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Artikel

Politieonderzoek in open bronnen op internet

Strafvorderlijke aspecten

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden criminal investigation, surveillance, OSINT, investigation powers, legal basis
Auteurs Bert-Jaap Koops
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Analysing large amounts of data goes to the heart of the challenges confronting intelligence and law enforcement professionals today. Increasingly, this involves Internet data that are ‘open source’ or ‘publicly available’. Projects such as the European FP7 VIRTUOSO aim at developing platforms for open-source intelligence by law enforcement and public security, which open up opportunities for large-scale, automated data gathering and analysis. However, the mere fact that data are publicly available does not imply an absence of restrictions to researching them. This paper investigates one area of legal constraints, namely Dutch criminal-procedure law in relation to open-source data gathering by the police. Which legal basis is there for this activity? And under what conditions can foreign open sources be investigated?
    After sketching the context of the VIRTUOSO project and legal constraints of open-source intelligence in general, this paper discusses provisions of the Dutch Police Act 1993 and the Code of Criminal Procedure to determine which is the correct legal basis for gathering data from openly accessible and semi-open sources. Next, cross-border gathering of data is discussed on the basis of article 32 of the Cybercrime Convention. The paper draws the conclusion that investigating open sources by the police will often go beyond what is allowed on the basis of the general task description of the police (art. 2 Police Act 1993); hence, an order from the Public Prosecutor for systematic observation or intelligence is required. Moreover, the tools used must meet the non-manipulability and auditing requirements of the Dutch Decree on Technical Devices in Criminal Procedure.


Bert-Jaap Koops
Prof. dr. Bert-Jaap Koops is hoogleraar regulering van technologie bij TILT – Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Universiteit van Tilburg. Het onderzoek voor dit artikel werd mede gefinancierd door het Europese KP7-project VIRTUOSO (projectnr. FP7-SEC GA-2009-242352).
Redactioneel

Redactioneel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens, Leontien M. van der Knaap en Ralf Beerens
Auteursinformatie

Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie.E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien M.) van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: L.M.vdrKnaap@uvt.nl

Ralf Beerens
R. (Ralf) Beerens Ph.D is onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV) en promovendus aan de Universiteit van Lund, Zweden. E-mail: ralf.beerens@nifv.nl
Artikel

Agenten volgen via Twitter bevordert positieve beeldvorming, stimuleert de meldingsbereidheid en verandert de veiligheidsbeleving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Twitter, community policing, transparency, perception, willingness to report
Auteurs Leon Veltman, Marianne Junger en Roy Johannink
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since November 2009, the regional police of Groningen facilitated their community officers with Twitter. According to the principles of community policing, they are enabled to shorten the distance between the police and citizens by giving them a direct connection. Such a connection should stimulate interaction, while at the same time it should make people feel more safe. In addition, Twitter also creates possibilities for the police to be transparent. Sharing of information should alter citizens’ perception towards the police.
    A comparison has been made, by using an online questionnaire, between followers and two kinds of non-followers. The effects of following twittering community officers have been demonstrated by using statistical analyses, taking into account relevant control variables. On the basis of these analyses it has been demonstrated that following a twittering community officer did not positively or negatively alter the perception of safety of their followers. However, an enhanced information position has made followers much more aware of local disorder and crime. Thanks to shared information about police actions to sustain and improve local safety and livability, followers’ perception of safety has not been altered negatively.
    Followers’ perception towards the police organization has been positively altered, thanks to the twittering community officers. Especially the sharing of information and involving citizens into local policing helps the police to alter the perception of citizens towards their organization. In addition, it has been shown that followers’ willingness to report has been improved. Thanks to the ease of use of Twitter and the shortened distance between the police and citizens, followers do frequently contact the police or a community officer to share some information, or to report some crime or disorder. However, it has been shown that Twitter should just be presented as complementary to existing ways to contact the police.


Leon Veltman
L. (Leon) Veltman MSc is adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus op veiligheid. E-mail: veltman@vdmmp.nl

Marianne Junger
Prof.dr. M. (Marianne) Junger is Professor Social Safety Studies aan de Universiteit Twente. E-mail: m.junger@utwente.nl

Roy Johannink
Drs. R. (Roy) Johannink MCDm is senior adviseur beleid en onderzoek bij VDMMP Focus.
Artikel

Het gebruik van virtual reality in de veiligheidsketen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Virtual reality, augmented reality, physical safety, integrated emergency management system
Auteurs André Groenewoud en Margrethe Kobes
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Virtual reality is increasingly used in our society. Also in the field of physical safety this technique is applied. In this article we give an overview of virtual reality applications that are used in the Netherlands in this domain. This overview is divided into the five phases of the integrated emergency management system of the Netherlands. Based on international studies from other fields we try to indicate where in the near future virtual reality also can be used.
    Conclusion of this article is that virtual reality already plays an important role in the physical safety domain, especially because this technique can support the learning ability of the safety organizations in many areas. Because of constant innovation (in technique and application) that takes place, it is expected that in the future even more virtual reality applications in the field of physical safety are possible.


André Groenewoud
Drs. U.A. (André) Groenewoud is freelance onderwijskundige. E-mail: a.groenewoud@oidict.nl

Margrethe Kobes
Dr. Ing. M. (Margrethe) Kobes is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Instituut Fysieke Veiligheid (NIFV).
Artikel

Identificatie van Nederlandse jongeren die risico lopen op internet

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2012
Trefwoorden Youth, internet use, online victimization, risk profile, risk factors
Auteurs Joyce Kerstens en Johan van Wilsem
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the findings of a national representative survey on online victimization. The survey was conducted in the Netherlands in 2011 amongst youth aged 10 to 18. Purpose of this research is to identify various risk factors related to cyber bullying, online sexual activities and online financial crime (e.g. e-fraude and commercial deceit). More than 9 percent of the youths had negative experiences with cyber bullying, about 5 percent with e-fraude and over 11 percent with commercial deceit. Also unwanted online sexual solicitations (6%) and unwanted exposure to sexually explicit internet material (12%) occurred with some regularity.
    This research complements earlier research on youth victimization in two important respects. First, we paid explicit attention to determine whether the youngster experienced the online incident as negative, neutral or positive. Our strategy to address negative experiences ensures the identification of actual victims. Secondly, we made it possible to identify and compare risk factors on various types of online crime. Girls are more likely to be cyber bullied, to receive unwanted sexual solicitations and to be unwantedly exposed to online pornography, whilst boys are more at risk to be commercially deceived or scammed.
    Internet use and behaviour are significant risk factors to comprehend online victimization. Above average use of instant messaging and clicking on (advertising) hyperlinks without restraint, are important predictors for online victimization. Finally, online disinhibition - a loosening of social restrictions during interactions with others on the Internet - and low self-control, turn out to be significant risk factors.
    It is difficult to accept certain risks, especially when youth are involved. However, children have to learn themselves to assess risks, to deal with them and to learn from them. It is important youths built up resilience to adequately react on negative online incidents and to reduce online vulnerability.


Joyce Kerstens
Drs. J.W.M. (Joyce) Kerstens is Projectleider Jeugd & Cybersafety bij het Lectoraat Cybersafety van NHL Hogeschool en Politieacademie. E-mail: j.kerstens@nhl.nl

Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent Criminologie, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Bijzonder optreden bij openbare ordehandhaving

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden governance, street-level-bureaucracy, exemplary urban practitioners, role models, preventive safety strategy in urban disorder
Auteurs Ton van der Pennen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article is based on a research in which we are looking for exemplary urban professionals who seem to be successful in pursuing the social goals they set together with their partners. In urban disadvantaged neighbourhoods, it is not always the standard procedure that gets things done. In the Netherlands decades of urban renewal in its various forms have not solved problems permanently. This does not mean that success is never attained. What seems to have helped in some cases is the presence of a type of practitioner who goes beyond standard procedure. These are professionals, as the ‘casting cop’ we introduce in this article, who do not give up and who are able to succeed where others have failed. Most likely these are experienced practitioners who learned how to cope. Most likely they are actors who inspire others.What we ask is how these practitioners in urban districts do their job in controversial, politically sensitive policy processes that might develop in unintended and surprising ways. In other words we have as a central question: through what ways of working and relating do exemplary urban practitioner (try to) get things done?The professionals we call exemplary are not always taking the common routes to realize their goals. They will not automatically follow the routines of problem solving and because of that they can make a difference. They are critical about mainstream practices and try to find solutions starting from the perspectives of citizens. When we talk about ‘ways of working and relating’ we refer to the qualities these professionals put to use in the planning and decision making processes of urban renewal. It has to do with personal qualities like attitude and experience, but also with strategic skills such as networking with policy partners. ‘Getting things done’ means solving problems or better stated exploiting opportunities. More broadly is their aim to transform what is called ‘urban problem districts’ into ‘livable neighborhoods’.


Ton van der Pennen
Drs. A.W. (Ton) van der Pennen is senior onderzoeker aan het onderzoeksinstituut OTB van de TU Delft. E-mail: A.W.vanderPennen@tudelft.nl
Artikel

De preventieve inzet van het tijdelijk huisverbod bij dreigend huiselijk geweld

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden domestic violence, temporary restraining order, domestic violence risk, prevention, assessment
Auteurs Leontien M. van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    On January 1, 2009 the Temporary Restraining Order Act entered into force allowing mayors to impose a ten-day restraining order on potential perpetrators of domestic violence. This restraining order, which may be extended to 28 days, prohibits the perpetrator from entering his or her house as well as from contacting the persons staying behind in the home (partner, children, or other members of the household). In order to impose a temporary restraining order, risk factors relating to the perpetrator, the incident, and the family have to be assessed using a domestic violence risk assessment tool (RiHG).The immediate cause to introduce the Act was to enable mayors to take action in situations that, before, would not have given police just cause to intervene because no offences had (yet) been committed. However, evaluations show that temporary restraining orders are mainly imposed in conjunction with criminal proceedings. Yet, researchers suggest that the temporary restraining order may be imposed as a truly preventive measure in a large amount of situations that until now have not been considered (for instance, situations that have not escalated into physical violence). This article examines whether such preventive restraining orders exist within a sample of imposed orders and if so, what characteristics they share.Results show that truly preventive restraining orders are extremely rare. Closer inspection of cases that according to the available risk assessment were not notably violent showed that most of these cases could not be regarded as cases of truly preventive restraining orders. The discussion of the article focuses on the implications of these results for the suggestion that a large number of situations could be suitable for imposing a preventive restraining order.


Leontien M. van der Knaap
Dr. L.M. (Leontien) M. van der Knaap is universitair hoofddocent bij het International Victimology Institute Tilburg (INTERVICT) van Tilburg University. E-mail: l.mvdrknaap@uvt.nl

Annemarie ten Boom
Drs. A. (Annemarie) ten Boom is onderzoeksbegeleider bij het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum (WODC) van het Ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie en ontwikkelde voorheen bij NOC*NSF het beleid tegen seksueel misbruik in de sport. E-mail: a.ten.boom@minvenj.nl

Stefan Bogaerts
Prof. dr. S. (Stefan) Bogaerts is hoogleraar forensische psychologie aan Tilburg School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, forensische psychologie en aan Tilburg Law School, Intervict. Hij is ook verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie, Universiteit van Leuven en hoofd onderzoek en behandelinnovatie van FPC de Kijvelanden. E-mail: S.Bogaerts@uvt.nl
Artikel

Veiligheid

Een almaar uitdijend concept

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2012
Trefwoorden problem definition, safety, security, queen’s speeches
Auteurs Sandra Resodihardjo en Anne Kors-Walraven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    A number of authors claim that the Dutch government is using the words safety and security more often and more broadly. In this article we show that this is partly true. By studying the usage of the word safety in the Dutch queen’s speeches, we see that especially from 1999 onwards the speeches do contain more references to safety and security issues. Moreover, more and more topics are defined as a safety and security issue. However, this same study shows that a decline in the use of the words safety and security can be discerned from 2006 onwards. Ideas to understand these fluctuations are presented at the end of the article.


Sandra Resodihardjo
Dr. S.L. (Sandra) Resodihardjo is werkzaam als universitair docent bij het Institute for Management Research (opleiding Bestuurskunde), Faculteit der Managementwetenschappen, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: s.resodihardjo@fm.ru.nl

Anne Kors-Walraven
A.M. (Anne) Kors-Walraven, MSc is afgestudeerd aan het Instituut Bestuurskunde, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Tien jaar veiligheidsonderzoek in het Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid

Weerspiegeling van een vakgebied in ontwikkeling

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden safety research, security research, multidisciplinary research, Journal of Safety Studies
Auteurs Wouter Stol
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    From its beginning in 2002, the Dutch Journal of Safety Studies (JSS) has wanted to be a platform for Dutch and Belgian academic articles about all facets of safety and security. Furthermore the journal wants to be a platform for multidisciplinary articles in which safety and security issues are studied from different and complementary perspectives or academic fields.This article provides a content analysis of all 129 JSS-articles. The analysis shows that the focus of JSS is on matters of social safety (and less on the more ‘technical’ safety issues) and on the organization of safety (functioning of organizations or networks and/or the effectiveness of measures) and less on safety as such. Over the years, a few changes have taken place. (1) In the field of social safety the focus has shifted somewhat from ‘the organization of safety’ towards safety as such. (2) Although the proportion of articles from Belgium is small (5,4%), it has increased over the years. (3) Authors from Dutch universities of applied sciences have published no more than 4 articles (3,1%), the first one of which appeared in Volume 6. After some years, these authors discovered the JSS as a platform for their work.JSS covers a wide range of subjects in the field of safety and how it can be organized. Although most articles stem from criminology and/or public management, JSS contains articles from different academic fields such as criminology, communication, law, psychology, engineering, public management, medical science, etc. However, in one and the same article one does not often find a combination of really different academic perspectives, such as engineering and psychology or informatics and criminology. If the JSS aims to be a truly multidisciplinary journal, it should contain more articles of this kind over the next ten years.


Wouter Stol
Prof. dr. W.Ph. (Wouter) Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool en de Politieacademie en bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit. E-mail: wstol@planet.nl
Artikel

Grensvervaging tussen interne en externe veiligheid

Achtergronden en gevolgen

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden internal security, external security, blurring boundaries
Auteurs Tom Vander Beken
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Internal and external security are traditionally considered to be distinct concepts that allow police organizations and tasks to be differentiated from those of the military. Internal security is then viewed as oriented towards the maintenance of the order within a state and to be exercised against fellow citizens with a limited use of violence. External security deals with the protection of the territory and is exercised against foreign enemies, may include the use of excessive violence. In practice, however, the boundaries between these concepts and between police and military aims and tasks have become blurred. The extension of the security concept, a change in the nature of interventions on foreign territory and a shifting image of the enemy create an overlap between internal and external security issues and actors. This evolution seriously challenges the existing legal and normative frameworks that rely heavily on assumptions based on the distinction between internal and external security.


Tom Vander Beken
Prof. dr. T. (Tom) Vander Beken is hoogleraar aan de vakgroep Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Universiteit Gent en directeur van het Institute for International Research on Criminal Policy (IRCP). Correspondentieadres: Universiteitstraat 4, 9000 Gent, België. E-mail: tom.vanderbeken@ugent.be
Artikel

Over objectieve en subjectieve onveiligheid

En de (on)zin van het rationaliteitdebat

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden fear of crime, fear victimization paradox, rationality debate
Auteurs Stefaan Pleysier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This contribution focuses on ‘fear of crime’ research. Departing from the classic distinction between crime and victimization as objective threats, on the one hand, and fear of crime as a subjective and emotional interpretation of that threat, on the other hand, the research tradition is confronted with the so-called fear victimization paradox. This paradox emerges from the observation that fear of crime is greater among women and elderly people, while these groups actually are less at risk of becoming a crime victim. It has immersed the research tradition in a dominant debate on the rationality of the fear of crime, with two opposing paradigms: rationalist and symbolic.Whilst both the paradox and the different paradigms in the debate offer a view at the core of fear of crime research, and illustrate how similar empirical observations can lead to differing explanations, and policy implications for that matter, we argue that the fear victimization paradox and the rationality debate surrounding this paradox, has occupied the bulk of research on fear of crime with what is essentially a nonsensical and redundant debate.


Stefaan Pleysier
Prof. dr. S. (Stefaan) Pleysier is docent Jeugdcriminologie en Methoden van onderzoek aan de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de K.U.Leuven, en verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (LINC) waar hij co-coördinator is van de onderzoekslijn Jeugdcriminologie. E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@law.kuleuven.be
Artikel

Regulering in een hybride veiligheidszorg

Over de bewaking van een publiek goed in een deels geprivatiseerd bestel

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Trefwoorden regulation, security, privatization, public good, self-regulation
Auteurs Jan Terpstra
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This paper deals with the question of how a partly privatized security sector could be regulated. A central aim of this regulation should be the control of security as a public good. Three models of regulation are analyzed. The current practice of this regulation in the Netherlands shows a serious lack of effectiveness. One of our main conclusions is that neither the state nor the private sector is able to enforce this regulation on their own. However, it is assumed that the state should have a central and integrated regulatory role in this field, with more attention paid to the practical implementation of it, with the power and will to sanction private agencies if necessary. In addition managers of private security companies should adopt a role as public managers with a public moral duty. Regulation of security is faced with a double problematic, not only the horizontal fragmentation of the field, but also the vertical fragmentation, often resulting in a serious gap between managers and those in the field, both in the public and the private sector. This implies that the regulation should not only rest on the state and on self-regulation by the sector at management level, but also on the promotion of a practical ethic for security workers to steer and regulate their daily work.


Jan Terpstra
Prof. dr. ir. J.B. (Jan) Terpstra is werkzaam bij het Criminologisch Instituut, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl

Lonneke van Noije
Lonneke van Noije is als senior wetenschappelijk medewerker werkzaam bij het SCP en is tevens hoofdredacteur van dit tijdschrift.
Artikel

Jazzy structures

Een slotbeschouwing over de toekomst van veiligheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2011
Auteurs Hans Boutellier
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The author provides a discussion of the articles in this issue of the Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid (Journal on Security) on the occasion of its tenth anniversary. He notes that there is an increasing hybridising, subjectification and fragmentation in the security area. The increasing interweaving of security politics seems to apply least to a common approach in ‘social security and physical safety issues’ (crime control and disaster and crisis management), while exactly this was aimed for in so-called integral security politics. According to the author that is the case because of ‘the moral pin’, which plays a dominant role in crime, but not in safety issues. The entanglement of forms of security identified by the author has a normative basis – it comes from the social order of an increasingly complex society. For the future an ever greater responsibilisation can be expected, in which the perception of security becomes even more important than it is now already. Not a big orchestrated security policy, but jazzy structures will then determine the prospects.


Hans Boutellier
Prof. dr. J.C.J. (Hans) Boutellier is algemeen directeur van het Verwey-Jonker Instituut en hoogleraar Veiligheid & Burgerschap aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculteit der Sociale Wetenschappen, Afdeling Bestuurswetenschappen, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam. E-mail: j.c.j.boutellier@vu.nl
Artikel

Zijn Nederlandse burgers écht enthousiast over de nieuwe antiterrorismemaatregelen?

Een vergelijking van attitudes en willingness to pay

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden counterterrorism policy, public opinion, willingness to pay, legitimacy
Auteurs Johan van Wilsem en Maartje van der Woude
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since 2001, the Netherlands have broadened their array of antiterrorism legislation and policies. However, there is hardly any insight into the level of public support for them. This article assesses the Dutch public opinion on four measures that were recently made effective: enhanced possibilities for stop-and-search, broadening of possibilities for special investigative resources, increased obligations for identification, and body scans in airports. Two randomly selected, comparable groups were asked different questions about these issues: attitudes or willingness to pay. The results show that respondents have positive attitudes towards newly introduced antiterrorism measures, yet simultaneously, they have low willingness to pay. Both groups were also asked how they would allocate an imaginary fixed budget to various criminal justice policies and tax rebate. These results show similar relations for both attitudes and willingness to pay, suggesting they both measure the relative importance assigned to antiterrorism policies. A right political orientation predicts both positive attitudes and high willingness to pay. Furthermore, people with high income have higher willingness to pay. The results underline the necessity to pay attention to the subtleties underlying public opinion on crime control.


Johan van Wilsem
Dr. J.A. (Johan) van Wilsem is universitair hoofddocent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: J.A.van.Wilsem@law.leidenuniv.nl.

Maartje van der Woude
Mr. dr. M.A.H. (Maartje) van der Woude is universitair docent criminologie bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: m.a.h.vanderwoude@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Internationale lessen voor een sluitende aanpak nazorg

Een literatuurstudie over evaluatieonderzoek naar nazorgprogramma’s voor ex-gedetineerden

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden prisoners reentry programs, employment programs for offenders, transitional housing, substance dependent offenders, recidivism
Auteurs Tamar Fischer
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch aftercare for former prisoners is strongly developing. This article describes lessons from international experiences with aftercare for former prisoners in three areas of life: alcohol and drug problems, work and housing. Moreover, it discusses which lessons are especially relevant for the Dutch system. The analysis of the literature shows to what extent and under which conditions voluntary aftercare can affect reintegration and recidivism. Conclusions are that various aftercare programs do affect recidivism to some extent, but that the level of success differs substantially across programs and across subpopulations of former prisoners. Both programs that start during detention and continue after release and programs that combine multiple services (e.g. housing services and drug treatment) are most successful. Work programs have the strongest effects for older individuals. In all three areas of aftercare studied in this article, the strongest program effects were found for subpopulations with the highest risk of recidivism. The review also shows that communication between organizations and the integration of services are very important for the success of aftercare programs.


Tamar Fischer
Dr. T.F.C. (Tamar) Fischer is universitair docent bij de sectie Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: fischer@frg.eur.nl.
Boekbespreking

Risico’s en redelijkheid

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden book review, radical youth
Auteurs Paul Dekker
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author reviews: Risico’s en redelijkheid. Verkenning naar een rijksbreed beoordelingskader voor de toelaatbaarheid van risico’s, by I. Helsloot, R. Pieterman & J.C. Hanekamp.


Paul Dekker
Prof. dr. P. (Paul) Dekker is hoofd van de onderzoeksgroep Participatie & Bestuur van het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau (SCP) en hoogleraar Civil Society aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. E-mail: p.dekker@scp.nl.
Boekbespreking

Integrale veiligheid als reflexieve praktijk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden book review, integral safety
Auteurs Ron van Wonderen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this contribution the author reviews: Integrale veiligheid als reflectieve praktijk, by Sjaak Khonraad.


Ron van Wonderen
Drs. R. (Ron) van Wonderen is senior onderzoeker bij het Verwey-Jonker Instituut in Utrecht. E-mail: rvanwonderen@verwey-jonker.nl.
Artikel

De problematiek van sfeervervaging bij de bestuurlijk-strafrechtelijke aanpak van mensenhandel in de legale prostitutiesector

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2011
Trefwoorden human trafficking, prostitution control, adminstrative measures, prevention, criminal justice
Auteurs Nina Holvast en Patrick van der Meij
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the legalization of the prostitution sector, not only has the combating of human trafficking through criminal law been substantially fortified, but also the administrative approach to human trafficking in that sector. This integral approach of human trafficking, in which administrative and criminal law measures complement each other, is necessary to combat this harrowing type of crime. The criminal law-administrative approach offers good footholds for a more forceful reaction to human trafficking. Besides the preventive effect administrative measures can have as a complement to criminal law, administrative supervision can also be useful to obtain criminal law information. However, that brings several new dilemmas with it that are connected to the phenomenon of the blurring of spheres. Under certain circumstances, the blurring of spheres between a criminal law and an administrative approach can lead to an improper use of competencies. We conclude that in the manner in which the prostitution sector is currently supervised, the legal protection of the citizen against actions of the supervisor is inadequately guaranteed. That does not mean that information that is obtained through administrative supervision may no longer be used in criminal cases. It is to be recommended however that several changes be made to current practice, which may prevent the improper use of supervisory competencies in prostitution controls.


Nina Holvast
Mr. drs. N.L. (Nina) Holvast is junior onderzoeker bij de sectie Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam. E-mail: holvast@frg.eur.nl.

Patrick van der Meij
Mr. dr. P.P.J. (Patrick) van der Meij is strafrechtadvocaat bij Cleerdin & Hamer Advocaten in Amsterdam en tevens research fellow bij het Instituut voor Strafrecht & Criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.p.j.vandermeij@law.leidenuniv.nl.
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