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Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Opsporingsbevoegdheden en privacy

Een internationale vergelijking

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs J.B.J. van der Leij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch regulation of phone tapping has a great deal of safeguards built in to ensure that this investigation method isn't used flippantly. Despite this, it appears that phone tapping is far more commonly used in The Netherlands than in any other western nation, including England, Sweden and Germany. This study shows that, due to differences in registration of phone tapping statistics, it is difficult to compare various countries' practices. However, it does appear that the Dutch authorities don't perceive to have viable alternatives to phone tapping. The limited alternatives that they do (perceive themselves to) have, such as infiltration, pose even greater ethical considerations, making them less attractive. Authorities in England, Sweden and Germany appear to use alternative investigation methods much more frequently than those in The Netherlands. Some examples of the types of alternatives more often resorted to in other countries are the use of traffic data, (intrusive) surveillance and various forms of infiltration. A comparison of the regulations in all four countries showed differences in the degree to which phone tapping is perceived to pose ethical considerations (posing a threat to the privacy of citizens) as an investigatory method.


J.B.J. van der Leij
Mr. dr. Bas van der Leij is als wetenschappelijk medewerker verbonden aan het WODC.

    The future of wiretapping is threatened by encryption and developments in the telecommunications industry. Internet communications changed the wiretapping landscape fundamentally. In practice it is often impossible to wiretap all possible internet connections. Not all communication providers are obliged to execute wiretap orders. This limits the use of a wiretap in an increasingly digital world. Although the content of certain encrypted Voice-over-IP communications and private messages might not be visible to law enforcement officials, the traffic data are. These traffic data show when the suspect connects to certain communication services, which provide important clues to proceed in a criminal investigation. It is important to have a discussion whether our wiretap laws need to be amended to better fit the needs of law enforcement. However, to make such a debate possible we need transparency. A good first step is to provide details and statistics about the use of internet wiretaps.


J.J. Oerlemans
Mr. Jan-Jaap Oerlemans is promovendus bij eLaw@Leiden, Centrum voor Recht in de Informatiemaatschappij van de Universiteit Leiden. Daarnaast is hij juridisch adviseur bij Fox-IT.
Artikel

De exfiltratie van verdachte en veroordeelde criminelen

Over de onmisbaarheid van een effectieve regeling voor coöperatieve criminele getuigen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs C. Fijnaut
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure and the related guidelines of the College of Procurators-General are for all sorts of historical and ideological reasons heavily restrictive when it comes to the use of cooperative witnesses in criminal proceedings. What strikes most is that even in very serious cases it is not possible to grant a witness complete or partial immunity in exchange for his important cooperation. This contribution describes the problems arising sometimes in criminal cases wherein prosecutors, despite the existing narrow framework, make a deal with such a witness. The article outlines not only the historical and international background of the use of cooperative witnesses, but also its contemporary legal framework in the United States, Italy, the United Kingdom and Germany. The outcome of this comparative exercise is that at least the current legal provisions should be evaluated and that this evaluation should take into account the system and experiences in other countries as well as the problems of serious crime in the Netherlands and the leniency policies that govern the efforts to contain serious white collar crime like e.g. cartels.


C. Fijnaut
Prof. dr. em. Cyrille Fijnaut was tot voor kort als hoogleraar internationaal en vergelijkend strafrecht verbonden aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Hij is thans voorzitter van de Toegangscommissie van de Commissie Evaluatie Afgesloten Strafzaken (CEAS).

    The laundering of criminal proceeds from environmental crime has so far received little attention. This is to some extent surprising because environmental crime is one of the most profitable types of crime. Criminal proceeds are in many cases bigger than in the drug trade. In this article three different categories of money laundering are described. The authors use an analogy with soccer to describe these categories. In ‘division one’ transactions are almost all in cash. The illegal goods, for instance fireworks, can be bought and sold with cash money. There is hardly any need to launder money and the border is barely an obstacle. In the ‘premier league’ the border plays an important role to launder money. The authors identify several methods of money laundering such as the mixing of legal and illegal trade, the use of double-entry bookkeeping and the use of priority rights. In the ‘Champions League’ criminal groups create an opportunity to make money illegally and to launder their criminal proceeds. For example the EU-wide introduction of CO2 emissions trading created an opportunity for VAT fraud.


W.P.E. van der Leest
Drs. Wouter van der Leest is werkzaam bij de dienst IPOL van het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD).

G.J. van der Zon
Mr. George van der Zon is werkzaam bij de dienst IPOL van het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD).

    Illegal deforestation is generally not considered as a criminological subject but in this article it is argued that it can easily be considered as such. The central question that is addressed here is how the theme of deforestation, which clearly fits into the new realm of green criminology, relates to more traditional criminological concepts. This question is discussed through various case studies: the Brazilian Amazon (mainly Brazil), Central Africa (mainly the Democratic Republic of Congo), South East Asia (mainly Indonesia), Russian Siberia, and Pakistan's Swat forests. The case studies show that there are actually many victims of deforestation, both human and non-human, and that deforestation is linked to a variety of other crimes and harms as well. It is concluded that even without taking a green criminological perspective, several concepts of criminology apply to illegal deforestation practices: governmental and state crimes, corporate crimes, and various types of organized crime.


T. Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.

    Electric and electronic waste (e-waste) is the fastest growing waste stream worldwide: 50 million tons of electronic waste each year. Part of it is exported, often illegally, from industrialised countries to e-waste hubs like Ghana, Nigeria, India, and China. E-waste often contains both valuable metals as well as toxic substances. The high value of metal is the main reason for imports by countries like Ghana, Nigeria, and China. However, the recycling methods in these countries are not tailored to responsible recycling of the toxic elements of e-waste, thereby causing major negative environmental and health effects. Also, the recycling methods in those countries are less efficient, which leads to the loss of valuable metals and to an increase in the mining of virgin metals. In this way the e-waste problem is directly related to the social and environmental problems at the beginning of the electronics chain. This article explores the e-waste problem from a value chain perspective and proposes policy measures that could diminish Europe's contribution to the problem.


M. van Huijstee
Dr. Mariëtte van Huijstee is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

T. Steinweg
Tim Steinweg MSc is onderzoeker bij SOMO - Stichting Onderzoek Multinationale Ondernemingen.

    Criminology usually focuses on the human experience. The relatively few criminological publications that do pay attention to animals, are very often written from an anthropocentric perspective in which animals are portrayed as passive objects and in terms of their usefulness to humans. Is this a satisfactory situation? Some criminologists would answer this question with a sincere ‘no’.
    For example Beirne and Cazaux have pleaded for a non speciesist criminology, meaning a criminology that does not take other than the human species for granted. This is not a plea for an entire new criminology, but an appeal for more attention on negative outcomes of human behaviour regarding animal welfare. In this article some examples of research options are described.


J. Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is verbonden aan het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld van de Nederlandse politie en aan de vakgroep strafrecht en criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zij publiceert frequent over de positie van dieren in de criminologie.

    Many species are threatened with extinction today. Certain animal species are becoming scarce and thus more valuable. Illegally traded animals and animal products are exported by relatively poor countries. These easily provide exporting papers that demonstrate that animals are bred in captivity, when in reality they are caught in the wild. In general illegally traded animals originate from South and Central America, Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa. Europe is a major importer. Since illegal trade in animals is booming business, it is not uncommon for illegal traders in exotic animals to be associated with other forms of organised crime. Due to a relatively low risk of prosecution and high profits to be made, the trade in rare species has become very attractive.


D.P. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    Because of the special characteristics of the Internet, cybercrime inherently crosses national borders and has fewer natural barriers than classic cross-border crime. This triggers the question whether criminal law with its traditional national focus is able to combat cybercrime. Can legislatures respond to technological change with sufficient speed in an internationally aligned approach? This article tries to answer this question by mapping the dynamics of cybercrime law, focusing particularly on the interplay between European and Dutch legislative initiatives. It shows that the dynamics consist of a European framework of minimum standards on major issues, with much room for national legislatures to interpret the standards and to add initiatives of their own where the European framework remains silent. Although this has worked well so far, if cybercrime continues to transform into large-scale organised crime, a step-change in the dynamics towards more steering European approaches may be necessary.


B.J. Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT - Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society van de Universiteit van Tilburg.
Artikel

Cybercrime en politie

Een schets van de Nederlandse situatie anno 2012

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs W.Ph. Stol, E.R. Leukfeldt en H. Klap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2004 the main problem of the Dutch police concerning cybercrime was a lack of knowledge, for example about how to act in a digital world, about the character of cybercrime and about the effectiveness of measures. The main question in this article is if this situation has changed, and if so, how. Although the legislator has given the police special powers to fight crime in a digital world, the police still struggle with questions about what exactly are the powers they have. Although the police have invested in pilot projects and in the recruitment of digital experts, knowledge about ‘policing a digital society’ is not yet common in the police organisation - which is a shortcoming since ‘digital is normal’ in the lives of the common people. Although the police established digital aspects in police training, digital is not yet a common feature in police education. In sum, although the police in various ways pay attention to digital aspects of policing, digital is not yet a regular part of the police organisation, police training and/or everyday police practice.


W.Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

E.R. Leukfeldt
E.R. Leukfeldt Msc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.

H. Klap
Drs. Henk Klap MPM is programmamanager van het landelijke politiële Programma Aanpak Cybercrime (PAC).
Artikel

Slachtofferschap van identiteitsfraude

Een studie naar aard, omvang, risicofactoren en nasleep

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs J. van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Identity fraud involves the theft of another person's identity information (e.g. bank account number and password), mostly for purposes of financial gain to the offender. The literature review summarizes main results from international and Dutch research with respect to the nature, size, risk factors and aftermath of identity fraud as well as the consequences for its victims. Though scientific research on these phenomena is taking place more and more, much work yet remains to be done. This review ends with suggestions for future research on identity fraud.


J. van Wilsem
Dr. Johan van Wilsem is als universitair hoofddocent Criminologie verbonden aan de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Zin en onzin van het downloadverbod

Actuele ontwikkelingen in digitale piraterij nader beschouwd

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs H.B.M. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution, the author explores some of the issues that are currently dominant in the debate revolving illegal downloading (also known as digital piracy). Four specific issues are addressed. Firstly, the legal status of downloading is discussed, followed by a brief analysis of a debate currently being held within the Dutch parliament dealing with this issue. Of particular interest is the proposed ‘download-ban’ which is intended to decrease digital piracy and increase legitimate sales. However, as will be demonstrated, this proposed ban is not without criticisms. Following this analysis, the question is raised what is actually empirically known about the impact of illegal downloading on the involved industries, and whether proposed measures such as a ‘download-ban’ can have the desired impact. Finally, the role of copyrights in the digital environment is explored.


H.B.M. Leeuw
Bastiaan Leeuw UM Mcrim is promovendus aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van Maastricht University. Hierbinnen is hij verboden aan de capaciteitsgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie. Zijn onderzoek heeft betrekking op een (criminologische) studie naar downloadgedrag op het internet, waarbij de vraag centraal staat welke mogelijke interventies effectief kunnen zijn om downloadgedrag aan te passen.
Artikel

Cyberwar? What war?

Meer in het bijzonder: welk recht?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs A.R. Lodder en L.J.M. Boer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents an overview of cyberwar from an international law perspective, in particular from the framework of the laws of war. It discusses some of the difficulties in applying these laws to cyberattacks, further complicated by the characteristics of the Internet. A distinction is made between cyberwar, -crime, -espionage and -terrorism, and the different fields of law that apply to these distinct ‘cyberevents’. Next to discussing several historic cyberattacks, the question is raised whether cyberwar is merely a hype or whether we should be taking this threat seriously. Rather than answering this question, the authors feel that the actual threat posed by ‘cyber’ is less important than the political and military prominence gained by this phenomenon in these past few years. The authors conclude by stating that a lot of work has yet to be done to address the issues raised by the occurrence of cyberwar.


A.R. Lodder
Prof. Arno Lodder is als hoogleraar verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

L.J.M. Boer
Lianne Boer is als promovendus verbonden aan de afdeling Transnational Legal Studies van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.

    This article describes the main security threats in cyberspace as well as the various types of actors behind these threats. The author discusses the reaction of existing and new state security agencies towards the new cyber threats. After analyzing the main obstacles in tracing cybercriminals he gives some recommendations for a more effective strategy against cybercrime.


R. Prins
ir. Ronald Prins is cybersecurity-specialist en directeur en medeoprichter van Fox-IT. Hij studeerde Technische Wiskunde aan de TU Delft en heeft zich daarna gespecialiseerd als cryptograaf. Bij het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut was hij werkzaam als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker.
Artikel

De rol van internet bij fraudedelicten

Internetfraudeurs en klassieke fraudeurs vergeleken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 1 2012
Auteurs E.R. Leukfeldt en W. Ph. Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Based on different criminological theories in combination with the unique characteristics of the Internet, it is assumed that there are significant differences between cyber criminals and traditional criminals. This article compares the characteristics of fraudsters who use the Internet to execute their scams (e-fraudsters) and fraudsters who do not use the Internet (classic fraudsters). The personal characteristics, social economical background and criminal careers are compared. The main conclusion is that e-fraudsters are not ‘new’ criminals that only commit crimes because of the perceived benefits of the Internet. But the use of the Internet does make the perceived consequences of committing a fraud offense less severe, so offenders who use the Internet will commit fraud offenses earlier in life. Internet provides the opportunity for fraudsters to commit frauds at a younger age.


E.R. Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt, MSc is onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie. Tevens is hij als onderzoeker gedetacheerd aan de Open Universiteit.

W. Ph. Stol
Prof. dr. Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit.

    When it comes to cybersecurity usually little attention is payed to internal threats, i.e. from within organizations themselves which may - intentional or not - breach the confidentiality of digitally stored information. When a secret reaches the media, it often generates a lot of public attention. Not only because of the content or the curiosity-value of the secret itself, but also because of the - sometimes shockingly simple - way the secret has been leaked. This kind of security breach in particular gives rise to negative publicity, which not only impacts the organization which it concerns, but also reflects badly on other peers in the sector, especially in the case of breaches that are government-related. In this article, the author explores the issues of the leaking of secrets in ‘cyberspace’ by using several examples - such as the WikiLeaks affair - to illustrate the effects of ICT developments in the last two to three decades on vulnerabilities in information security. The article then focuses on new developments in ‘Alternative Workplace Strategies’ and the related use of new technologies in relation to the vulnerabilities in information security. Organizations can reduce the threats by facilitating their employees with smart solutions which are also results of new technologies.


J.H. Maat
Mr. Johri Maat, MSSM is senior adviseur bij het ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties en gespecialiseerd in security science & management. Dit artikel is op persoonlijke titel geschreven.

    The introduction and fast growing popularity of electronic dance music has strongly influenced the spread of so-called party drugs in Amsterdam. Trends in substances use in Amsterdam's nightlife have been monitored systematically with ‘Antenna’, combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Ecstasy remained the most popular stimulant drug, but since the late 1990s it had to compete with cocaine, and to a lesser extent with amphetamine. In the past decade, GHB and ketamine also gained popularity among clubbers and pub-goers. However, the vast majority does not take illicit drugs while going out at night. Alcohol remains by far the most popular substance, and has become even more important in the past decade.


T. Nabben
Dr. Ton Nabben is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

D.J. Korf
Prof. dr. Dirk Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut voor Criminologie van de Universiteit van Amsterdam.

    In recent decades the night-time economy has started to play a significant role in city centre regeneration; it has become a vital element of the urban economy, as well as a marketing tool in the competition between cities. Concerns about personal safety and fear of crime determine to a large extent the success of these nightlife districts. Based on an analysis of policy documents, night-time observations and expert interviews with stakeholders in the Safe Nightlife Programmes of Rotterdam and Utrecht, different local safety measures and their legitimizations in different local urban settings will be analysed. The question raised is how surveillance measures in different nightlife districts are legitimized, taking into account the fact that cities' nightlife districts do not only need to be safe, but are also favoured by its visitors for adventure and excitement. What are the social implications of these surveillance measures and what does this mean for the character of cities' nightlife districts?


I. van Aalst
Dr. Irina van Aalst is verbonden aan het Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU) van de Faculteit Geosciences van de Universiteit Utrecht. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op onderzoek dat deel uitmaakt van het door NWO gefinancierde project Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes (SUN), MVi 313-99-140 (www.stadsnachtwacht.nl).

I. van Liempt
Drs. Ilse van Liempt is verbonden aan het Urban and Regional research centre Utrecht (URU) van de Faculteit Geosciences van de Universiteit Utrecht. Dit artikel is gebaseerd op onderzoek dat deel uitmaakt van het door NWO gefinancierde project Surveillance in Urban Nightscapes (SUN), MVi 313-99-140 (www.stadsnachtwacht.nl).
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