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Discussie

'Integrale veiligheid' als dogma? Grenzen aan het heersende veiligheidsdiscours

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2008
Trefwoorden politie, aansprakelijkheid, gemeente, model, bestuurder, stichting, strafrecht, risico, delinquent, noodzakelijkheid
Auteurs S. Pleysier

S. Pleysier
Artikel

Het bedrijfsmatig denken bij de Vlaamse politie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2007
Trefwoorden politie, kwaliteit, idee, legitimiteit, regering, verzekerde, gerechtelijke politie, grondgebied, private sector, slachtoffer
Auteurs S. De Kimpe

S. De Kimpe
Artikel

Prestatiemeting en ketensamenwerking

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2007
Trefwoorden levering, kwaliteit, prestatie, politie, risico, aanbeveling, verlies, openbaar ministerie, eindvonnis, gedetineerde
Auteurs H. de Bruijn

H. de Bruijn
Artikel

Lokale media en politiek over cameratoezicht: een case studie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden media, gemeente, bestuurder, politie, toezicht, burgemeester, geweldsdelict, democratie, gemeenteraad, aangifte
Auteurs B. van Gestel

B. van Gestel
Artikel

Laat vertrokken en toch op tijd? Lokaal veiligheidsbeleid in Antwerpen, een voorlopige stand van zaken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden politie, gemeente, burgemeester, bestuurder, overeenkomst, overlast, schip, aansprakelijkheid, herstel, delinquent
Auteurs P.K. Marks en A. van Sluis

P.K. Marks

A. van Sluis
Discussie

De Schipholbrand: te weinig instructie of te veel?

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2006
Trefwoorden medewerker, aansprakelijkheid, personeel, risico, aanbeveling, slachtoffer, bouw, fout, gevangenis, model
Auteurs G. van Reekum

G. van Reekum
Boekbespreking

<i>Het terroristische kwaad. Diagnose en bestrijding</i> en <i>De dreigingsspiraal. Onbedoelde neveneffecten van misdaadbestrijding</i>

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2006
Trefwoorden auteur, strafrecht, politie, vervreemding, aansprakelijkheid, arrestatie, bedreiging, bom, delinquent, doding
Auteurs L. Toornvliet

L. Toornvliet
Artikel

Onveiligheid integraal aanpakken: de 'preventiepiramide'

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2006
Trefwoorden risico, model, diefstal, herstel, kwaliteit, politie, diefstal met braak, delinquent, slachtoffer, strafrecht
Auteurs J. Deklerck

J. Deklerck
Artikel

Een wereld van verschil? Plegers van huiselijk geweld en publiek geweld met elkaar vergeleken

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2006
Trefwoorden geweld, huiselijk geweld, delinquent, slachtoffer, aangifte, strafblad, fysiek geweld, politie, geweldsdelict, kind
Auteurs K. Lünnemann

K. Lünnemann
Nieuws

Beschermingsarrangementen: Recht doen vanuit het perspectief van de burger

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2006
Trefwoorden tussenkomst, geweld, rechtsbescherming, slachtoffer, voorwaarde, kind, leerling, overlast, politie, toezicht
Auteurs K. Lünnemann

K. Lünnemann
Artikel

Veiligheidsbeleid: onderbouwd en effectief?

De meerwaarde van beleidstheorieën voor beleid en beleidsevaluatie

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Veiligheidsprogramma, Beleidstheorie, Beleidsevaluatie, Evidence-based beleid
Auteurs Peter van der Knaap
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    How can the use of policy theories help to improve the development and evaluation of public policy. This question is central to this contribution. In order to answer this question, an overview is made of the development of the concept policy theory and its application in The Netherlands. More specifically, the relation between the rational approach of using policy theories and the quest for evidence-based policy is made. In addition, the possibilities and risks of theory-based evaluation ex post are explored. An important issue in both policy development and policy evaluation is the quality of policy information: which evidence counts? What quality criteria should be in place? On the basis of recent research by the Netherlands Court of Audit, an assessment is made of the actual quality of the ex ante evidence-based nature and the ex post effectiveness of safety policy in The Netherlands. The article presents conclusions and perspectives on how a more theoretical underpinning of policy programmes and a good use of theory-based evaluations may contribute to public policies that are not only effective, but that are also more open to policy-oriented learning.


Peter van der Knaap
Peter van der Knaap is directeur doelmatigheidsonderzoek bij de Algemene Rekenkamer. E-mail: Peter.vanderknaap@rekenkamer.nl.
Artikel

Het beoordelen van risico’s: een subjectieve zaak

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 1 2010
Trefwoorden Risicoperceptie, Heuristieken, Risicocommunicatie
Auteurs Jop Groeneweg
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In measuring safety a difference appears to exist between ‘objectively measured safety’ and the subjective perception by the public. Objectively spoken the level of criminality in a neighbourhood may have gone down, but that doesn’t necessary mean that the people living there ‘feel equally safer’. Psychology gives a number of explanations for this phenomenon. For example, the knowledge, the differences in thinking styles and communication about safety with citizens play an important role. This should not be seen as a case of non-rational thinking, but rather of systematic irrationality. These people are not ‘dumb’, they have (sometimes hard-wired) ways of handling information about complex issues like safety that require them to take ‘mental shortcuts’ (heuristics) in order to estimate the risks they are exposed to. This paper will focus on some of the psychological laws that guide our risk perception and surprisingly enough, the ‘objective risk’ seems to be of relatively little importance if compared with other, more subjective factors. Many of the factors relate to the nature of information citizens are exposed to: a risk that this described in easy to imagine way leads to a different evaluation of that risk compared with a less conspicuous presentation. Also the level of expertise of the ‘receiving end’ must be taken into account. Lay-people have different ways to look at risks compared with experts in a certain domain. The discussion on how to improve safety is probably best served with a continuing debate between ‘rational, objective’ and ‘systematic irrational, subjective’ mental models, while recognising their respective strengths and weaknesses. These findings may assist policy makers in particular in the formulation of policy that, in addition to the security objective as such, also improves the perception of safety.


Jop Groeneweg
Jop Groeneweg is Projectleider Menselijk falen bij de Werkgroep Veiligheid, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9555, 2300 RB Leiden. E-mail: groeneweg@fsw.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Filteren op internet

De rol van de Nederlandse overheid in het blokkeren van kinderpornografische websites

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden filteren, internet, kinderporno, politie
Auteurs Rutger Leukfeldt, Wouter Stol, Rik Kaspersen e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The distribution of child pornography on the internet is observed as a major social problem. In the Netherlands a lively political-social discussion has emerged concerning the manner in which this can be prevented. The discussion moves between two polarities. On the one hand the dangers of internet censure are emphasised and on the other hand the need for a clamp down in which every measure seems to be justified. The present government wants to combat child pornography and by doing so answer the moral indignation of society. A means that the Dutch government, and on her behalf the police, uses, is blocking websites with child-pornographic content. The possibilities of the Dutch government to filter effectively, however, are restricted. The accuracy of existing filters is low and it is easy to get around filters. In addition, opportunities are restricted by constitutional rights. A filter that stops all websites with child pornography is bound to stop legal internet traffic too. That is at odds with the constitutional rights of freedom of expression and freedom of information gathering. The realisation of a filter that respects fundamental rights and still is able to block child pornography requires a lot of police manpower. This comes at the expense of the tracking down of criminals who produce and distribute child pornography. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the use of the child-pornography filter leads to the purposes for which they are deployed, such as hindering the sale of child pornography or reducing the abuse of children. The police, therefore, is assigned to a task that requires a considerable amount of time, but the benefits of which are unclear.


Rutger Leukfeldt
Rutger Leukfeldt is junior onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: e.r.leukfeldt@ecma.nhl.nl.

Wouter Stol
Wouter Stol is lector Cybersafety aan de NHL Hogeschool, bijzonder hoogleraar Politiestudies aan de Open Universiteit Nederland en onderzoeker aan de Politieacademie. E-mail: w.ph.stol@ecma.nhl.nl.

Rik Kaspersen
Rik Kaspersen is emeritus hoogleraar Informatica en Recht aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. E-mail: hwkkas@xs4all.nl.

Joyce Kerstens
Joyce Kerstens is docent-onderzoeker bij het lectoraat Cybersafety van de NHL Hogeschool. E-mail: j.kerstens@ecma.nhl.nl.

Arno Lodder
Arno Lodder is universitair hoofddocent van de Afdeling Informatica en Recht, Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. E-mail: a.r.lodder@rechten.vu.nl.
Artikel

De aard en omvang van belaging in Nederland

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 4 2009
Trefwoorden belaging, stalking
Auteurs Suzan van der Aa en Antony Pemberton
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Over nine years after the enactment of the Dutch anti-stalking provision there are still no figures detailing the prevalence of stalking in the Netherlands. This article aims to estimate the prevalence and nature of this form of victimization within the Dutch population. In order to generate these findings the results of the national Police Monitor of 2001 were analysed. Of the 88,607 respondents 24 percent reported a lifetime rate of stalking victimization and for 1.2 to 3.1 percent of the respondents the harassment had begun in the 12 months previous to the study. With almost one in three women (28.6%) and almost one in five men (19.2%), women were significantly more likely to report having been stalked at some time during their lives. In line with previous research age was significantly related to life-time stalking with younger people having greater odds of reporting victimization. (Cor)relations were furthermore found between stalking and having a job, being originally of another than the Dutch nationality and education. But, apart from gender, the odds ratios for those socio-demographic variables were only very small. In most cases (65.6%) the stalker only used one method of harassment with unwanted telephone calls being the method that appeared most in isolation (65.7%). 59.1% of the victims indicated that they felt threatened because of the repetitive harassment. A remarkable finding was that in over 56 percent of the cases the identity of the stalker was unknown.


Suzan van der Aa
Suzan van der Aa is promovenda en onderzoeker bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. Postadres: Warandelaan 2, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: s.vdraa@uvt.nl.

Antony Pemberton
Antony Pemberton is senior-onderzoeker en projectleider bij het International Victimology Institute (INTERVICT) van de Universiteit van Tilburg. E-mail: a.pemberton@uvt.nl.
Artikel

Additioneel seksueel gedrag van kinderpornodownloaders

Onderzoek naar additioneel seksueel gedrag met kinderen in een groep van 38 kinderpornodownloaders met behulp van gecombineerde zelfrapportage en polygrafie (Sexual History Disclosure Polygraph Examinations)

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden cybercrime, polygrafie, zelfrapportage, kinderporno, risicoprofiel
Auteurs Jos Buschman en Don Krapohl
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article presents a study on Post-Conviction Polygraphy in the Netherlands. Importantly, it exclusively focuses on cybercrime offenders. The study was designed to systematically address the different child sexual behaviours exhibited by 38 subjects who were in treatment for possessing child abuse images. The results gave indications that post-conviction polygraphy can provide additional data to inform the development of theory in this area and contribute to the treatment, supervision and more effective containment of offending behaviour, and the reduction of future victimization.


Jos Buschman
Jos Buschman is senior diagnosticus aan de Dr. S. van Mesdagkliniek, Groningen. E-mail: j.buschman@fpcvanmesdag.nl.

Don Krapohl
Don Krapohl is president van de American Polygraph Association.
Artikel

Onbekend, maar wel bemind

Inbraakpreventief advies in België

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 3 2009
Trefwoorden preventie, woninginbraak, slachtofferschap, sociale ongelijkheid
Auteurs Leen Symons, Johan Deklerck, Dave Gelders e.a.
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Since the mid-90s, people can obtain ‘burglary prevention advice’ in Belgium, which means that a burglary prevention adviser will carry out a free assessment of the dwelling regarding the protection against a burglary and will recommend security measures as needed. In 2008, a large-scale survey by postal mail, commissioned and financed by the Belgian Ministry of Internal Affairs, was conducted to examine three main questions concerning burglary prevention advice in Belgium. Firstly, who receives a burglary prevention visit, or in other words what are the demographic characteristics of the citizens who obtain advice? Secondly, what is the extent to which these persons are satisfied with the visit and which elements, related to the advice, are associated with this (dis)satisfaction? Finally, do these citizens implement the proposed prevention measures and what is the role of the financial incentives (e.g. a tax deduction and an investment subsidy) concerning this implementation? Using a stratified random sample, 2,123 citizens were selected of whom ultimately 1,193 persons answered and returned the questionnaire. This paper presents the main findings of this study. We will also draw attention to the risk of an increased societal dualization and exclusion in the field of community safety when burglary prevention becomes predominantly the responsibility of the individual. The results of our survey for instance suggest that certain groups in society, namely the lower educated, tenants and apartment dwellers, are insufficiently sensitized to call upon these advisers. Furthermore, mainly the higher educated and those with higher incomes plan to make use of the possibility of tax deduction.


Leen Symons
Leen Symons werkt als praktijkassistent bij het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: leen.symons@law.kuleuven.be.

Johan Deklerck
Johan Deklerck is als hoofddocent verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: johan.deklerck@law.kuleuven.be.

Dave Gelders
Dave Gelders is als universitair docent verbonden aan de School voor Massacommunicatieresearch (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven). E-mail: dave.gelders@soc.kuleuven.be.

Dr. Stefaan Pleysier
Stefaan Pleysier is coördinator van het Expertisecentrum Maatschappelijke Veiligheid (KATHO-Ipsoc), en deeltijds verbonden aan het Leuvens Instituut voor Criminologie (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven).E-mail: stefaan.pleysier@katho.be.

Jan Terpstra
Jan Terpstra is als hoogleraar verbonden aan het Criminologisch Instituut van de Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen. E-mail: j.terpstra@jur.ru.nl.
Artikel

Analyse van het Zuid-Nederlandse xtc-netwerk

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, xtc-netwerk, xtc-handel, crimineel macronetwerk
Auteurs Dr. Toine Spapens
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    The social network approach is gaining influence among criminologists studying organized crime and terrorism. The theoretical concept, however, still needs further elaboration. To this end, concepts developed within the field of economic sociology could provide a substantial contribution. Economic sociologists have, among other things, focused on the role of social networks with regard to the completion of economic transactions. They regard mutual trust built through personal relations as an essential part of economic transactions, particularly if these imply certain risks for the parties involved. In other words, before transactions materialize, the parties must first be able to establish trustworthy personal relations. Based on these ideas, Spapens introduced in 2006 the theoretical concept of the criminal macro network, being a social network consisting of individuals able and willing to engage in illegal activities. The capital of each member of the criminal network consists, on the one hand, of his links, defined as information relations, within the network. On the other hand, a person’s position is determined by personal knowledge and skills. It is assumed that executing an actual illegal activity – e.g. drug production, trafficking human beings, bank robbery – requires cooperation between a subset of members of the criminal network, the criminal group.An extensive study of xtc production in the south of the Netherlands between 1996 and 2004 revealed the existence of a ‘xtc network’ consisting of individuals interconnected by social relations. The macro network proved to be relatively stable over time. The composition of the criminal groups, however, changed regularly. This was not only explained by shifting business opportunities, but also by the efforts of the police and the Public Prosecution Service leading to convictions and the dismantling of criminal groups. Better knowledge of the functioning of the criminal macro network can provide valuable contributions to criminological understanding of organized crime. These insights are of course also of great practical importance for law enforcement agencies.


Dr. Toine Spapens
Dr. Toine Spapens is als senior onderzoeker verbonden aan de vakgroep Strafrecht van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid aan de Universiteit van Tilburg. Contactadres: Universiteit van Tilburg, Vakgroep Strafrechtswetenschappen, Postbus 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg. E-mail: a.c.spapens@uvt.nl.
Artikel

De Collectieve Winkelontzegging

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden winkelontzegging, overlast, (on)veiligheid, voorzorgsprincipe
Auteurs Loes Wesselink, Marc Schuilenburg en Patrick Van Calster
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    Public Private Partnerships (PPS) are becoming one of the most popular answers to problems of crime and disorder. In this contribution, the authors research the Collective Shop Ban, maybe the most successful form of Public Private Partnerships currently operating in the Netherlands. A Collective Shop Ban is a civil measure bestowed upon a person by the shop owner, when s/he displays ‘unwanted behaviour’. As a consequence entry can be denied for every shop assembled in the association of entrepreneurs. In 2007 almost 900 people have been denied access to over 450 shops in the city centre of The Hague. This new form of collaboration between police, public prosecution service and entrepreneurs has already been rewarded with the Regional Crime Control Platform ‘safety award’. However, the authors question the effects of this collaboration. They argue that the Collective Shop Ban creates its own public of ‘unwanted shoppers’, that can be banned from a shopping area by devising new terms of exclusion. This ‘public’ is subjected to new means of power, to be applied by private security guards and shop owners. While entrepreneurs celebrate the possibilities of this civil measure, the authors warn for the juridical and ethical consequences of this measure.


Loes Wesselink
Loes Wesselink is criminologe en werkt als junior onderzoeker bij het COT Instituut voor Veiligheids- en Crisismanagement in Den Haag. E-mail: wesselink.loes@gmail.com.

Marc Schuilenburg
Marc Schuilenburg doceert aan de vakgroep Criminologie van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. E-mail: m.b.schuilenburg@rechten.vu.nl.

Patrick Van Calster
Patrick Van Calster is universitair hoofddocent aan het departement strafrecht en criminologie van de Universiteit Leiden. E-mail: p.j.v..van.calster@law.leidenuniv.nl.
Artikel

Sociale netwerkanalyse en jeugdcriminaliteit: een overzicht

Tijdschrift Tijdschrift voor Veiligheid, Aflevering 2 2009
Trefwoorden sociale netwerkanalyse, jeugdcriminaliteit, jeugddelinquentie
Auteurs Frank Weerman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this paper, recent social network research in the area of juvenile delinquency is reviewed. Two main subjects are distinguished: first, studies in which Social Network Analysis is used to enhance our insights into the relation between delinquent peers and own delinquent behavior; second, the use of Social Network Analysis to get a better picture of delinquent groups and youth gangs. Two examples of social network analyses in the field of juvenile delinquency are elaborated. These examples combine visual depiction of networks with quantitative analyses of network characteristics, illustrating the complementary nature of both approaches. The literature and the examples show that Social Network Analysis lead to a more nuanced and complex insight into the role of delinquent peers in delinquent behavior and the structure of groups of young offenders.


Frank Weerman
Frank M. Weerman is senior onderzoeker bij het Nederlands Studiecentrum Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving (NSCR). Contactadres: NSCR, Postbus 71304, 1008 BH Amsterdam. E-mail: fweerman@nscr.nl.
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