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Artikel

De kenmerken van high reliability organizations (HRO’s)

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2012
Trefwoorden high reliability organizations (HROs), high reliability organizing, system safety, accident prevention
Auteurs K.M. Sutcliffe
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Academic and professional disciplines, such as organization and management theory, psychology, sociology and engineering, have, for years, grappled with the multidisciplinary issues of safety and accident prevention. This article examines a domain of research on system safety – the high reliability organization (HRO) paradigm. HROs operate in hazardous conditions, but have fewer than their fair share of adverse events. HROs, traditionally found in the domain of aviation and aircraft carriers, are committed to safety at the highest level and adept a special approach to its pursuit. The attributes and operating dynamics of the best HROs provide a template on which to better understand how safe and reliable performance can be achieved under trying conditions.


K.M. Sutcliffe
Prof. Kathleen Sutcliffe is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Department of Management and Organizations van de University of Michigan.
Artikel

Effectiviteit van toezicht: tijd voor responsive evaluation

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden effectiviteit, toezicht, responsive evaluation, effectevaluatie
Auteurs Drs. P. Welp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Toezichthouders staan onder toenemende druk om duidelijk te maken hoe resultaten van hun toezicht zich verhouden tot de lasten die het veroorzaakt. In de praktijk blijkt echter dat informatie over de effecten van toezicht vaak ontbreekt. De oorzaak daarvan wordt meestal gezocht in de complexiteit van het meten van effecten van toezicht. In dit artikel wordt een aantal aanvullende verklaringen gepresenteerd, zoals spanningsvelden rond publieke verantwoording, de organisatiecultuur en het belang van toezichtspecifieke waardeoriëntaties. Gepleit wordt voor een responsieve aanpak van evaluaties (responsive evaluation) waarbij deze factoren meer aandacht krijgen. Op die manier kunnen evaluaties een zinvolle bijdrage leveren aan de verbetering en legitimering van het toezicht.


Drs. P. Welp
Drs. P. Welp is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker werkzaam voor de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid en collegelid van de Rekenkamer van de gemeente Den Haag.
Artikel

Werk, werkkenmerken en delinquentie

Een longitudinaal onderzoek naar de invloed van het hebben van een baan op delinquent gedrag onder jongvolwassenen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden delinquency, work, emerging adulthood, work commitment, future possibilities
Auteurs MSc. Maaike Wensveen, Dr. Hanneke Palmen, Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The link between being employed and delinquent behaviour is complex. This article examines to what extent having a job, the commitment to that job and the future prospects of that job are related to delinquency. We use data from the Utrecht Study of Adolescent Development (USAD), a six-year, three-wave longitudinal study, pertaining to a general population sample of 669 young adults between the ages of 18 and 28. Having a job is associated with an increase in delinquency for 18 and 19 year old males. The results for subsequent ages show a trend towards a delinquency decreasing effect at subsequent ages. The effect of work characteristics – commitment, future prospects – is less clear.


MSc. Maaike Wensveen
M. Wensveen, MSc. was ten tijde van het schrijven van dit artikel masterstudent bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Dr. Hanneke Palmen
Dr. H. Palmen is postdoc bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR).

Prof. dr. mr. Arjan Blokland
Prof. dr. mr. A.A.J. Blokland is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR) en hoogleraar Criminology and Criminal Justice aan de Universiteit Leiden.

Prof. dr. Wim Meeus
Prof. dr. W.H.J. Meeus is hoogleraar Ontwikkeling in de Adolescentie, departement Pedagogische en Onderwijskundige Wetenschappen aan de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Recht en burgerschap: een verkenning van modaliteiten

Inleiding bij een symposiumnummer

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden citizenship, sociology of law, juridification, policy
Auteurs Olaf Tans
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyzes the relation between law and citizenship on the basis of five modalities. This analysis is premised on the observation that citizenship plays a central role in the contemporary debate about the development of political communities. Furthermore it is obvious that citizenship is inextricably linked to law, but it is not easy to get a clear and complete picture of this link. This is due to, on the one hand, the versatility of the concept of citizenship, and the versatility of the phenomenon law on the other. In short, the relation between law and citizenship is multifaceted, which the typology of modalities is meant to reveal.


Olaf Tans
Olaf Tans is als rechtstheoreticus en politiek wetenschapper verbonden aan het Amsterdam University College. In het algemeen houdt hij zich bezig met de relatie tussen recht, ethiek en samenleving. De laatste tijd is hij gericht op onderwerpen als burgerschap, deliberatie en de narratieve benadering van rechtsvinding.
Artikel

Burgerschap en inburgering

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden citizenship, republicanism, communitarianism, naturalization policy
Auteurs Roland Pierik
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Citizenship is a notoriously complex and an essentially contested concept which has been defined in many different ways. The only stable element in all these definitions seems to be that citizenship is primarily described in terms of the relationship between the political community and the citizen. This article aims to explain why citizenship is such a contested concept by showing that it is embedded in three very different normative traditions: the liberal conception of citizenship as a (legal) status, the republican conception of citizenship as an activity and the communitarian conception of citizenship as identity. Each approach emphasizes an important element of citizenship, but none of the three is comprehensive enough to provide a complete picture of what citizenship implies in contemporary constitutional democracies. At the same time they cannot simply be merged because they come from different normative traditions among themselves at odds with each other.This article starts by illustrating the three conceptions of citizenship on the basis of the underlying theoretical models: liberalism, republicanism and communitarianism. Section 3 discusses two mutual tensions between different conceptions of citizenship: first between the liberal and republican conception and then between the liberal and republican conception on the one hand and the communitarian conception on the other. In Section 4, this conceptual analysis is used to analyze a policy terrain that is explicitly embedded in the idea of citizenship, namely the integration of immigrants through naturalization policy. Section 5 concludes.


Roland Pierik
Roland Pierik is universitair hoofddocent rechtstheorie aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Hij werkt op het gebied van hedendaagse liberale politieke theorie, toegepast op discussies van de multiculturele samenleving, integratiebeleid en internationale rechtvaardigheid. In 2010 is een door hem geredigeerde bundel over het kosmopolitisme en internationaal recht gepubliceerd door Cambridge University Press. Recent verschenen artikelen van hem in Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, Journal of Social Philosophy, Ethics & International Affairs, Political Studies en Ethnicities.
Artikel

Burgerschap en verschil

Tijdschrift Recht der Werkelijkheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden parliamentary discourse, citizenship, Habermas, Foucault
Auteurs Bertjan Wolthuis
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The citizen, understood in the classical republican sense as the political actor, is on occasion confronted with issues that concern the room for difference in politics. In the Netherlands, for example, the recent entrance of populist citizens in parliament is regarded as a problem by more deliberative citizens. Do populist citizens threaten ordinary politics or do ordinary citizens, on the contrary, restrict the space of politics too much? To prepare future research on this point, in this article three similar historical controversies in Dutch parliament are examined. In these cases citizens struggle with the problem how much room parliament ought to provide for the differences between them. In these cases citizens eventually grant each other the freedom to engage in politics in their own way, unless that way threatens the freedom of parliamentary politics itself. They defend the right to debate the widest range of issues in the sharpest way, for example, but prohibit making insults and endorsing illegal activities. Further research is needed to confirm and specify these still tentative conclusions.


Bertjan Wolthuis
Bertjan Wolthuis is universitair docent aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Zijn onderzoeksinteresses zijn onder meer: de kwaliteit van het politieke debat, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault, parlementaire geschiedenis, retorica en argumentatieleer.


Mr. Denise Ozmis
Mr. D. Ozmis is Claims Manager bij AkzoNobel.

Prof. mr. I.N. Tzankova
Prof. mr. I.N. Tzankova is bijzonder hoogleraar collectieve rechtspleging en rechtsvergelijking aan de Universiteit van Tilburg en advocaat te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Mediation options for resolving commercial disputes in China: A guide for foreign enterprises

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Civiele Rechtspleging, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Chinese law, Chinese civil procedure, Chinese commercial dispute resolution, mediation, ADR
Auteurs P.C.H. Chan
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Consistent with the state’s policy of promoting mediation, commercial disputes in China are frequently settled through mediation. As a foreign enterprise doing business in China, it is important to understand the nature and practice of commercial mediation.
    The article introduces foreign enterprises to the Chinese court system and arbitration regime and the position of mediation within the country’s commercial dispute resolution context. It highlights the practical aspects and potential pitfalls of commercial mediation in China.
    Mediation of commercial disputes may occur during a lawsuit (court mediation) or arbitration proceedings (med-arb). It may also occur as private mediation through independent institutions


P.C.H. Chan
P.C.H. Chan is Teaching Fellow at the School of Law of the City University of Hong Kong, solicitor, HKSAR, and solicitor, England & Wales.
Artikel

Geweld tegen mensen en dieren

Denken over correlatie, causatie en de angst voor valse positieven

Tijdschrift PROCES, Aflevering 3 2012
Trefwoorden (domestic) violence, animals, research methodology, prevention
Auteurs Dr. Janine Janssen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    There is an impressive body of literature dealing with the so-called ‘cruelty link’. Two directions can be distinguished: animal abuse as a part of domestic violence and cruelty against animals as a predictor of a penchant for violence in later life. Related to these topics are a lot of methodological problems, for example regarding research designs, definitions of (domestic) violence and animal abuse, practices of cultural bias and prejudice regarding the position of animals in society and problems regarding the recognition of abuse. This contribution deals further more with the problematic claims of correlation and causation between violence against humans and animals. What is the risk of identifying ‘false positives’, that is making uncritical assumptions and accusations of (a penchant for) violent behaviour based on the (mis)interpretation of certain behaviour against animals?


Dr. Janine Janssen
Dr. Janine Janssen is hoofd onderzoek van het Landelijk Expertise Centrum Eer Gerelateerd Geweld voor de Nederlandse politie en universitair docent bij de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Undercoveroperaties: een noodzakelijk kwaad?

Heden, verleden en toekomst van een omstreden opsporingsmiddel

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2012
Auteurs E.W. Kruisbergen en D. de Jong
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    An important part of the scientific literature looks upon undercover policing from a normative, critical point of view. These studies frequently problematize undercover operations as a necessary evil. Yet what do we actually know about the practice of the execution of undercover operations and about the results they yield for criminal investigations? Not much. Little empirical research has been done on this subject. This article analyses the implementation and results of undercover operations in the Netherlands. The empirical data consist of all covert policing operations in the Netherlands in 2004. The authors address the following questions: how often is this method of investigation deployed; what different types of undercover operations exist; and what results have these operations produced? Furthermore, they examine the history of undercover policing and look into the legislative debate. Finally, they explore some possible future developments in the use of undercover operations.


E.W. Kruisbergen
Drs. Edwin Kruisbergen werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.

D. de Jong
Deborah de Jong, MSc werkt als wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het WODC.
Artikel

Het gebruik van virtual reality in de veiligheidsketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Virtual reality, augmented reality, physical safety, integrated emergency management system
Auteurs André Groenewoud en Margrethe Kobes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Virtual reality is increasingly used in our society. Also in the field of physical safety this technique is applied. In this article we give an overview of virtual reality applications that are used in the Netherlands in this domain. This overview is divided into the five phases of the integrated emergency management system of the Netherlands. Based on international studies from other fields we try to indicate where in the near future virtual reality also can be used.
    Conclusion of this article is that virtual reality already plays an important role in the physical safety domain, especially because this technique can support the learning ability of the safety organizations in many areas. Because of constant innovation (in technique and application) that takes place, it is expected that in the future even more virtual reality applications in the field of physical safety are possible.


André Groenewoud
Drs. U.A. (André) Groenewoud is freelance onderwijskundige. E-mail: a.groenewoud@oidict.nl

Margrethe Kobes
Dr. Ing. M. (Margrethe) Kobes is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).
Artikel

Hoe passen overeenkomsten met het oog op duurzaamheid binnen de rechtstreeks werkende uitzondering van het karteltoezicht?

Interpretatie uitzonderingscriteria door NMa voor samenwerking in verband met duurzaamheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden kartelverbod, duurzaam, uitzonderingscriteria, samenwerken, NMa
Auteurs N. Rosenboom
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Er heerst onzekerheid bij Nederlandse ondernemingen die willen samenwerken met het oog op duurzaamheid. Zij stuiten bij de self-assessment van het kartelverbod van het mededingingstoezicht op onvoldoende duidelijkheid over de invulling van de uitzonderingscriteria van artikel 6 lid 3 Mw. De NMa houdt mededingingstoezicht op de naleving van bedrijven van onder andere het kartelverbod op de Nederlandse markt. Dit artikel bespreekt hoe de NMa criteria voor uitzondering van het kartelverbod interpreteert en hoe ondernemingen hun bewijslast voor de self-assessment economisch kunnen onderbouwen.


N. Rosenboom
N. Rosenboom is als onderzoeker werkzaam bij SEO Economisch Onderzoek, bij het cluster Mededinging & Regulering.
Artikel

Mediaberichtgeving over witteboordencriminaliteit

‘There’s no such thing as bad publicity’

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Toezicht, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden witteboordencriminaliteit, strafrecht, media, publiciteit, framing
Auteurs Drs. J.J.H. Beckers en Dr. J.G. van Erp
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Recentelijk werden de hoofdverdachten in de ‘Klimop-zaak’ door de Rechtbank Haarlem in eerste aanleg veroordeeld tot uiteenlopende straffen. Strafrechtelijke vervolging van fraude zou er mede toe moeten dienen witteboordencriminaliteit ondubbelzinnig te veroordelen. Welke rol spelen de media bij deze pogingen om een grens te trekken in het grijze gebied tussen innovatief ondernemerschap en verwerpelijke roekeloosheid?


Drs. J.J.H. Beckers
Drs. J.J.H. Beckers is als promovendus verbonden aan de sectie Criminologie van de Erasmus School of Law.

Dr. J.G. van Erp
Dr. J.G. van Erp is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie aan de Erasmus School of Law en lid van de redactie van Tijdschrift voor Toezicht.

    Illegal deforestation is generally not considered as a criminological subject but in this article it is argued that it can easily be considered as such. The central question that is addressed here is how the theme of deforestation, which clearly fits into the new realm of green criminology, relates to more traditional criminological concepts. This question is discussed through various case studies: the Brazilian Amazon (mainly Brazil), Central Africa (mainly the Democratic Republic of Congo), South East Asia (mainly Indonesia), Russian Siberia, and Pakistan's Swat forests. The case studies show that there are actually many victims of deforestation, both human and non-human, and that deforestation is linked to a variety of other crimes and harms as well. It is concluded that even without taking a green criminological perspective, several concepts of criminology apply to illegal deforestation practices: governmental and state crimes, corporate crimes, and various types of organized crime.


T. Boekhout van Solinge
Dr. Tim Boekhout van Solinge is als universitair docent verbonden aan het Willem Pompe Instituut voor Strafrechtswetenschappen van de Universiteit Utrecht.

    As a contribution to literature drawing together green criminology and studies of organized and corporate crime, this paper provides a case study of crimes and public health harms linked to the Naples garbage disposal crisis. The context is the inability of modern consumer society to cope with the problem of mass production of waste. In turn this leads to opportunities for both legal and criminal entrepreneurs to offer services that promise but fail to ‘dispose’ of the problem. The analysis draws upon environmental law and classic studies of organised crime.


V. Ruggiero
Prof. Vincenzo Ruggiero is als hoogleraar sociologie verbonden aan de Middlesex University in Londen.

N. South
Prof. Nigel South is hoogleraar sociologie aan de University of Essex.

    Many species are threatened with extinction today. Certain animal species are becoming scarce and thus more valuable. Illegally traded animals and animal products are exported by relatively poor countries. These easily provide exporting papers that demonstrate that animals are bred in captivity, when in reality they are caught in the wild. In general illegally traded animals originate from South and Central America, Asia, Eastern Europe and Africa. Europe is a major importer. Since illegal trade in animals is booming business, it is not uncommon for illegal traders in exotic animals to be associated with other forms of organised crime. Due to a relatively low risk of prosecution and high profits to be made, the trade in rare species has become very attractive.


D.P. van Uhm
Drs. Daan van Uhm is als promovendus verbonden aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Lood en criminaliteit

Een overzicht van recente studies naar de effecten van een neurotoxisch metaal

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden lead, criminal behaviour, ADHD, IQ
Auteurs Drs. Ap Zaalberg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research demonstrates moderate detrimental effects of lead and human health. Interesting from a criminological point of view is the association between lead and delinquent, criminal and aggressive behaviour. In this paper the possible causality of this association will be discussed.


Drs. Ap Zaalberg
Drs. A. Zaalberg is psycholoog en onderzoeker bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum, Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie, a.zaalberg@minvenj.nl.
Artikel

Access_open Legal Doctrine As a Non-Normative Discipline

A Refinement of Niiniluoto’s and Aarnio’s Distinction between Norm-Descriptions, Norm-Contentions and Norm-Recommendations

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden legal doctrine as a science, non-normative discipline, norm-descriptions, norm-contentions, norm-recommendations, Aarnio and Niiniluoto
Auteurs Anne Ruth Mackor
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article, the author argues that legal doctrine is not more normative than other scientific disciplines. This argumentation is built on the claim that the distinction between descriptive and normative statements is too simple to analyze the nature of legal doctrine. In the author’s view, a more detailed analysis of legal statements helps to achieve a better and more accurate characterization of legal doctrine as a science. For this purpose, the author builds on the distinction of Aarnio and Niiniluoto between norm-descriptions, norm-contentions and norm-recommendations. She argues that legal doctrine consists mainly of empirical and non-empirical norm-descriptions and that it can therefore be considered as a non-normative discipline.


Anne Ruth Mackor
Anne Ruth Mackor is professor of professional ethics, in particular of legal professions, at the Faculty of Law and Socrates professor of professional ethics at the Faculties of Theology and Philosophy at the University of Groningen.
Artikel

Access_open Hoe rechters denken

Tijdschrift Law and Method, 2012
Trefwoorden rechterlijke oordeelsvorming, opleiding, socialisatie, omgevingsinvloed
Auteurs Maarten van Wel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper the author attempts to answer the intriguing question how judges think by providing a description of the context of judicial decision-making from the insider’s perspective of a judge trainee. This paper demonstrates that in judicial training socialization plays an important formative role. Looking at a standard model for judging civil cases the author stresses that judicial decisions are essentially arbitrary in the true sense of the word and can only be understood from within the legal system. What makes judicial decisions special is not the argumentative method, but their status. One way the judicial power of decision is restricted is by the membership of judges of a professional group with a shared culture and tradition. The author is under the impression that the influence of this context of judicial decision-making on judging is underexposed in legal studies. This paper tries to give the initial impetus to a further exploration.


Maarten van Wel
Mr. Maarten van Wel is rechterlijk ambtenaar in opleiding en is werkzaam als advocaat in de buitenstage bij Höcker Advocaten te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Bijzonder optreden bij openbare ordehandhaving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden governance, street-level-bureaucracy, exemplary urban practitioners, role models, preventive safety strategy in urban disorder
Auteurs Ton van der Pennen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on a research in which we are looking for exemplary urban professionals who seem to be successful in pursuing the social goals they set together with their partners. In urban disadvantaged neighbourhoods, it is not always the standard procedure that gets things done. In the Netherlands decades of urban renewal in its various forms have not solved problems permanently. This does not mean that success is never attained. What seems to have helped in some cases is the presence of a type of practitioner who goes beyond standard procedure. These are professionals, as the ‘casting cop’ we introduce in this article, who do not give up and who are able to succeed where others have failed. Most likely these are experienced practitioners who learned how to cope. Most likely they are actors who inspire others.What we ask is how these practitioners in urban districts do their job in controversial, politically sensitive policy processes that might develop in unintended and surprising ways. In other words we have as a central question: through what ways of working and relating do exemplary urban practitioner (try to) get things done?The professionals we call exemplary are not always taking the common routes to realize their goals. They will not automatically follow the routines of problem solving and because of that they can make a difference. They are critical about mainstream practices and try to find solutions starting from the perspectives of citizens. When we talk about ‘ways of working and relating’ we refer to the qualities these professionals put to use in the planning and decision making processes of urban renewal. It has to do with personal qualities like attitude and experience, but also with strategic skills such as networking with policy partners. ‘Getting things done’ means solving problems or better stated exploiting opportunities. More broadly is their aim to transform what is called ‘urban problem districts’ into ‘livable neighborhoods’.


Ton van der Pennen
Drs. A.W. (Ton) van der Pennen is senior onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut OTB van de TU Delft. E-mail: A.W.vanderPennen@tudelft.nl
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