Zoekresultaat: 213 artikelen

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Artikel

The legacy and current relevance of Cappelletti and the Florence project on access to justice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden definition and dimensions access to justice, recommendations, historic context access to justice, current context access to justice
Auteurs Bernard Hubeau
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution explains what access to justice can encompass and how the ideals about access to justice have developed in time. The way to do this is going back to the work of the famous scholars Cappelletti and Garth, who were responsible for a worldwide project on access to justice in the 1970s. Their main issue was to explain access to justice is more than the access to a judge and the organization of courts. Primarily, the system must be equally accessible to all, irrespective of social or economic status or other incapacity. But it also must lead to results that are individually and socially just and fair. Equal access and effective access are the central notions. Their work is put in perspective. The importance of their legacy and the question how we can get along with their work are stressed. Their definition is compared to a few other authoritative definitions. The waves in the history of access to justice are described and putting them in the current context illustrates why a fourth waved can be observed. The major question to be answered is how one can assess the challenges and obstacles of access to justice in the current context. Therefore, some recent dimensions and developments within access to justice are presented: the democratic dimension, the effectiveness of new social rights, the attention for poor and vulnerable people, further juridification, expanding frontiers of and monitoring access to justice, e-justice, and self-help. Finally, a few building blocks for reforms are presented.


Bernard Hubeau
Bernard Hubeau is a full-time Professor in Sociology and Sociology of Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Antwerp. He also teaches at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the University of Antwerp and the Faculty of Law and Criminology of the University of Brussels. He is the former ombudsman of the city of Antwerp and of the Flemish Parliament.
Artikel

Social security and social welfare: barriers and retrograde policies, but cause for optimism?

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden social security, legal representation, means-testing, Britain, fees
Auteurs Amir Paz-Fuchs
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution addresses the limits placed on access to justice in the context of social services, with a particular, but not exclusive, focus on the UK, across five central platforms: legal representation, the financial barriers, the structure of the programme, the attitude of the bureaucracy, and the personal attributes of the client. The contribution finds that there exist, for decades, problematic elements that constitute barriers to justice in this area: the means-tested element in the programmes and the bureaucracy’s double role as provider of services and detector of fraud. But to them, in recent years, significant barriers were added: recent cuts in legal aid and the imposition of tribunal fees in the UK are retrograde steps, reverting 40 years of impressive achievements in the field.


Amir Paz-Fuchs
Amir Paz-Fuchs (D. Phil Oxford) is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Sussex, where he teaches employment law, public law, and legal theory. In addition, he is a Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies and a Research Associate at Wolfson College, both at the University of Oxford. He is also Co-Director of the ‘The Limits of Privatization’ research project, based at the Van Leer Institute in Jerusalem. He also served on the board of several human rights and social justice NGOs.
Artikel

Merits testing in the English legal aid system: exploring its impact in asylum cases

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden access to justice, asylum seekers, merits testing, English legal aid system
Auteurs Tamara Butter
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years, there has been much discussion on the legal aid cuts and reforms in England and Wales, and the possible consequences this would have on access to justice for vulnerable groups in society, including immigrants and asylum seekers. This contribution focuses on one element of the English legal aid system: merits testing by legal aid providers in asylum cases. It explores whether and, if so, how this aspect may affect the access to justice for asylum seekers lacking the financial means to pay privately for legal assistance and representation. The findings indicate that a merits test which makes access to legal aid on appeal conditional upon a case having at least 50% prospect of success and makes legal aid providers responsible for conducting this assessment may compromise asylum seekers’ ability to achieve justice both within and outside the existing body of law.


Tamara Butter
Tamara Butter is a PhD candidate at the Institute for Sociology of Law/Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University of Nijmegen. Her research consists of a comparative case study into the professional decision making of asylum legal aid lawyers in the Netherlands and England.
Artikel

Responsibilities of the state and legal professions

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden responsibilities, the state, lawyers, the judiciary and judges
Auteurs Mies Westerveld en Ashley Terlouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution, which is based on the Dutch legal system, deals with the responsibilities of the State and legal professions in ensuring access to justice. The responsibilities of the four main players involved in bringing justice to the citizen are discussed: the legislator, the executive, the judiciary, and the legal profession. Responsibilities for access to justice do not only stem from the law, they do also evolve from societal problems and discussions. The contribution deals with both. Several actors share some of the responsibilities. One can think of responsibilities for information, for financing, and for being aware of vulnerabilities and other obstacles. What are the legal responsibilities and what other responsibilities are felt by the actors involved and how do they deal with them? And as a result: do they contribute to access to justice, do they form an obstacle, or both?


Mies Westerveld
Mies Westerveld is Professor Legal aid by special appointment and Professor in Labour Law (social insurance) at the University of Amsterdam. Her research concentrates on current issues of access to justice and state-financed legal aid on the one hand and the decreasing role of social insurance on a fragmented labour market on the other hand.

Ashley Terlouw
Ashley Terlouw is Professor in Sociology of Law at the Radboud University of Nijmegen. She is responsible for the Centre for Migration Law of the Radboud University. Besides she is part-time Judge at the District Court of Gelderland. Her research concentrates on legal and societal issues of asylum and equal treatment and on the working of the judiciary.

    Dit is een verslag van het symposium over de knelpunten van de invoering van de beperkte gemeenschap van goederen, dat op 22 mei 2015 aan de Universiteit Utrecht werd gehouden. Het wetsvoorstel houdt - kort samengevat - in, dat voorhuwelijks vermogen, erfenissen en giften niet langer in de huwelijksgoederengemeenschap vallen. Op dit symposium werd het wetsvoorstel besproken en de daarop gerichte kritiek samengevat in 4 knelpunten. Ook werd het wetsvoorstel in internationaal perspectief geplaatst door sprekers uit Duitsland, Zweden en België. In internationaal opzicht is de algehele gemeenschap uniek en zowel in binnen- als buitenland wordt zij als ouderwets beschouwd.
    Als probleem van het voorgestelde stelsel wordt ervaren dat men tijdens het huwelijk geen administratie bijhoudt en dat dat bij de afwikkeling na ontbinding problemen gaat opleveren. Echter, het huidige bewijsvermoeden, zoals dat is neergelegd in art. 1:94 lid 6 BW, blijft van kracht in het wetsvoorstel. De zaaksvervangingsregel van 1:95 lid 1 BW wordt ook gehandhaafd. Besproken is de Belgische oplossing voor mogelijke problemen, inhoudende dat een goed dat voor meer dan de helft van de prijs uit eigen vermogen is gefinancierd alleen dan buiten de gemeenschap valt als partijen dat verklaren bij notariële akte.
    Het wetsvoorstel geeft een regeling om de echtgenoot mee te laten profiteren van het ondernemingsvermogen dat de ander buiten de gemeenschap opbouwt. De moeilijkheid hierbij is hoe de vergoeding jegens de niet-werkende echtgenoot berekend moet worden. Ten slotte is in het nieuwe wetsvoorstel geprobeerd tegemoet te komen aan het probleem dat een echtgenoot geconfronteerd wordt met schuldeisers van de andere echtgenoot. Om dit te bereiken zijn art. 1:96 BW en art. 61 Fw gewijzigd met als gevolg dat de positie van de schuldeiser tot normale proporties wordt teruggebracht.
    Een grote meerderheid van de aanwezigen bleek positief te zijn over het nieuwe wetsvoorstel: ongeveer 90 procent was voor invoering in Boek 1 van het Burgerlijk Wetboek.
    This is a conference report on a symposium held at the University of Utrecht on the 22nd of May on the legislative proposal for the introduction of a limited community of property in the Netherlands. The legislative proposal entails – in a nutshell – that pre-matrimonial property, inheritances and gifts no longer form a part of the community of property. During this symposium, the legislative proposal was discussed and the critique was summarized into four key issues. The legislative proposal was also placed in an international perspective by speakers from Germany, Sweden and Belgium. In the international perspective the Dutch community of property regime is unique and it is regarded as outdated in both the Netherlands and abroad. In the proposed new regime it is considered that spouses do not keep an administration of their assets during their marriage, which can cause problems after dissolution of the community. However, the rebuttal presumption of Article 1:94 para. 6 Dutch Civil Code, is upheld in the new proposal. The current rule of substitution as stated in Article 1:95 Dutch Civil Code is also maintained. The Belgian solutions to possible difficulties is discussed, in which property is only excluded from the community of property when more than half of the price has been financed by personal assets and this is declared in a notarial deed.Furthermore, the legislative proposal allows the non-working spouse to share in the profits of the business assets acquired by the work of the other spouse which are built up outside the community. The remaining difficulty is how the reimbursement claim should be calculated. Lastly, the legislative proposal attempts to prevent a spouse from being confronted by creditors of the other spouse. In order to achieve this, Article 1:96 Dutch Civil Code and Art. 61 Insolvency Law are amended in such a way that the position of the creditor is brought back tonormal proportions.A great majority of those present appeared to be positive about the legislative proposal; 90 percent voted in favour of incorporating it into Book 1 of the Dutch Civil Code.


Bas Legger
Bas Legger is student Notarial and Civil Law at the University of Groningen.

Tiddo Bos
Tiddo Bos is research master student Notarial and Civil Law at the University of Groningen.
Artikel

Het werk van de familierechercheur: een bron van stress of een bron van persoonlijke groei?

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2015
Trefwoorden Familierechercheurs, werkgerelateerde stress, secundaire traumatische stress, secundaire posttraumatische groei
Auteurs Marieke Saan MSc, Lidewij Bollen MSc en Dr. Mr. Maarten Kunst
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Dutch family liaison officers inform and support trauma victims or their relatives. Recent studies suggest that professionals working with trauma victims may develop work-related stress. However, other studies have shown that professionals can also develop personal growth from their experiences with traumatized persons. This study was the first to investigate to what extent Dutch family liaison officers experience work-related stress or personal growth. Results suggest that the majority of the respondents experience no or very low levels of work-related stress. Levels of personal growth appear to be rather low as well, but seem to be more broadly dispersed. These findings suggest that Dutch family liaison officers are able to cope with the potentially negative effects of their work and even experience positive outcomes from working with traumatized persons. In spite of this, many participants provided suggestions for further improvement of their work practices.


Marieke Saan MSc
Marieke Saan MSc is afgestudeerd als forensisch criminoloog aan de Universiteit Leiden. Ten tijde van dit onderzoek was zij werkzaam als junior onderzoeker bij Universiteit Leiden. Thans is zij verbonden als promovendus aan de afdeling Methoden en Statistiek van de faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit van Utrecht.

Lidewij Bollen MSc
Lidewij Bollen MSc is afgestudeerd als forensisch criminoloog aan de Universiteit Leiden. Ten tijde van dit onderzoek was zij werkzaam als junior onderzoeker bij Universiteit Leiden. Op dit moment is zij werkzaam als Trainee Overheid bij Newpublic.

Dr. Mr. Maarten Kunst
Dr. mr. Maarten Kunst is universitair hoofddocent aan het instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden.
Nieuws

Obamacare na Obama

Tijdschrift RegelMaat, Aflevering 3 2015
Auteurs Dr. S.H. Ranchordás
Auteursinformatie

Dr. S.H. Ranchordás
Dr. S.H. Ranchordás is universitair docent aan de Tilburg Law School van Tilburg University, Resident Fellow bij het Information Society Project van de Yale Law School en Niels Stensen Fellow.

    The cost of conflicts in the Netherlands between civil parties or individuals and the government add up to more than 12 billion Euro. For this calculation, a framework has been developed to distinct between three cost categories: Subject (parties) cost, System cost (e.g. court) and Consequential cost. The latter category represents more than 50% of the total cost, the majority of which are born by commercial parties and employer. The government bears 12,5% of the total cost. The impact on insurance companies could not be estimated but is suspected to be substantial. It are these three parties who in concert should fund further investigation and develop initiatives to reduce the financial and human cost of conflicts. It is to be investigated which incentives are required to make this game change to take place.


Ivor Brinkman
Ivor Brinkman (1968) is Registeraccountant en Registermediator. Mede op grond van eigen observaties, aangevuld met uitgebreid onderzoek naar die van anderen, is hij tot de conclusie gekomen dat de impact van conflicten op mensen en organisaties groot is en dat de samenleving lijkt te juridiseren. Om dit tegen te gaan heeft hij Vantage opgezet dat zich richt op het ontwikkelen en verstrekken van instrumenten en diensten om mensen en organisaties te helpen anders om te gaan met conflicten door deze vroeger te herkennen, vaardiger te worden om escalatie te stoppen en meer zelfstandig in staat te zijn om tot oplossing te komen. Vooral het voorkomen van conflicten heeft zijn bijzondere interesse. Zie ook www.vantage.nl.

    This paper raises two methodological questions from a philosophical perspective: (i) what is involved in a functionalist approach to law and (ii) what should be the focus of such an approach? To answer these questions, I will take two steps with both. To begin with, I argue that Pettit’s view on functionalist approaches may be made relevant for law; functionalist accounts target a virtual mechanism that explains why a system will be resilient under changes in either the system or its environment. Secondly, I make a distinction between two interpretations of his key-concept ‘resilience’, one in mechanical, the other in teleological terms. With regard to the second question I will take two steps as well. I argue why it does not make sense to ascribe wide functions to law, followed by a plea for a limited view on the function of law. This limited view is based on a teleological understanding of the law’s resilience. I argue that these two modes are interrelated in ways that are relevant for the interdisciplinary study of law.


Bert van Roermund

    The article considers the role of the liberal public-private divide in protecting religious minorities against national-majoritarian assault. It links the defence of the public-private divide to liberal neutrality and argues that it rests on two distinct propositions: that the distinction between the ’public sphere’ and the ’private sphere’ is a meaningful way to cognize and structure modern pluralistic societies; and that there is a meaningful way to distinguish what is or ought to be ‘public’ from what is or ought to be ‘private.’ While the latter proposition cannot be defended on grounds of liberal neutrality, the former proposition provides the institutional framework for conducting liberal politics by enabling the negotiation of the public and the private between national majorities and religious minorities as members of the same political community.


Daniel Augenstein
Daniel Augenstein is Associate Professor at the Department of European and International Public Law at Tilburg University.

    In the course of it short existence, Socio-legal studies (SLS) in the Anglo-Saxon world has burgeoned into a rich and variegated field. Reviewing it is therefore a challenging task. I begin with some general reflections and an outline of recent developments. Although these indicate an extremely vibrant field, concerns have been expressed for the future. In my discussion of these, I argue that our analysis of SLS needs to be historicised since the emergence of SLS is connected to processes of social modernization and democratization. The erosion of these processes by neo-liberal discourses and policies is the background to a discussion of my own research into the impact of the cuts to civil legal aid in England and Wales. This leads me to conclude that the fundamental dissonance between neo-liberal rationality and social science may portend a difficult future, in particular for empirical work; however, I note too that other developments such as the ongoing juridification of society and new social media may make continued SL engagement irresistible.


Hilary Sommerlad
Hilary Sommerlad is professor of Law and Research Director of the Centre for Professional Legal Education and Research, University of Birmingham, and Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences. Dr. Sommerlad’s research interests are access to justice, the cultural practices of the professional workplace and diversity. She is Articles Editor of Legal Ethics, and serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Law and Society and the International Journal of the Legal Profession.

    The article takes as its point of departure some of the author’s multidisciplinary projects. Special attention is given to the question of whether the disciplines united in the various research team members already constituted a kind of ‘inter-discipline’, through which a single object was studied. The issue of how the disciplinary orientations of the research team members occasionally clashed, on methodological issues, is also addressed.
    The outcomes of these and similar multidisciplinary research projects are followed back into legal practice and academic legal scholarship to uncover whether an incorporation problem indeed exists. Here, special attention will be given to policy recommendations and notably proposals for new legislation. After all, according to Van Dijck et al., the typical role model for legal researchers working from an internal perspective on the law is the legislator.
    The author concludes by making a somewhat bold case for reverse incorporation, that is, the need for (traditional) academic legal research to become an integral part of a more encompassing (inter-)discipline, referred to here as ‘conflict management studies’. Key factors that will contribute to the rise of such a broad (inter-)discipline are the changes that currently permeate legal practice (the target audience of traditional legal research) and the changes in the overall financing of academic research itself (with special reference to the Netherlands).


Annie de Roo
Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

    Colombia has been a territory with some social and political difficulties which have affected several dynamics of the community as well as the legal security in almost all levels of the Colombian society. The alternative dispute resolution mechanisms arise as a response for all the gaps that such circumstances produce in the country and as useful tools to solve numerous disputes in different fields. The Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, through its Arbitration and Conciliation Center founded in 1983, is making a permanent bet to support the Colombian citizens’ coexistence in the schools, in the neighbourhoods, in the companies that provide jobs as well as benefits to the city and to the whole country. Clever strategies have been developed through the years with three purposes: change the culture about the alternative dispute resolution methods, provide confidence in using them and change the way the people manage their conflicts.


Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez
Rafael Bernal Gutiérrez is director of the Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá. His expertise in ADR counts more than 30 years. He has participated in the construction of legal frameworks for ADR in different countries all across Latin America. He is lecturer in ADR topics in Colombia and as well internationally.

    The Rome I Regulation on the law applicable to contractual obligations contains several provisions aimed explicitly at the protection of ‘weaker’ contracting parties, such as consumers and employees. However, in addition to this, the interests of weaker parties are sometimes also safeguarded through the application of ‘overriding mandatory provisions’, which are superimposed on the law applicable to the contract to protect a fundamental interest of a Member State. This article is an attempt to clarify the extent to which the concept of overriding mandatory provisions may serve as a vehicle for weaker party protection. To do this, it examines the definition and limitations of the concept and its relation to conflict of laws rules based on the protective principle. Finally, the article seeks to establish whether the doctrine of overriding mandatory provisions remains relevant in the case of harmonisation of substantive law at the EU level, for which it will differentiate between full and minimum harmonisation.


Laura Maria van Bochove Ph.D.
Assistant professor in the Department of Private International and Comparative Law at the Erasmus School of Law. The author would like to thank the reviewers for their comments.
Article

Access_open The Role of Private International Law in Corporate Social Responsibility

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden CSR, conflicts of law, Kiobel, Shell
Auteurs Geert Van Calster Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution firstly reviews developments in the EU and in the United States on corporate social responsibility and conflict of laws. It concludes with reference to some related themes, in particular on the piercing of the corporate veil and with some remarks on compliance strategy, and compliance reality, for corporations.


Geert Van Calster Ph.D.
Geert van Calster is professor at the University of Leuven and Head of Leuven Law's department of European and international law.
Article

Access_open Global Citizens and Family Relations

Tijdschrift Erasmus Law Review, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden global governance, family relations, nationality, habitual residence, party autonomy
Auteurs Professor Yuko Nishitani Ph.D.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    As globalisation progresses, cross-border movements of people are becoming dynamic and multilateral. The existence of different groups and minorities within the community renders the society multiethnic and multicultural. As individuals acquire new affiliation and belonging, the conventional conflict of laws methods may no longer be viable and should be subject to a thorough re-examination. Against this background, this paper analyses appropriate conflicts rules in international family relations to reflect an individual’s identity. Furthermore, in light of the contemporary law fragmentation, this study also analyses interactions between state law and non-state cultural, religious or customary norms.


Professor Yuko Nishitani Ph.D.
Professor at Kyushu University Faculty of Law, Japan. This work was supported by the JSPS Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (Grant Number 26380063). The author sincerely thanks Professor Carol Lawson (Nagoya University) and Ms. Nettie Dekker for their devoted editing work.

Laura Carballo Piñeiro
Associate Professor at the Faculty of Law, University of Santiago de Compostela.

Xandra Kramer
Professor at Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University Rotterdam, visiting scholar at Stanford Law School.
Artikel

The food label as governance space: free-range eggs and the fallacy of consumer choice

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 3 2014
Trefwoorden food label, free-range eggs, animal welfare, regulatory governance
Auteurs Christine Parker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In a neoliberal age governments, NGOs, food producers and retailers all state that the food system can be governed via consumer choice aka voting with your fork. This makes the retail food label an important space for contests between different actors who each seek to govern the food system according to their own interests and priorities. The paper argues that this makes it crucial to ‘backwards map’ the regulatory governance networks behind the governance claims staked on food labels. The paper uses the example of the contested meaning of ‘free-range’ claims on animal products in Australia to propose and illustrate a methodology for this backwards mapping.


Christine Parker
Christine Parker is a Professor of Law at Monash University, Melbourne Australia. She conducts socio-legal research on business regulation enforcement and compliance and lawyer ethics. Her books include The Open Corporation (2002), Explaining Compliance (edited with Vibeke Nielsen, 2011), and Inside Lawyers Ethics (with Adrian Evans, 2014).
Artikel

Detentie en gevolgen van detentie

Onderzoek in Nederland en België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2014
Trefwoorden Detentiebeleid, detentieonderzoek, detentiebeleving, gevangeniscultuur, detentie-effecten
Auteurs Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens, Dr. Anja Dirkzwager en Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Prison policy in Belgium and the Netherlands is changing rapidly. While Belgium struggles with a persisting prison overcrowding, the Netherlands strongly cuts back on the prison system and is closing an increasing number of prisons. This introductory article to a special issue on detention starts with a short outline of recent changes in Dutch and Belgian prison policy, focusing on developments in detention capacity and prison population. Subsequently we present an overview of empirical criminological research in the Netherlands and Belgium, situated within the international literature, with a specific focus on studies regarding life in detention and effects of detention on prisoners' lives and on their social environment. Finally, we reflect upon existing detention research in both countries, e.g. in terms of gaps in research topics and methodology, and discuss some future developments.


Prof. dr. Kristel Beyens
Prof. dr. K. Beyens is hoogleraar en voorzitter van de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Dr. Anja Dirkzwager
Dr. A.J.E. Dirkzwager is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. Dirk Korf
Prof. dr. D.J. Korf is bijzonder hoogleraar criminologie en directeur van het Bonger Instituut, faculteit der rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit van Amsterdam.
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