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Artikel

Wetgeving: uitdagingen, dilemma’s en vernieuwing

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden Legislation, quality of legislation, Policy, Offences
Auteurs Piet Hein Donner
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Legislation as we know it is a recent phenomenon, and its quality has been under debate for 40 years. It is not surprising or problematic that the place and function of legislation evolve under the influence of societal changes. It is, however, important to change the mechanistic view of legislation. Instead of viewing it as an instrument of policy, we must search for structures and institutions that create room for diversity without breaking the unity of law. In our dealings with inevitable risks and damage to society, rules too often take the place of ethics or professional judgment. Rules are essential, but they should leave room to dissent from them if justified: rules as a point of departure, not rules that must be respected on pain of sanctions.


Piet Hein Donner
Piet Hein Donner is vicepresident van de Raad van State.
Artikel

Wetgeving, empirisch-juridisch onderzoek en Legal Big Data

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 2 2015
Trefwoorden legislation, big data, empirical legal research, nudging
Auteurs Frans L. Leeuw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A second empirical revolution in law is in full swing: legal big data have made their entrance and will play an increasingly important role in the legal field. Legal big data, for example, increase the accessibility and transparency of files. They make it easier for legislators to find out how society views proposed legislation. Using big data, all jurisprudence can be processed very easily and judicial decisions can be predicted with a high degree of certainty. The contribution concludes with a number of legal and ethical issues and methodological challenges in relation to legal big data, such as ownership, privacy and representativeness.


Frans L. Leeuw
Frans L. Leeuw is directeur van het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) bij het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. Tevens is hij hoogleraar Recht, openbaar bestuur en sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek aan de universiteit van Maastricht. Eerder was hij onder meer directeur Doelmatigheidsonderzoek bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. Hij publiceerde vele artikelen en boeken, vooral op het terrein van evaluatie.
Diversen

Sociology of law in European civil law countries

Some remarks and correspondent proposals

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden socio-legal studies, high theory, research, achievements and gaps
Auteurs Vincenzo Ferrari
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In continental Europe, post-war sociology of law passed through diverse phases, swinging between grand theorizing and empirical research. In the last two decades, socio-legal studies have shown a more balanced approach with respect to these models. Neo-functionalism à-la Luhmann still takes the lead in high theory, although some more eclectic voices make themselves heard and some signs of renaissance of conflict theories have become visible again. Through an overview of the recent editorial policy of three influential journals in France, Germany and Italy, the author highlights that middle range socio-legal theory has successfully dealt with some relevant aspects of legal change of the last decades, in such fields as criminal justice, migrations, or family law. Yet, it has left aside other and no less important aspects, such as commerce and property laws, common goods, environment, and other crucial questions of our times. Thus, there is a risk for sociology of law not to perform its critical and pioneering task that belongs to its own tradition.


Vincenzo Ferrari
Vincenzo Ferrari is emeritus professor of philosophy and sociology of law. He has taught in the Universities of Cagliari, Bologna and Milan, and has been a visiting professor in diverse world’s academic institutions. He chaired the ISA Research Committee on Sociology of Law and was among the founders of the IISL, Oñati.

John Griffiths
John Griffiths is oud-hoogleraar rechtssociologie aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Naast onderzoek naar de totstandkoming van bezoekregelingen na echtscheiding, de verdeling van rechtshulp, het functioneren van de bezwaarschriftenprocedure in het bestuursrecht, de rol van het recht bij de bescherming van het tropisch bos, en de werking van het euthanasie-recht, heeft hij zich vooral toegelegd op enkele theoretische vraagstukken: het ontstaan en de levensloop van geschillen, rechtspluralisme, en de sociale werking van (rechts)regels. Momenteel werkt hij aan een soort theoretisch credo met als titel ‘What is sociology of law?’, waarin onderwerpen zoals wat is een feit?, wat is theorie?, wat is ‘recht’? en wat is sociologie? systematisch worden behandeld.

Gijs van Dijck
Gijs van Dijck is een empirisch-juridisch onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en gespecialiseerd in aansprakelijkheidsrecht, faillissementsrecht en onderzoeksmethodologie, waaronder empirisch-juridisch onderzoek. Onderzoeksthema’s zijn andersoortige remedies in het aansprakelijkheidsrecht dan financiële remedies, de rol van excuses, de gevolgen van aansprakelijkheid voor gedrag, massaschade, beloningssystemen in faillissement, ‘tegendenken’ in juridisch onderzoek en hoe empirisch-juridisch onderzoek de juridische onderzoeksmethodologie kan verbeteren.
Artikel

Opting-in in de relaxbranche, een legitieme oplossing?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden prostitution, lifting of the ban on brothels, opting-in, labour rights, deliberative governance, legitimacy
Auteurs Elise Ketelaars
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2000 the Netherlands has lifted the ban on brothels. By legalizing sex work the Dutch government aimed to increase the opportunities to regulate this sector and to improve the social position of sex workers. This article examines to what extent the application of a particular fiscal regulation known as ‘opting-in’ to certain branches of the Dutch prostitution industry is legitimate from a socio legal perspective. It takes into account both the efficacy of the regulation with an eye on achieving the goals which were formulated in 2000 and the experiences of sex workers with this fiscal construction. Aubert’s theory regarding the influence of social factors on the observance of regulations is used to explain the discrepancy between the high degree of acceptance of the regulation amongst sex workers and the limited effectiveness with regard to the improvement of their labour rights.


Elise Ketelaars
Elise Ketelaars is een masterstudent Legal Research aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Haar onderzoek richt zich op mensenrechten en gender.
Praktijk

Discretie en feitenvaststelling in asielprocedures

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden discretion, asylum procedure, uncertainty, fact-finding
Auteurs Ralph Severijns
Auteursinformatie

Ralph Severijns
Ralph Severijns studeerde internationaal en Europees publiekrecht in Tilburg. Sinds 2012 is hij als promovendus verbonden aan het Centrum voor Migratierecht van de Radboud Universiteit. Daarnaast werkt hij als senior adviseur voor de Adviescommissie voor Vreemdelingenzaken.
Discussie

Law is again

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden legal anthropology, legal pluralism, anthropology of law
Auteurs Barbara Oomen
Auteursinformatie

Barbara Oomen
Barbara Oomen holds a chair in the Sociology of Human Rights at Utrecht University and is the Dean of University College Roosevelt, one of the first Liberal Arts and Sciences Colleges in the Netherlands. She previously held an endowed chair in Legal Pluralism at the University of Amsterdam. Her most recent book is Rights for Others: the slow home-coming of human rights in the Netherlands (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014).
Diversen

Sociology of law in search of a distinct identity

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden sociology of law, legal sociology, socio-legal studies, interdisciplinary study of law, law & society
Auteurs Koen Van Aeken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Rechtssociologie en recht-en-samenlevingstudies hebben behoefte aan de ontwikkeling van een eigen identiteit, die hen onder meer onderscheidt van het groeiende juridisch onderzoek waarbij empirische methoden gehanteerd worden. Deze identiteit kent vijf verbindende elementen: excellente (primaire of secundaire) empirische methodologie, kritisch, nuttig, blijvend geïnformeerd door theorie uit een inclusieve sociologie, en afwijzend tegenover reductionistische benaderingen van de werkelijkheid. Als een van deze eigenschappen ontbreekt, is er geen sprake van volwaardige rechtssociologie. Als alle eigenschappen aanwezig zijn, is de rechtssociologie bijzonder goed uitgerust om de actuele veranderingen in recht en samenleving te bestuderen. In die context kan de ontwikkeling en verspreiding van een eigen identiteit, die de vijf eigenschappen incorporeert, kansen bieden om de rechtssociologie een meer centrale positie toe te kennen in de rechtenfaculteiten.


Koen Van Aeken
Koen Van Aeken studeerde politieke en sociale wetenschappen en methodologie en promoveerde op een rechtssociologisch proefschrift over wetsevaluatie aan de Universiteit Antwerpen. Sinds 2006 is hij verbonden aan Tilburg Law School. Zijn onderwijs en onderzoek situeren zich op het terrein van de interdisciplinaire benadering van het recht, met bijzondere aandacht voor reguleringsvraagstukken.
Discussie

Legalism and the Anthropology of Law

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden anthropology, legalism, text, history
Auteurs Fernanda Pirie
Auteursinformatie

Fernanda Pirie
Fernanda Pirie is Associate Professor of Socio-Legal Studies at the University of Oxford. She is author of The Anthropology of Law (OUP, 2013) and Peace and Conflict in Ladakh (Brill 2007). She has co-edited volumes with Keebet von Benda-Beckmann (on order and disorder), with Toni Huber (on social order in Tibet), with Martijn van Beek (on modern Ladakh), and with Judith Scheele (on legalism, justice, and community).

Tobias Arnoldussen

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.
Diversen

Cracks in the mirror

Does European law and society research still reflect European society?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2015
Trefwoorden Europe, socio-legal studies, legal culture, methodology
Auteurs Marc Hertogh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    What’s the significance of sociology of law in Europe? Before we can answer this question, it’s even more important to consider the reverse question: what’s the significance of Europe in sociology of law? European sociology of law has been very productive, but it has also become increasingly out of touch. Unlike the early years of the discipline, contemporary European law and society research is no longer a mirror of European society. There are three main reasons for this development. First, there’s a strong pull of the policy audience. Second, some of the most important studies in European sociology of law borrow their theories and concepts from previous work in the United States. And finally, most researchers are concerned with studying law and society in their own country, but only very few studies look at law and society from a transnational perspective. To fix these cracks in the mirror, we need more ‘Europe’ in European sociology of law. Similar to the work of the founding fathers of the discipline, sociology of law should once again become a reflection of society. Not for reasons of nostalgia, but because this will secure the future of European law and society research.


Marc Hertogh
Marc Hertogh is Professor of Socio-Legal Studies at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Law in Context (Cambridge University Press) and he is a member the Advisory Board of Recht der Werkelijkheid. His research focuses on public opinion about law, with a special interest in legal consciousness, legal pluralism, and administrative justice. His publications include: Recht van onderop [Law from below] (with Heleen Weyers) (Ars Aequi, 2011), Living Law: Reconsidering Eugen Ehrlich (Hart Publishing, 2008), Judicial Review and Bureaucratic Impact (with Simon Halliday) (CUP, 2004).
Artikel

National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations

Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food regulation, official controls, EU food law, implementation, enforcement
Auteurs Tetty Havinga
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the course of time the European Union has increased its powers considerably. Currently, almost all food safety regulations in the member states rest on European law. Despite this common legal base, several differences between member states still exist. This article compares the way Scottish and Dutch authorities deal with a particular item of European food law: the development of national guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles by the food industry. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion of Falkner et al. that the implementation of EU law in both the Netherlands and the UK depends on domestic issues. The dominant issue in Scotland (and the UK) is the FSA objective to bring consistent food controls and independency from industry which results in the development of governmental guidance. The prevailing issue in the Netherlands is making industry responsible for food safety which helps explain the extensive use of industry guides. This study shows that in order to understand what happens on the ground it is important to look beyond transposition or direct effect and also to investigate the implementation of regulations and to dig deeper than just their transposition.


Tetty Havinga
Tetty Havinga is Associate Professor at the Institute for the Sociology of Law, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands. She has published on the regulation of food safety, policy implementation and law enforcement, equal opportunities law, asylum migration and migrant workers. Her recent research projects deal with the development and effects of private regulation of food safety, oversight and official controls in the food industry, and the experiences of large companies with Dutch special courts. She is co-editor of The Changing Landscape of Food Governance (to be published by Edward Elgar, 2015).
Artikel

The government’s roles in transnational forest governance

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden transnational governance, forest certification, legality verification, emerging economies, public-private interaction
Auteurs Liu Jing
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Forest certification schemes and the legality regime are two main methods of transnational forest governance. A recent review of the literature has revealed that the government and forest certification are often intertwined. Based on that review, this contribution argues that governments play divergent roles in forest certification schemes in different aspects of the regulatory process: namely, agenda and standard setting, implementation, monitoring, and enforcement. In most FSC schemes, governments in developed countries play a less active role in most of these aspects than they do in context-based industry-dominated schemes. In the three emerging economies examined – Indonesia, Brazil, and China – the government sometimes plays a more active role in context-based, industry-dominated schemes than it does in developed countries. The rising legality regime might further strengthen the role of the government in forest governance in these emerging economies. Moreover, China may exemplify the fact that forest governance is entering a new phase, because the country not only exports to countries demanding legal verification, but also imports from countries where the risk of illegal logging is high. This illustrates that the role of governments in forest governance is constantly evolving.


Liu Jing
Liu Jing is a postdoctoral researcher in Erasmus University Rotterdam (the Netherlands). She is conducting research on ‘smart mixes in relation to transboundary environmental problems’, especially in the areas of forest, fishery, oil and climate change governance. Her research interests cover regulation and governance, environmental law as well as law and economics.
Artikel

Regulatory governance by contract: the rise of regulatory standards in commercial contracts

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden contracts, transnational regulation, codes of conduct, private standards, supply chain
Auteurs Paul Verbruggen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper a literature review is used to explore the role that commercial contracts concluded between private actors play as instruments of regulatory governance. While such contracts are traditionally seen as a means to facilitate exchange between market participants, it is argued in the literature that commercial contracts are becoming increasingly important vehicles for the implementation and enforcement of safety, social and sustainability standards in transnational supply chains. The paper maps the pervasiveness of this development, its drivers, and the governance challenges that arise from it. While doing so, the paper more generally explores the relationship between regulation and contract law.


Paul Verbruggen
Paul Verbruggen is Assistant Professor of Private Law at the Business and Law Research Centre of Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. He conducted his PhD research at the European University Institute, Florence, Italy, which resulted in the monograph Enforcing Transnational Private Regulation: A Comparative Analysis of Advertising and Food Safety (Edward Elgar, 2014). Paul writes on the design and operation of regulatory frameworks (both public and private), focusing on questions of legitimacy, accountability and enforcement. His research interests concern European private law, regulatory policy, risk regulation and certification.
Artikel

What role is there for the state in contemporary governance?

Insights from the Dutch building sector

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden governance, collaborative governance, governance performance, urban sustainability, fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
Auteurs Jeroen van der Heijden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An emerging body of empirical governance studies highlights that the role of the state in governance has been changing. It has moved away from governing societal problems solely through traditional direct regulatory interventions. State actors are now (also) taking up facilitative and enabling roles in innovative voluntary governance arrangements. This article seeks to gain a better understanding of these facilitating and enabling roles of state actors in real world practice and what (clusters of) roles are needed to obtain successful outcomes from these arrangements. It builds on an empirical study of ten different arrangements in the Dutch sustainable building sector, which are analysed using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) methodology. It finds no evidence that any of the specific (clusters of) role(s) is necessary to achieve positive outcomes from the arrangements studied, but uncovers that when combined, such roles affect the outcomes of arrangements. It concludes by presenting an evidence-based typology of combinations of roles that state actors may wish to take up in seeking positive outcomes from innovative voluntary governance arrangements, or preventing negative outcomes.


Jeroen van der Heijden
Jeroen van der Heijden is a senior research fellow at the Australian National University and an assistant professor at the University of Amsterdam. His main research interest is governance for urban sustainability and resilience. He has recently brought together his research on this topic, conducted over nearly the last ten years, in his book Governance for Urban Sustainability and Resilience: Responding to Climate Change and the Relevance of the Built Environment (Edward Elgar Publishers, 2014).

Richard Staring
Richard Staring is endowed professor of criminology at the Erasmus University Rotterdam. He has published on irregular migration, human smuggling as well as human trafficking.
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