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ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 13 July 2016, case C-187/15 (Pöpperl), Free movement, pension

Joachim Pöpperl – v – Land Nordrhein-Westfalen

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Free movement, pension
Samenvatting

    The replacement of civil servants’ pension rights by less valuable general pension rights is contrary Article 45 TFEU.

Artikel

A Distorted Mediation Landscape: Judicial Mediation in the Chinese Civil Courts

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Chinese civil justice, Mediating civil and commercial disputes in China, Comparative civil procedure, Judicial behaviour in Chinese civil courts
Auteurs Peter Chan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Mediation plays a critical role in the development of any civil justice system. The positive effects of mediation could only manifest if the process is protected in ways that allow parties to truly be able to choose what is best in their interests and explore options free from interference from anyone else. The Chinese legal culture, coupled with a systemic distortion of the function of mediation during the period between March 2008 and March 2013, made it very difficult to develop an authentic mediation system that places party autonomy and other core principles at the heart of the process. As much as the leaders of the Supreme People’s Court today are aware of the need to strengthen the courts role in declaring legal norms and enforcing rights, it is argued that courts (especially lower courts) are likely to continue to use judicial mediation for institutional or strategic purposes.


Peter Chan
Peter Chan is Assistant Professor, School of Law, City University of Hong Kong. He received his PhD in June 2016 from Maastricht University under the supervision of Prof. dr. C.H. van Rhee.
Artikel

40 jaar Europa en mediation

Beschouwing naar aanleiding van het eindverslag van de Europese Commissie inzake toepassing van de Mediationrichtlijn in de lidstaten

Tijdschrift Nederlands-Vlaams tijdschrift voor mediation en conflictmanagement, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Mediation Directive, Geschiedenis ADR, Verslag Europese Commissie, Mediationrichtlijn
Auteurs Annie de Roo en Rob Jagtenberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Taking the recent European Commission’s Report on the application of Mediation Directive 2008/52/EC as a starting point, the authors set out to reconstruct the pattern of ADR/mediation activities undertaken by the EU and the Council of Europe over the past 40 years. The authors conclude that the European initiatives have been conducive to a broadening and deepening of the ADR debate. Remarkable shifts can be observed in the emphasis placed by the European agencies during this period, notably a shift from emancipatory to efficiency-based arguments. The inherent coupling of private mediation and public adjudication entails risks however for each of these distinct conflict resolution strategies. The authors call for advanced research designs to generate the data needed for a genuine evidence-based policy in this domain.


Annie de Roo
Annie de Roo is hoofdredacteur van TMD, hoofddocent aan de Erasmus Universiteit en vicevoorzitter van de examencommissie Stichting Kwaliteit Mediators. Zij heeft diverse malen als key expert voor de Europese Commissie meegewerkt aan projecten,met name op het gebied van arbeidsrechtelijke mediation.

Rob Jagtenberg
Rob Jagtenberg is onder andere verbonden aan de Erasmus Universiteit en is TMD redactielid. Hij trad enkele malen op als rapporteur-generaal voor de Raad van Europa op het gebied van ADR/mediation.
Article

Access_open ‘We Do Not Hang Around. It Is Forbidden.’

Immigration and the Criminalisation of Youth Hanging around in the Netherlands

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Criminalisation of youth hanging around, culture of control, immigration and discrimination
Auteurs Thaddeus Muller
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The focus in this article is the ‘criminalisation’ of youth hanging around with the emergence of bans on hanging around. A critical social constructivist approach is used in this study, which draws predominantly on qualitative primary data collected between the late 1980s and 2010s. The article compares indigenous with immigrant youth, which coincides with, respectively, youth in rural communities and youth in urban communities. This study shows that there is discrimination of immigrant youth, which is shaped by several intertwining social phenomena, such as the ‘geography of policing’ – more police in urban areas – familiarity, sharing biographical information (in smaller communities), and the character of the interaction, normalising versus stigmatising. In further research on this topic we have to study (the reaction to) the transgressions of immigrant youth, and compare it with (the reaction to) the transgressions of indigenous youth, which is a blind spot in Dutch criminology.


Thaddeus Muller
Thaddeus Muller, Ph.D., is senior lecturer at the Lancaster University Law School.
Article

Access_open Harmony, Law and Criminal Reconciliation in China: A Historical Perspective

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Criminal reconciliation, Confucianism, decentralisation, centralisation
Auteurs Wei Pei
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In 2012, China revised its Criminal Procedure Law (2012 CPL). One of the major changes is its official approval of the use of victim-offender reconciliation, or ‘criminal reconciliation’ in certain public prosecution cases. This change, on the one hand, echoes the Confucian doctrine that favours harmonious inter-personal relationships and mediation, while, on the other hand, it deviates from the direction of legal reforms dating from the 1970s through the late 1990s. Questions have emerged concerning not only the cause of this change in legal norms but also the proper position of criminal reconciliation in the current criminal justice system in China. The answers to these questions largely rely on understanding the role of traditional informal dispute resolution as well as its interaction with legal norms. Criminal reconciliation in ancient China functioned as a means to centralise imperial power by decentralizing decentralising its administration. Abolishing or enabling such a mechanism in law is merely a small part of the government’s strategy to react to political or social crises and to maintain social stability. However, its actual effect depends on the vitality of Confucianism, which in turn relies on the economic foundation and corresponding structure of society.


Wei Pei
Wei Pei, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor at the Beihang School of Law in the Beihang University.
Article

Access_open A Law and Economics Approach to Norms in Transnational Commercial Transactions: Incorporation and Internalisation

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 1 2016
Trefwoorden Incorporation and internalisation, transnational commercial transactions, transnational commercial norms
Auteurs Bo Yuan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In today’s global economy, a noticeable trend is that the traditional state-law-centred legal framework is increasingly challenged by self-regulatory private orders. Commercial norms, commercial arbitration and social sanctions at the international level have become important alternatives to national laws, national courts and legal sanctions at the national level. Consisting of transnational commercial norms, both codified and uncodified, and legal norms, both national and international, a plural regime for the governance of transnational commercial transactions has emerged and developed in the past few decades. This article explores the interaction between various kinds of norms in this regime, identifies the effects of this interaction on the governance of transnational commercial transactions and shows the challenges to this interaction at the current stage. The central argument of this article is that the interaction between social and legal norms, namely incorporation and internalisation, and the three effects derived from incorporation and internalisation, namely systematisation, harmonisation and compliance enhancement, are evident at both the national and international levels. In particular, the emergence of codified transnational commercial norms that are positioned in the middle of the continuum between national legal norms and uncodified transnational commercial norms has brought changes to the interaction within the international dimension. Although the development of codified transnational commercial norms faces several challenges at the moment, it can be expected that these norms will play an increasingly important role in the future governance of transnational commercial transactions.


Bo Yuan
Bo Yuan is a Ph.D. candidate at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, Department of Law and Economics.

    Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gelijk aan de tekst van de inaugurele rede die de auteur uitsprak op 4 april 2016 bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van hoogleraar Mededingingsrecht.


Anna Gerbrandy
Prof. mr. A. Gerbrandy is hoogleraar Mededingingsrecht aan de Universiteit Utrecht. Dit artikel is voor een groot deel gelijk aan de tekst van de inaugurele rede die zij uitsprak op 4 april 2016 bij de aanvaarding van het ambt van hoogleraar Mededingingsrecht. Laurens van Kreij wordt hartelijk bedankt voor zijn hulp bij het omwerken van de oratietekst naar deze publicatie.
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 21 January 2016, case C-515/14 (Cyprus), freedom of movement

European Commission – v – Republic of Cyprus

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Freedom of movement
Samenvatting

    Cypriot law on civil servants’ pensions violates EU law.

ECJ Court Watch

Case C-20/16. Free movement – Tax

Wolfram Bechtel, Marie-Laure Bechtel – v – Finanzamt Offenburg, reference lodged by the German Bundesfinanzhof on 15 January 2016

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Free movement, Tax

    A decision issued by the Constitutional Court on 3 March 2016 upholds a High Court decision on whether evidence obtained through video surveillance at the work place without previously informing the employee or the works council of the recording infringes employees’ privacy. The existence of cameras in the workplace was only made known via a sticker on the shop window, but the Constitutional Court found that it provided sufficient information to employees. The Court found that, as there was a prior suspicion of theft by the employee, temporary recording of the cashier area was lawful and did not require prior consent. The judgment sets out the criteria to be used to determine a fair balance between the competing interests of employee privacy and the employer’s right to compliance.


Sonia Cortes
Sonia Cortes is a partner with Abdón Pedrajas & Molero in Barcelona, www.abdonpedrajas.com. Special thanks to Isabel Ruano and Carla Baussa for their help in preparing this case report.
ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 25 February 2016, case C-299/14 (Garcia-Nieto), free movement – social security

Vestische Arbeit Jobcenter Kreis Recklinghausen – v – Jovanna García-Nieto, German case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Free movement, Social security
Samenvatting

    An unemployed EU citizen moving to another Member State is not entitled to social assistance in that State for the first three months.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 21 January 2016, case C-453/14 (Knauer), free movement – social security

Vorarlberger Gebietskrankenkasse – v – Alfred Knauer and Landeshauptmann von Vorarlsberg – v – Rudolf Mathis, Austrian case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Free movement, Social security
Samenvatting

    Austrian statutory pension benefits and Liechenstein occupational pension benefits are “equivalent”.

ECJ Court Watch

ECJ 7 April 2016, case C-284/15 (ONEm), free movement – social insurance

Office national de l’emploi (ONEm) – v – M and M – v – ONEm and Caisse auxiliaire de paiement des allocations de chomage (CAPAC), Belgium case

Tijdschrift European Employment Law Cases, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden Free movement, Social insurance
Samenvatting

    An EU citizen moving to another Member State, in order to qualify for unemployment benefits there, must meet the requirements for entitlement under the law of his new State of residence.

    This paper interprets the presumption of innocence as a conceptual antidote for sacrificial tendencies in criminal law. Using Girard’s philosophy of scapegoat mechanisms and sacrifice as hermeneutical framework, the consanguinity of legal and sacrificial order is explored. We argue that some legal concepts found in the ius commune’s criminal system (12th-18th century), like torture, infamy, or punishment for mere suspicion, are affiliated with scapegoat dynamics and operate, to some extent, in the spirit of sacrifice. By indicating how these concepts entail more or less flagrant breaches of our contemporary conception of due process molded by the presumption of innocence, an antithesis emerges between the presumption of innocence and sacrificial inclinations in criminal law. Furthermore, when facing fundamental threats like heresy, the ius commune’s due process could be suspended. What emerges in this state of exception allowing for swift and relentless repression, is elucidated as legal order’s sacrificial infrastructure.


Rafael Van Damme
Rafael Van Damme is PhD-student in philosophy.

    This paper provides a dialectical-historical description of the EU's constitutional discourse. It is argued that the early Community's member state blind principle of justice implied the notion of a European political community and led to the establishment of fair procedures for decision making. This coming of age of an encompassing European constitutional narrative of justice and fairness prompted the question of the demarcation between the political role of the European political community and that of member states' political communities. The answer proved to be subsidiarity. However, subsidiarity has introduced national conceptions of justice in the Union's constitutional discourse, at the risk of making European justice dependent on national conceptions of justice.


Dries Cools
Dries Cools works at the National Bank of Belgium and holds a Master of Laws and a Master in Philosophy of the KU Leuven and an LL.M. of Harvard Law School.

Tamar de Waal
Tamar de Waal is a PhD candidate legal and political theory at the Paul Scholten Centre, University of Amsterdam (Law Faculty).
Artikel

Integratie kan woonplaatsplicht bij personen met subsidiaire bescherming rechtvaardigen

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden Kwalificatierichtlijn asiel, Vluchtelingenverdrag, subsidiaire bescherming, onderscheid, huisvesting
Auteurs Mr. A. Pahladsingh
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Het Hof van Justitie spreekt zich in het arrest Alo en Osso uit over de verhouding tussen het vrije verkeer van personen met de subsidiaire beschermingsstatus en de maatregelen ter bevordering van hun integratie. Een woonplaatsverplichting mag hun worden opgelegd wanneer zij meer met integratieproblemen worden geconfronteerd dan andere personen die geen burger van de Unie zijn en legaal verblijven op het grondgebied van de lidstaat die deze bescherming heeft verleend.
    HvJ 1 maart 2016, gevoegde zaken C-443/14 en C-444/14, Alo en Osso, ECLI:EU:C:2016:127


Mr. A. Pahladsingh
Mr. A. (Aniel) Pahladsingh is jurist bij de Raad van State en rechter-plaatsvervanger bij de Rechtbank Rotterdam.

    Legal novices are generally not very well educated in the do’s and don’ts of empirical legal research. This article lays out the general principles and discusses the most important stumbling blocks on the way forward. The presentation starts at the formulation of a research question. Next, the methodology of descriptive research (operationalization and measurement, sampling and selection bias) is briefly addressed. The main part of the article discusses the methodology of explanatory research (causal inference, experimental and quasi-experimental research designs, statistical significance, effect size). Medical malpractice law is used as a central source of illustration.


Ben C.J. van Velthoven
Associate professor of Law and Economics at Leiden Law School. I wish to thank Nienke van der Linden, Ali Mohammad and Charlotte Vrendenbargh from Leiden Law School and two anonymous reviewers and the editors of this journal for helpful comments on earlier drafts.
Artikel

De ‘nieuwe generatie’ Associatieovereenkomst tussen de EU en Oekraïne en zijn constitutionele context

Tijdschrift Nederlands tijdschrift voor Europees recht, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden associatieovereenkomst, nabuurschapbeleid, bevoegdheidsverdeling, gemengd verdrag, referendum
Auteurs Dr. N.F. Idriz en Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In deze bijdrage worden de bredere context, doelstelling en inhoud van de Associatieovereenkomst tussen de EU en Oekraïne (hierna: AO) geschetst, en wat deze bijzonder maakt ten opzichte van andere associatieovereenkomsten. In het bijzonder gaan we ook in op die juridische aspecten die democratische controle via een referendum bemoeilijken. Daarbij besteden we specifiek aandacht aan de constitutionele perikelen die ontstaan voor de Nederlandse regering alsook voor de EU, ingeval een meerderheid zich tegen de goedkeuringswet uitspreekt en het Nederlandse parlement vervolgens zou besluiten de goedkeuringswet in te trekken.
    PbEU 2014, L 161/3


Dr. N.F. Idriz
Dr. N.F. (Narin) Idriz is universitair docent Europees recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en verbonden aan het RENFORCE onderzoekscentrum.

Prof. mr. L.A.J. Senden
Prof. mr. L.A.J. (Linda) Senden is hoogleraar Europees recht aan de Universiteit Utrecht en verbonden aan het RENFORCE onderzoekscentrum. Ook is zij redactielid van NTER.
Artikel

Access_open On Experiments in Empirical Legal Research

Tijdschrift Law and Method, maart 2016
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos en Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.
Samenvatting

    The current paper presents some observations on experiments in empirical legal research. The paper notes some strengths and weakness of the experimental method. The paper distinguishes between experiments run in controlled laboratory settings and experiments conducted in field settings and notes the different goals the different types of experiments generally have. The paper identifies important stumbling blocks that legal researchers who are new to setting up experiments may face and proposes that focusing the research in a constructive and independent way is important to overcome these problems. The necessity of running multiple studies to overcome other problems are discussed as well. When conducted in this way, experiments may serve an important role in the field of empirical legal studies and may help to further explore the exciting issues of law, society, and human behavior.


Prof. dr. Kees van den Bos

Mr. Liesbeth Hulst B.Sc., M.Sc.
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