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Artikel

Aanpassing afstammings- en gezagsrecht gewenst voor ongehuwd samenwonende ouders

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden informal cohabitation, law of parentage, parental responsibilities, parental authority, child protection
Auteurs Prof. mr. W.M. Schrama
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article attention will be paid to the radical societal changes in respect of informal cohabitation. The rate of extramarital child birth has increased to over 50% of all first-born children. Family law is traditionally focused on marriage, which was for a long time the only acceptable relationship type. The question addressed in this article is whether the law of parentage and the law of parental responsibilities should be reformed in order to meet the needs of modern families.


Prof. mr. W.M. Schrama
Prof. mr. Wendy Schrama is als hoogleraar familierecht en rechtsvergelijking verbonden aan het Utrecht Centre for European Research into Family Law van het Molengraaff Instituut voor Privaatrecht van de Universiteit Utrecht.
Artikel

Het belang van grootouders in hedendaagse gezinnen en het recht op omgang met kleinkinderen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden grandparents, grandchildren, child care, rights of access, intergenerational solidarity
Auteurs Dr. T. Geurts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Within the context of a recent call for the strengthening of the legal position of grandparents with regards to visitation rights, this article presents a brief review of major conceptual notions and empirical findings within the literature on grandparent-grandchild relationships. Three major topics for understanding the intergenerational relationship are addressed: the historical context, the importance of the relationship, and changes over individual time.


Dr. T. Geurts
Dr. Teun Geurts is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
Artikel

Continuïteit en verandering in het Nederlandse gezinsleven

Gezinsvormen, arbeidsmarktparticipatie en tijdsbesteding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden divorce, father involvement, female labor force participation, nuclear family, parent-child time
Auteurs Dr. A. Roeters en Dr. F. Bucx
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article analyses continuity and change in family life in the Netherlands over the last decades. The authors consider three characteristics of families: (1) family types, (2) maternal employment, and (3) parent-child time. Analyses are based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics and the Dutch Time Use Study. The results indicate that there is both continuity and change. Although two married individuals giving care to their children is still the most common family type, alternative family forms have become more popular, including unmarried cohabiting parents and single-parent families. Furthermore, the division of labor is still strongly gendered: Dutch mothers’ participation on the labor market is limited and they still hold the main responsibility for children. Moreover, children are still most likely to grow up in a household with both a father and mother. There are also indicators of change. Maternal employment is much more prevalent than in the 1970s and fathers’ involvement with children increases.


Dr. A. Roeters
Dr. Anne Roeters is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Haar expertise ligt op het gebied van tijdsbestedingsonderzoek en de combinatie van arbeid en zorg.

Dr. F. Bucx
Dr. Freek Bucx is wetenschappelijk onderzoeker bij het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Hij doet daar onderzoek naar jeugd en gezin.
Artikel

Ouderschap en ouderlijk gezag bij niet-erkende islamitische huwelijken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 4 2016
Trefwoorden unregistered Islamic marriages, polygamy, parentage, custody, parental authority
Auteurs Prof. dr. S.W.E. Rutten
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The identified trend of changing family relations and establishing a family without being traditionally married, probably does not apply to the entire Dutch population. Islamic law requires that people get married before children are born. Among Muslims, this standard is still followed on a large scale. Marriages which may be validly established according to Islamic law, however, will not always be recognized in the Netherlands. Examples include the unregistered marriages and polygamous marriages. This has implications for the way in which questions of parentage and custody of children that were born out of these marriages, are answered. In this article it will be argued that the law, where it concerns issues of parentage and custody, provides insufficient protection to the category of those unrecognized Islamic marriages.


Prof. dr. S.W.E. Rutten
Prof. dr. Susan Rutten is als bijzonder hoogleraar islamitisch familierecht in een Europese context verbonden aan de Universiteit Maastricht, Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid. Website: https://ppp.maastrichtuniversity.nl/users/s.rutten.
Artikel

Data Protection by Design als argument in het FBI vs. Apple-debat

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden FBI vs. Apple, Data Protection by Design, Data Protection by Default, GDPR, privacy
Auteurs Dr. C. Cuijpers en S. van Schendel LLB
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Adhering to a strict interpretation, Data Protection by Design (DPbD) can conflict with the needs of law enforcement in their fight against terrorism and criminality. An illustration of this tension can be found in the case of FBI vs. Apple, where the FBI wants Apple to help bypass security on an iPhone in order to gain access to data. The FBI needs the help of Apple – or third parties – to get such access, for which they might need to create new legal mandates. However, private parties like Apple, may want to design their products in such a way that evading and breaking the security of the system is not possible, as consumers demand secure and privacy friendly devices. This article adds to this debate by posing DPbD as an argument in favor of private parties not to cooperate in making their products less secure and less privacy friendly. This argument is especially relevant when a similar case unfolds in the EU under the new regime of the General Data Protection Regulation in which DPbD is explicitly embedded.


Dr. C. Cuijpers
Dr. Colette Cuijpers is als Associate Professor verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).

S. van Schendel LLB
Sascha van Schendel, LLB is als student-assistent verbonden aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT).
Artikel

Predictive policing: politiewerk aan de hand van voorspellingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden predictive policing, prescriptive policing, Big Data, risks, legal safeguards
Auteurs Ir. A. de Vries en Dr. S. Smit
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Law enforcement around the world, including the Netherlands, is currently experimenting with predictive policing: policing based on crime predictions. Big Data on past crimes and the help of sophisticated machine learning enable police to use reliable predictions about when and where the next offense will take place. If the effectiveness of policing actions is stored in the system, it can also predict which intervention is most effective. This is called prescriptive policing. The authors explain how these methods work, how reliable and effective they are and which associated risks can be identified. The authors emphasize that legal, ethical and organizational safeguards are necessary for a responsible implementation.


Ir. A. de Vries
Ir. Arnout de Vries is senior onderzoeker en adviseur op het gebied van social media en veiligheid bij TNO en auteur van het boek Social media: het nieuwe DNA.

Dr. S. Smit
Dr. Selmar Smit is aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam gepromoveerd op het onderwerp machine learning en sindsdien werkzaam als data scientist bij TNO.
Artikel

Reflecties op het verantwoord gebruik van kunstmatige intelligentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Artificial Intelligence, Ethical dilemma’s, Designing process, Restrictions and controls, Human rights
Auteurs Dr. M.V. Dignum en Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The potential perils of robots and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI) have been a subject for discussion since the 1950s. Nevertheless it seems that society is still not prepared for the great impact of the rapid advancement of AI in the last decennium and the many ethical dilemmas involved. How can moral, social and legal values be integrated in the designing process of AI technologies? Is it imaginable that these AI systems would ever be considered as ethical entities? How to control these systems? The authors argue that we should not only analyze these problems, but also reflect on ethics itself. AI has the potential to change the way we live and work. But it is important to introduce restrictions and controls to guarantee our freedom, autonomy and fundamental human rights.


Dr. M.V. Dignum
Dr. Virginia Dignum is als Associate Professor verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.

Prof.dr. J. van den Hoven
Prof. dr. Jeroen van den Hoven is als hoogleraar Ethiek verbonden aan de Faculteit voor Techniek, Bestuur en Management van de Technische Universiteit Delft.
Artikel

Technologie voor opsporing en handhaving

Kansen, ervaringen en knelpunten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden technology in policing, effectiveness, promising technologies, legal obstacles, success stories
Auteurs Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers en B. Vergouw MSc.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Police forces and law enforcement agencies in many countries are continuously trying to optimize the use of technologies in policing and law enforcement. Efforts are being made to remove existing technological, legal and organizational obstacles to create more opportunities of promising technologies, both existing and new. This contribution describes the results of a survey among 46 police forces and other law enforcement agencies in eleven countries. Their experiences with policing technologies and their needs and preferences in this regard are described. The prevalence and satisfaction of existing technologies, including wiretapping, fingerprints, DNA research, database coupling, data mining and profiling, camera surveillance and network analyses were investigated. Legal, technological and organizational obstacles for the use of technology in policing were mapped and the extent to which policing technologies are evaluated and yield success stories was investigated. The main obstacles, according to the respondents, are insufficient financial resources and insufficient availability of technology. One in four organizations is lacking any clear, appealing success stories and half of the respondents indicated they were not performing any evaluations on the effectiveness of using particular technologies in policing. As a result, the information available on whether technologies in policing are actually working is very limited.


Mr. dr. ir. B. Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

B. Vergouw MSc.
Bas Vergouw MSc. is werkzaam als digitaal onderzoeker bij de Autoriteit Consument en Markt (ACM) en houdt zich voornamelijk bezig met open source intelligence.
Redactioneel

Inleiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Auteurs dr. ir. Bart Custers en drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Auteursinformatie

dr. ir. Bart Custers
Mr. dr. ir. Bart Custers is universitair hoofddocent en hoofd onderzoek bij eLaw, het Centrum voor Recht en Digitale Technologie van de Universiteit Leiden. Eerder was hij hoofd van de onderzoeksafdeling Criminaliteit, Rechtshandhaving en Sancties van het WODC.

drs. Marit Scheepmakers
Mr. drs. Marit Scheepmaker is hoofdredacteur van Justitiële verkenningen
Artikel

Drones: zegen of vloek?

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden drones, applications, regulation, risks, security
Auteurs Ir. P.J.M. Elands
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article discusses the risks of the use of drones in airspace. The author describes the various applications of drones and the impact of drones on society. Which laws and rules apply in the Netherlands for the use of drones? What changes should be made so that public safety is guaranteed while the development of beneficial forms of drone use can continue to flourish?


Ir. P.J.M. Elands
Ir. Pieter Elands werkt bij TNO Defensie en Veiligheid als programmamanager Unmanned Systems.
Artikel

Datagestuurde stedelijke planning en ‘smart cities’

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden Big Data, data analytics, governance, smart cities, urban science
Auteurs Prof. R. Kitchin
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The article provides a critical overview of data-driven urbanism and smart cities focusing in particular on the relationship between data and the city, and critically examines a number of urban data issues, including: the politics of urban data; data ownership and control, data protection and privacy, dataveillance, and data uses such as social sorting and anticipatory governance; and technical data issues such as data quality and veracity of data models and data analytics. Whilst data-driven urbanism provides a set of solutions for urban problems, it does so within limitations and in the service of particular interests.


Prof. R. Kitchin
Prof. Rob Kitchin is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het National Institute of Regional and Spatial Analysis van Maynooth University in Ierland.
Artikel

Politie en beeldtechnologie: gebruik, opbrengsten en uitdagingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 3 2016
Trefwoorden CCTV, bodycams, ANPR, smart cameras, police
Auteurs Drs. S. Flight
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The Dutch National Police deploys video technology, for instance body-worn video camera (bodycams), drones, helicopters with cameras, and mobile units for surveillance. Four types of video technology are discussed: CCTV, bodycams, smart cameras and automatic number plate recognition (ANPR). These four types will be the most prominent applications of visual technology in the coming years, according to ‘Vision on sensing’, published in 2015 by the National Police. The potential benefits of video images for prosecution and in the courtroom are discussed in a separate paragraph, followed by a survey of recent changes in the laws regulating this technology.


Drs. S. Flight
Drs. Sander Flight is zelfstandig adviseur en onderzoeker op het terrein van veiligheid en criminaliteit.
Artikel

Radicale verliezers en de noodzaak tot ontschotten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden terrorism, the radical loser, post-politics, lone actors, performative violence
Auteurs Drs. J. van Buuren
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Research into radicalization and terrorism assumes that violent individuals have political or religious intentions and motivations. However, what ‘political or religious motivations’ exactly are changes through time. A rigorous conceptual demarcation of ‘radicalization’ and ‘terrorism’ runs the risk of overlooking societal and political changes leading to a variety of violent outbursts that may have more in common than assumed at forehand. Hans Magnus Enzensberger’s concept of ‘the radical loser’ is used as an example of a broader conceptualization that can function as a category enabling interconnected and interdisciplinary research into different manifestations of violence, both in their differences and their similarities. Whether or not terrorists, school shooters and violent lone actors are fundamentally different categories should be a topic of academic enquiry instead of being taken for granted.


Drs. J. van Buuren
Drs. Jelle van Buuren is als promovendus verbonden aan het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (Campus Den Haag) van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De werkwijze van jihadistische netwerken

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden jihadist networks, terrorism, radicalization, modus operandi, police files
Auteurs Dr. J.L. de Bie
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Jihadist networks have become a serious threat to Europe’s internal security and are therefore a policy priority. But what do we know about these networks and how should we counter them? This study focuses on the modus operandi of jihadist networks between 2000 and 2013 and gives an empirical insight in the organizational structures, activities, and involvement mechanisms of jihadist networks in the Netherlands. The data are derived from 28 police investigations, 51 interviews with police investigators, public prosecutors, lawyers, imams, and staff members from Asylum and Detention Centers. The findings show how jihadist networks have changed over the years and how this development has affected the way jihadists operate.


Dr. J.L. de Bie
Dr. Jasper de Bie is verbonden aan de Afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Na de vrijlating

Observaties en dilemma’s in de omgang met (voormalige) terrorismegedetineerden

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 2 2016
Trefwoorden terrorism convicts, reintegration, desistance, prison regime, guidance and supervision after release
Auteurs Prof. dr. B.A. de Graaf en D. Weggemans MSc
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over the last decades the number of people who have been detained on the suspicion of terrorism has significantly grown. This has resulted in an increased scholarly interest in the topic of prisons and terrorism. However, the main focus of academic research has been the period of incarceration. Especially the question whether terrorists should be isolated from other prisoners has received considerable scientific attention. What happens after their release still remains opaque. In this article some preliminary insights will be shared on particular aspects of the societal reintegration of former suspected terrorist detainees. It presents some of the obstacles, dilemmas and opportunities. These insights where obtained through semi-structured interviews with both professionals and former detainees with a jihadist background.


Prof. dr. B.A. de Graaf
Prof. dr. Beatrice de Graaf is als hoogleraar History of International Relations & Global Governance verbonden aan de Universiteit Utrecht.

D. Weggemans MSc
Daan Weggemans, MSc is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Institute for Security and Global Affairs (Campus Den Haag) van de Universiteit Leiden.
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