Zoekresultaat: 235 artikelen

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    In this essay the nature of crime and death in opera is dealt with, focussing on a select number of operas, such as Verdi’s MacBeth, Wagner’s Die Walküre and Strauss’s Salome and Elektra. It appears that crime in opera is pervasive and appears in many different forms, as well as in a wide variety of contexts. An attempt is made to analyse the way composers manipulate the circumstances of killings – lenghtening or shortening or replacing scenes – in order to get maximum results in terms of emotional content.


Lodewijk Brunt
Prof. dr. Lodewijk Brunt is emeritus hoogleraar urbane vraagstukken aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. E-mail: L.Brunt@upcmail.nl.

Gert Jan Slump
Gert Jan Slump is criminoloog, sociaal-maatschappelijk ondernemer en ervaren adviseur. In 2010 was hij mede oprichter van de Stichting Restorative Justice Nederland en sindsdien ontwikkelt hij samen met Anneke van Hoek en anderen binnen het netwerk rond herstelrecht in Nederland allerlei projecten op dit terrein. Hij is ook actief op het terrein van professionaliseringsvraagstukken, onder meer binnen de jeugdzorg.
Artikel

Drugsdealers, gender en straatkapitaal

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 5 2013
Trefwoorden illegal drugs, drug dealing, gender, street capital, drugs economy
Auteurs H. Grundetjern en S. Sandberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Early studies of female drug dealers suggest that women are marginalized, passive victims. In contrast, more recent studies describe women as skilful and competent dealers. In a Bourdieu-inspired theoretical framework of ‘street capital’, the authors suggest that the truth is somewhere in between. Female dealers can be successful, but they face more obstacles than men do. The illegal hard drug economy is gendered and favours men. In this paper the authors discuss how female drug dealers develop particular strategies to prove they still belong in ‘the game’. Four such strategies are emphasized: desexualization, violent posture, emotional detachment and service-mindedness. These are common strategies for all drug dealers, but the gendered economy forces female dealers to be particularly careful about their business and self-presentation.


H. Grundetjern
Heidi Grundetjern, MSc is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.

S. Sandberg
Dr. Sveinung Sandberg is verbonden aan de faculteit Sociologie en Sociale Geografie van de Universiteit van Oslo.
Artikel

Agressieve vaders?

De kwaliteit van de vader-kindrelatie in asielzoekers- en vluchtelingengezinnen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 4 2013
Trefwoorden trauma, posttraumatische stressstoornis, ouder-kindrelatie, kindermishandeling
Auteurs Mr. Drs. Elisa van Ee
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Traumatic experiences and post-traumatic stress disorder have been linked to increased aggression and child abuse. Surprisingly, a dearth of studies investigates the impact of trauma on fatherhood. The present study investigates the extent of father-involvement and the influence of post-traumatic stress on the parent-child relationship in a refugee and asylum seeker population (N = 80). The results show that fathers were less involved in care-giving. Traumatic stress symptoms negatively affected the perception and the actual quality of parent-child interaction likewise posttraumatic stress influences the quality of mother-child interaction. The levels of observed hostility and reported aggression are a particular concern.


Mr. Drs. Elisa van Ee
Mr. drs. Elisa van Ee is klinisch psycholoog en onderzoeker bij de Stichting Centrum ’45.
Artikel

Herstelbemiddeling in Vlaanderen onderzocht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden restorative justice, juvenile delinquents, evaluation research, victims, Flanders
Auteurs Henk Ferwerda en Ilse van Leiden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On a yearly basis between 4.000 and 4.500 underage suspects in Flanders accept the offer of Restorative Justice. A many cited definition of Restorative Justice has been developed by Lode Walgrave: ‘Restorative Justice is every action that is primarily oriented toward doing justice by repairing the harm that has been caused by the crime’.
    Commissioned by the Flemish Minister of Welfare, Public Health and Family an evaluation of Restorative Justice for minors was conducted by Bureau Beke. In the article the authors reflect on Restorative Justice in Flanders and describe the most important findings of their research. The process of Restorative Justice, the satisfaction of the parties involved and its results are considered. The authors offer organizations several suggestions related to developing established procedures and practices. Furthermore results show that suspects and victims are satisfied with Restorative Justice, which yields several benefits for the parties involved: Reparation for victims and learning effects and reduced contacts with counseling agencies for suspects. An important overall conclusion is that face-to-face contact between victim and suspects is beneficial for the mediation process and subsequently repairing the harm.


Henk Ferwerda
Dr. Henk Ferwerda is criminoloog, politieonderzoeker en directeur van Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: h.ferwerda@beke.nl

Ilse van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is psycholoog en als senior onderzoekster werkzaam bij Bureau Beke in Arnhem. E-mail: i.van.leiden@beke.nl
Artikel

‘Als Allah mij kiest’

Rechtvaardigingen voor martelaarschap en geweld op Facebook

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden radicalisation, young Muslims, jihadists, martyrdom, internet, violence
Auteurs Dr. Marion van San
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    For the past few weeks, young Muslims from Belgium and the Netherlands leaving for Syria to join the armed struggle against the Assad regime have been dominating the local news. This is especially remarkable in light of the fact that it would appear that, until very recently, jihadists from Belgium and the Netherlands were far and few between. The armed struggle is a topic that is widely discussed among young Muslims on social media such as Facebook. During the research on which this article is based, we conducted an analysis of conversations between young Muslims on Facebook and held interviews with a number of them. The key question was: why is it that so many young people use social media to profess their willingness to sacrifice their lives in armed struggle while at the same time most of them are not prepared to put action to their words? Despite all the media reports, the fact remains that of the large number of young Muslims who are potentially ready to go into battle, the vast majority prefer to stay at home for the time being. When we confronted the participants in these discussions with this inconsistency, they offered a number of reasons and considerations as to why martyrdom was not yet granted to them. The way in which these considerations shape their lives and the role played by their religious convictions form the subject of this article.


Dr. Marion van San
Dr. M. van San is wetenschappelijk docent aan de faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam en senior onderzoeker aan het Risbo (EUR).
Artikel

Access_open Rechtspraak en waarheid in Aischylos’ Oresteia en Yael Farbers Molora

Tijdschrift Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Oresteia, tragedy, conflict resolution, truth and reconciliation commission, restorative justice
Auteurs Lukas van den Berge
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article explores the themes of injustice and dehumanization in Aeschylus’ Oresteia and Yael Farber’s Molora, in which the story of the Oresteia is dramatized against the backdrop of post-apartheid South Africa. It is argued that both plays depict wrongdoers and victims alike as social outcasts. Thus, they can both be described with Paul Ricoeur as ‘sketches of a man,’ not being able to live up to their full human potential. Borrowing from Ricoeur’s legal philosophy, it is then explained how public trials and hearings help them to reintegrate into society, in which they can regain their full humanity.


Lukas van den Berge
Lukas van den Berge is researcher at the Montaigne Centre for Judicial Administration and Conflict Resolution of Utrecht University (the Netherlands), where he prepares a dissertation on the theory of administrative procedural law.
Artikel

Niet voor wie niet tegen bloed kan

Een laatste handdruk pro Justitia

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden forensic psychiatry, forensic psychiatric hospital, forensic psychiatric patients, risk management, work motivation
Auteurs E.J.P. Brand
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Having a job is an all day reality, having a job in a prison or a forensic psychiatric hospital is not. Dealing on a daily basis with disturbed people who have committed a severe crime requires a highly professional attitude. For the professional working in this field, individual thoughts and feelings (of disgust of the criminal and his crime for example, so common amongst the public) are not an option, while at the same time the given means for doing the work are highly dependent on public opinion as expressed by the media and political spokesmen. Ed Brand, forensic psychologist for more than thirty years, describes the change in risk management which took place in those years on the social and political level in the treatment of psychiatric disturbed offenders. In his account he also refers to the changes in his personal life before he stopped his work in state prisons and forensic psychiatric hospitals.


E.J.P. Brand
Dr. Ed Brand (1955), psycholoog, werkte vanaf 1982 achtereenvolgens in de CAD-Alcoholkliniek in Haarlem (de huidige Brijderstichting), in het Penitentiair Selectie Centrum in Den Haag, in de FOBA (nu: PPC) in Amsterdam en als hoofd behandeling in de Oostvaarderskliniek (tbs) in Amsterdam (nu in Almere); daarnaast was hij consulent bij de Reclassering Den Haag en Leiden en lid van de Commissie van Toezicht van de justitiële jeugdinrichting Amsterbaken in Amsterdam. Hij promoveerde in 2001 op Het persoonlijkheidsonderzoek in het strafrecht (Deventer: Gouda Quint). Sinds 2009 werkt hij in Gezondheidscentrum Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel en in een psychiatrische polikliniek bij Mentrum/Arkin, de overkoepelende GGZ-instelling in Amsterdam. Correspondentieadres: ejp.brand@telfort.nl.
Artikel

De wisselwerking tussen het beroep en de persoon van rechter

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2013
Trefwoorden judgeship, decision-making, truth finding, tunnel vision, collegial relations
Auteurs J.G. Tielenius Kruythoff
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article former judge Jaap Tielenius Kruythoff tries to answer the question how being a judge influenced his personality and vice versa. Decision-making is both a rational and emotional process. Judges are susceptible for being manipulated by litigants and colleagues as well as acknowledgements from others. The author stresses the importance of having the possibility to express doubts in the course of the decision-making process between judges. Trying to erase doubts – for instance when one judge is dominating discussions in the judge’s chambers – interferes in finding the real truth in a case. Also, colleagues can help creating awareness of tunnel vision. According to the author there is no such a thing as a general sense of just punishment. Discussions about reasonable punishments are influenced by previous decisions. Being a judge gave the author a lot of fulfilment in his work and a higher social status.


J.G. Tielenius Kruythoff
Mr. Jaap Tielenius Kruythoff is gepensioneerd rechter.
Artikel

Het effect van de slachtofferverklaring op straftoemeting: een experimenteel onderzoek onder rechtenstudenten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden victim impact statement, sentence, written, videotape, injuries
Auteurs Mr. Maaike Kampen, Dr. Jan de Keijser en Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Annually hundreds of victims make use of their right to speak in court. Victims often expect this will result in more punitive sentences. According to judges this is unlikely. This experiment among law students examines the influence of victim impact statements (VIS) on the sentencing outcome. Furthermore the effect of how the statement is delivered is examined. Is there a difference between the VIS as document in the case file and one delivered by the victim in court? Does it matter if the victim still has visible injuries? Study findings indicate that neither the presence of a VIS, nor the mode of delivery and visible injuries affect sentence length.


Mr. Maaike Kampen
Mr. P.M. Kampen is parketsecretaris bij het Openbaar Ministerie in Den Haag.

Dr. Jan de Keijser
Dr. J.W. de Keijser is universitair hoofddocent criminologie aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie.

Mr. dr. Ard Schoep
Mr. dr. G.K. Schoep is universitair hoofddocent straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden, Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie.
Discussie

Victimalisering van het strafproces

Een herstelrechtelijk commentaar

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 1 2013
Trefwoorden slachtofferrechten, procespartij, strafproces, herstelrecht
Auteurs John Blad
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author discusses the proposals done by Richard Korver, a Dutch victim-solicitor, with regard to the legal position of the victim in the Dutch penal procedure. They amount to making the victim a fully equipped party to the procedure with – as it were – the same arms as the offender and his solicitor has. These proposals include an autonomous right to appeal against the verdict in first instance, a right to make a victim statement of opinion, the right to rebuke the bench, and the right to be heard in almost every procedural and substantial decision of any authority in the penal process and in the execution of punishment. The authors comment is that these proposals, when realized, will imply an intensification of the polarized legal debate in the penal procedure, with more risks of secondary victimization. The problem is not that the defendant will oppose two prosecutors, but that the victim will find the public prosecutor not on his side when the latter does his job as he should: serving the interests of justice. The inquisitorial procedure does allow for participation of victims, but only in so far as this participation can serve the interests of establishing the truth of the matter and determining proportionate and equal punishment. Meanwhile the risk of instrumentalising the victim and his needs in interests in punitive strategies exists. Restorative practices offer a much better context for an assertive victim to defend his interests and satisfy his needs, staying out of a debate in which the measure of punishment functions as the yardstick of his suffering. Regular civil law procedures could be the second option and criminal procedures should be relegated again to their rightful place as ultima ratio.


John Blad
John Blad is hoofddocent strafrechtswetenschappen aan de Erasmus Law School Rotterdam, hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift en visiting fellow aan de Renmin University en de China University of Politics and Law, Beijing.
Artikel

Als iemand wordt vermoord

De gevolgen en hulp voor de nabestaanden

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Trefwoorden Survivors, co-victims, Casemanagement, victim assistance
Auteurs Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk en Drs. Ilse van Leiden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, not only victims of serious crimes, but also their relatives received increased attention in criminal justice procedures. Victim Support Netherlands started a project in which paid professionals support surviving relatives of murdered victims. Through interviews and questionnaires, a group of 62 surviving relatives was followed for two to three years, to map out what their problems and needs are, how the case manager helped them and how they appreciated the help. Problems and needs include psychological, practical, social and legal matters. The appointment of a case manager appeared to be very valuable for the surviving relatives. Partly because of the case manager, they managed to get back to everyday life.


Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk
Dr. mr. Anton van Wijk is criminoloog en directeur van Bureau Beke.

Drs. Ilse van Leiden
Drs. Ilse van Leiden is psycholoog en senior onderzoekster bij Bureau Beke.
Column

Maatwerk op vrijdagmiddag

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 2 2013
Auteurs Mr. Coosje Peterse
Auteursinformatie

Mr. Coosje Peterse
Mr. C. Peterse is strafrechtadvocaat te Den Haag en tevens redactielid van PROCES.
Artikel

Twitter tijdens flitscrises

Een onderbenut potentieel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, flash crises, crisis communication, Moerdijk, social media
Auteurs Jelle Groenendaal, Martine de Bas en Ira Helsloot
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    By pointing to the immense use of Twitter by citizens during crises, communication experts argue that governments should participate more actively on Twitter during crises. Until now, however, little empirical research has been conducted to validate this claim. This article aims at validating this claim and putting forward building blocks for an evidence-based vision on the use of Twitter by governments during flash crises, i.e. large-scale incidents that occur unexpectedly and immediately. The authors analysed 52.806 tweets sent by citizens and governments during a large-scale industrial fire in Moerdijk (2011). They looked at the content of the tweets and sorted them into fourteen categories. The results show that most of the tweets sent by citizens contained no new or relevant information for governments. In addition, the tweets sent by governments were totally ‘snowed under’ in the huge stream of tweets from citizens. Consequently, the tweets sent by governments were very little re-tweeted by Twitter users. The authors conclude that the Moerdijk case does not show a need for a more proactive role of governments on Twitter.


Jelle Groenendaal
Jelle Groenendaal MSc is onderzoeker bij Crisislab en promovendus aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen. E-mail: j.groenendaal@crisislab.nl

Martine de Bas
Martine de Bas MSc is adviseur crisisbeheersing en veiligheid bij de gemeente Papendrecht. E-mail: EM.de.bas@papendrecht.nl

Ira Helsloot
Prof. dr. Ira Helsloot is hoogleraar Besturen van Veiligheid aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voorzitter van stichting Crisislab. E-mail: i.helsloot@crisislab.nl
Artikel

De nagebootste stoornis, gedragskundige en strafrechtelijke benaderingen

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 5 2012
Trefwoorden Factitious disorder, Münchhausen syndrome by proxy, Diagnosis, Prosecution
Auteurs Dr. Dick Raes en Mr. Yvo van Kuijk
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Factitious disorders are rather rare. Doctors are not inclined to take such a diagnosis into consideration. Basically, the term Münchhausen-syndrome is not correct, because the stories told by the baron were obviously unbelievable. The DSM IV-TR makes a distinction between malingering, factitious disorder and conversion hysteria. Four cases are shortly described, two with factitious disorder in adults, one with Münchhausen by proxy and one of apparent child abuse.Especially in Münchhausen-syndrome by proxy, clinical and juridical approaches come together in the diagnostic and the criminal investigative phase. Professionals from both disciplines have to work together to protect the wellbeing of the child and to find the adequate (forensic psychiatric) treatment for the mother.


Dr. Dick Raes
Dr. Dick Raes is emeritus hoogleraar Forensische Psychiatrie aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam en Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en (plv.) raadsheer bij de Penitentiaire Kamer van het Gerechtshof Arnhem.

Mr. Yvo van Kuijk
Mr. Yvo van Kuijk is vicepresident van het Gerechtshof Arnhem en plaatsvervangend lid van het Adviescollege Verloftoetsing Tbs.
Artikel

Met biografieën een beter begrip van witteboordencriminaliteit?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden white-collar crime, corporate crime, biographies, case studies
Auteurs Wim Huisman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The central question of this article is whether biographies can be a source for criminological research on white-collar crime and how they can contribute to the explanation of white-collar crime. To answer this question, 35 Dutch biographies were studied. Following the legal ambiguities of white-collar crime, not all of these biographies are about criminal offences. And following the dominant anthropomorphic approach to corporate crime, some of these are corporate biographies. Many biographies confirm current criminological explanations of the causation of white-collar crime. Yet, biographies also offer additional insights, for instance about the causal relevance of the private life of white-collar offenders.


Wim Huisman
Prof. dr. Wim Huisman is hoogleraar bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: w.huisman@vu.nl.

Fiore Geelhoed
Dr. Fiore Geelhoed is docent bij de sectie criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: f.geelhoed@vu.nl.
Artikel

Verpest in het nest

Een casestudie van een criminele familie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift over Cultuur & Criminaliteit, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden family ties, fission and fusion, stigmatization, criminal family
Auteurs Borris van der Swaan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses a criminal family. It is not the individual, but the family as a social entity that is central to this approach. The Van D.’s are a family of eleven brothers with a collective history of crime. Raised with anti-authoritarian norms, violence, alcohol and a strong sense of loyalty, they were known as an ‘army of brothers’ dominating the streets of H-town. The criminal family as object of study proves valuable in understanding the influence of contextual factors, subculture, and stigmatization. In the case of the Van D.’s, blood ties create cohesion and conflict at the same time.


Borris van der Swaan
Borris van der Swaan Msc is afgestudeerd als criminoloog aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: bvanderswaan@gmail.com.
Artikel

Wraak, recht en slachtofferbehoeften

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden revenge, retributive emotions, victim impact statements, victim needs, penal populism
Auteurs Bas van Stokkom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Considerable political pressure is currently being brought to impose severe punishments, and it is frequently suggested that these punishments would enhance the wellbeing of victims and achieve ‘closure’. Populist images, such as ‘victims have a right to revenge’ have gained great influence. To what extent would therapeutic professionals have to support victim needs that are shaped within such punitive contexts? In this paper it is first argued that revenge embraces ambivalent meanings. Although avengers are lauded in the popular imagination, feelings of revenge are still viewed as ethically unacceptable. In recent decades, however, a penal populism has been gaining ground as a result of which revenge was stripped of its pejorative associations. In a punitive climate it is believed that victims would demand harsher penalties and that such penalties would promote closure and peace. Research findings show however that revenge may bring temporary relief, but anger rumination precludes healing. Subsequently the question is discussed whether two different forms of victim participation, victim impact statements and restorative justice conferences, might temper revenge feelings. Because VIS-participants (dealing with high levels of anger and fear) believe that their statements will culminate in longer sentences, they are generally frustrated that the imposed sentence is not tough enough. After the procedure they keep on viewing the offender as a malign person. Restorative procedures generally show an opposite picture. Finally this paper is criticizing the tendency of victim-oriented therapeutization within criminal justice and restorative justice. It is argued that the voice of the victim and the process of emotional healing should be separated strictly.


Bas van Stokkom
Bas van Stokkom is verbonden aan de afdeling bestuurswetenschappen van de faculteit der sociale wetenschappen van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Daarnaast is hij verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen). Hij verricht onderzoek op het grensvlak van ethiek, criminologie en de sociale wetenschappen. Tot de thema’s die in zijn onderzoek aan bod komen behoren politie, burgerschap en lokale veiligheidszorg, sanctietheorieën en herstelrecht. www.basvanstokkom.nl.
Artikel

De publieke emoties na een misdrijf en het beschavingsproces

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden public emotions, civilisation process, punishment, inclusion, exclusion
Auteurs Lode Walgrave
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The tendency to revalorise emotions in the response to offending, seems to face a dilemma. On the one hand, experiencing crime and reacting to it inevitably are imbued by emotion. On the other hand, giving way to emotions in responding to crime entails the risks of disproportionate and unequal justice. This article argues that there is a fundamental difference between the emotions promoted to be included in the response to crime and the emotions feared as a risk to overwhelm good and proportionate jurisprudence. The first ones focus on the needs of the immediate stakeholders of the offence and seek their (re-)inclusion. The second type of emotions focuses on the criminal act and seeks to keep the threat it represents under control through punishment and incapacitation. It is a socio-ethical choice to promote the inclusionary approach. Whereas the rehabilitative approach has addressed the needs of the offenders only, the restorative tendency addresses the needs of both the victim and the offenders in a more balanced way. This balance also helps to avoid that respectful responses to crime degrade into norm erosion. The option for revalorising inclusionary emotions in the response to crime through restorative justice is located as a next phase in the civilisation process, described originally by Elias.


Lode Walgrave
Lode Walgrave is emeritus hoogleraar jeugdcriminologie aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.
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