dr. Steve van de Weijer, Dr. Michel Nivard e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the present study, the role of genetic and cultural transmission in intergenerational continuity of rule-breaking behavior (RBB) was investigated. Based on the resemblance within 3,982 Dutch twin pairs, aged 13 to 17 years, the relative importance of genetic (G), shared environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) influences on RBB was estimated. Cultural transmission, the process of passing on knowledge, norms and values, can lead to similarities within families, and forms part of the shared environment of children growing up in the same family. The authors found no evidence for shared environmental influences, and consequently no indication of a role for cultural transmission. Genetic influences explained 60 percent of the variance in rule-breaking behavior at age 13 to 17, implying that intergenerational continuity at this age is mainly driven by genetic transmission.


Camiel van der Laan MSc
C.M. van der Laan is promovendus bij de afdeling Biologische Psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Michel Nivard
Dr. M.G. Nivard is universitair docent bij de afdeling Biologische Psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Prof. dr. Dorret Boomsma
Prof. dr. D.I. Boomsma is hoogleraar biologische psychologie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en directeur van het Nederlands Tweelingen Register.
Artikel

Crimineel gedrag over de levensloop én over generaties: de rol van het gezin

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational continuity, Criminal behavior, Family, Family relations, Generations
Auteurs Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In criminology, explanations for engagement in externalizing or criminal behavior are often found within the direct (social) environment of the individual. More specifically, family functioning, the quality of family relations and parenting strategies during childhood and adolescence are found to be related to the development of externalizing problems or criminal behavior over the life-course. Although less well studied, the opposite might also be true: externalizing problems or delinquency during childhood and adolescence may in turn also affect some important (family-related) transitions over the life-course, such as engagement in romantic relationships, the transition to parenthood, parenting strategies and broader family functioning. Not surprisingly, in life-course criminology there is increasing attention for familial similarities in externalizing and delinquent behavior. What underlies intergenerational continuity of criminal behavior? Under which circumstances behavior is continued over the course of generations? What is the role of the family? What is needed to break intergenerational cycles and facilitate earlier and more effective interventions? In this article, a literature review is provided on the role of the family in intergenerational continuity of externalizing or criminal behavior over the life-course and across generations.


Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
Dr. V.I. Eichelsheim is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Redactioneel

Intergenerationele overdracht en criminele families: introductie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Intergenerational transmission, Criminal families, Mechanisms, Organized crime, Prevention
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer en Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this introductory chapter we provide an overview of criminological research into intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour that currently is, and has been, conducted both internationally and in the Netherlands. The most important findings of these studies are also discussed. Next, possible explanations are discussed for intergenerational transmission of crime in general, and more particularly for families that are involved in more serious and organized crime. Moreover, possible ways in which intergenerational transmission of crime can be prevented are discussed. Finally, we give some directions for future research on this topic and will introduce the contributions to this special issue.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Toine Spapens
Prof. dr. A.C.M. Spapens is hoogleraar criminologie aan de Universiteit van Tilburg.

Dr. Remco Spithoven
Dr. R. Spithoven is lector Maatschappelijke Veiligheid aan de Academie voor Bestuur, Recht & Ruimte van Hogeschool Saxion en research-fellow bij de kenniswerkplaats Veiligheid & Veerkracht van de Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
Artikel

Intergenerationele continuïteit of discontinuïteit van crimineel gedrag?

Een onderzoek naar de modererende invloed van samenwonen en de geografische afstand tussen ouder en kind

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden intergenerational transmission, discontinuity, criminal parent, geographical distance, exposure
Auteurs Dr. Steve van de Weijer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This study (N=921) examines whether living together with a criminal parent moderates the intergenerational continuity of crime. Results are mixed, but show that the intergenerational continuity of crime decreases when the child lived together with the criminal parent for a shorter period of time. This association is most strong for children whose criminal mothers live on a large distance from them. Longitudinal fixed effects models, however, show that these results are likely the consequence of between-individual differences and therefore do not reflect causal influences on the intergenerational continuity of crime.


Dr. Steve van de Weijer
Dr. S.G.A. van de Weijer is postdoctoraal onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Discussie

‘Zij vreet er ook van’

Over de ongemakkelijke relatie tussen huiselijk geweld en zware en georganiseerde criminaliteit

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden Domestic violence, Organized crime, Bikers
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In The Netherlands not much attention has been paid towards the relationship between domestic violence and organized crime. In this contribution the question is addressed why this is. One of the answers is that there is doubt about the moral status of the victim of organized crime: it assumed that the victim has benefited from the proceedings of organized crime. When domestic violence and involvement with organized crime by one of the family members come together, the case becomes more complex and difficult to deal with. For that reason professionals and researchers should pay more attention to the overlap of both phenomena.


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. J. Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld (LEC EGG) van de Nationale Politie en lector Veiligheid in Afhankelijkheidsrelaties aan de Avans Hogeschool.
Artikel

De moeder als facilitator van intergenerationele overdracht binnen de georganiseerde misdaad

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2019
Trefwoorden organized crime, intergenerational continuity, discontinuity, mother, parenting
Auteurs Meintje van Dijk Msc, Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans en Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Previous research on intergenerational continuity of crime is primarily focused on transmission from fathers to children. In this article, we aim to give insight in the role of mothers in (the prevention of) continuity of organized crime. The results of our explorative study on 25 organized crime offenders based in Amsterdam and their partners and children, show that parenting skills and norms and values of mother seem to have an important role in both the intergenerational continuity of organized crime and the prevention of the transmission.


Meintje van Dijk Msc
A.M.M. van Dijk MSc is promovenda bij de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Edward Kleemans
Prof. dr. E.R. Kleemans is hoogleraar zware criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

Dr. Veroni Eichelsheim
Dr. V.I. Eichelsheim is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).
Artikel

Wel of geen identiteitscontrole? Het dilemma van de ‘rule enforcer’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Identity control, Police, Rule enforcer, Selectivity, Discretionary space
Auteurs Dra Inès Saudelli
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    It is common knowledge that the police in executing its duty as “rule enforcer” disposes of certain discretionary powers. Because of the heavy workload and the often ambiguous legislation, the police officer needs to decide on a selective basis when, how and towards whom he/she will act. These discretionary powers are present in proactive identity controls and already provoked strong reactions in the past. The media accused the police of over-controlling certain minority groups. With this ethnographic study into the Belgian practice of identity controls, in which we observe and interview police officers, we wish to get a better view of the way in which identity controls are executed. Although the research is still ongoing, we have already been able to establish that the decision-making process is based on a police feeling which police officers claim to have and which is formed by (a combination of) different triggers attracting their attention.


Dra Inès Saudelli
Inès Saudelli Onderzoeker criminologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel ines.saudelli@vub.ac.be
Artikel

Een inkijk in het leiderschap van Cannabis Social Clubs in België: criminelen, activisten, modelburgers?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Cannabis, Cannabis Social Club, Leadership, Cannabis movement, Stigma
Auteurs Dr. Mafalda Pardal
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) are understood as being social movement organizations advocating for the legalization of a closed, cooperative and non-profit model for cannabis supply among adult users. Drawing on qualitative data collected in Belgium, this paper analyses how one becomes a leader of a CSC as well as the functional role assumed by those individuals. It further unveils how Belgian CSC leaders’ engagement in those organizations and in the wider cannabis movement is perceived. We identify and discuss the techniques employed by those key activists to manage cannabis-related stigma drawing on a framework developed by Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014). While CSCs might contribute to normalizing cannabis use and supply, our analysis suggests that CSC leaders face some degree of stigmatization, shifting between conformist and confrontational techniques to manage the perceived cannabis-related stigma. Building on the case of Belgian CSC leaders, this paper makes a contribution to the understanding of an under-researched movement, and the role of the leaders within it, expanding also the application of Lindblom and Jacobsson’s (2014) framework to a novel area of activism.


Dr. Mafalda Pardal
Mafalda Pardal Postdoctorale onderzoeker BOF, Universiteit Gent mafalda.pardal@ugent.be
Artikel

Moral entrepreneurs in de 21ste eeuw

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Moral entrepreneurs, Becker, Discourse, Crusading reformer, Symbolic interactionism
Auteurs Dr. Olga Petintseva en Prof. Tom Decorte
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In the introductory article of this special issue on ‘moral entrepreneurs’ in the 21st century, we situate different notions of moral entrepreneurship. Particularly foregrounding Howard Becker’s definition, we discuss its origins and use in subsequent research. The question that we’ve put forward in the ‘call for papers’ for this special issue is to what extent the notion is relevant in contemporary research and who is considered as ‘moral entrepreneur’. The research papers discuss ‘entrepreneurial’ practices of university ethic commissions, medical professionals, police officers and the leaders of cannabis social clubs. We conclude that the underlying rationales and discourses of moral entrepreneurs that the authors identify, reflect contemporary neoliberal ideals.


Dr. Olga Petintseva
Olga Petintseva Postdoctorale onderzoeker FWO Vlaanderen, Universiteit Gent – Vrije Universiteit Brussel olga.petintseva@ugent.be

Prof. Tom Decorte
Tom Decorte Professor criminologie, Universiteit Gent tom.decorte@ugent.be
Artikel

Artsen en moreel ondernemerschap. De casus van de normalisering van verslavende opioïde pijnstillers in de Verenigde Staten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2019
Trefwoorden Opioid crisis, Addictive painkillers, Medical doctors, Moral entrepreneurs, Big Pharma
Auteurs Dr. Thaddeus Müller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, I am using Becker’s concept of moral entrepreneur to analyse the role of pain specialists in the labelling process, which has led to the normalisation of the use of opioid painkillers in the United States and ultimately to the death over 200.000 Americans. In general, the literature on labelling centres on crusading reformers, and the criminalisation and stigmatisation of transgressive behaviour. Here I will focus on the moral entrepreneurship of medical experts. What was their role in the normalisation process of opioid painkiller use and are there any similarities with the strategies of crusading reformers? My findings, based on qualitative analysis of documents such as newspaper articles and academic publications, show that, with two exceptions, pain specialists use the strategies of moral crusaders. First, in their narratives, pain specialists represented themselves as neutral objective experts without the emotional stance of moral crusaders. The second exception, which is related to the first, is that there was less emphasis in their narrative on creating villains, as they could not blame openly standard medical practice because they needed the support of the established medical world in order to normalise and legalise opioid painkillers.


Dr. Thaddeus Müller
Thaddeus Müller Docent criminologie, Lancaster University t.muller@lancaster.ac.uk
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