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    The article deals with so-called ‘koude uitsluiting’ (‘cold exclusion’), a certain type of matrimonial property contract, in which spouses diverge from the standard matrimonial system of community of all property, without any other compensating provisions. Cohabitants who do not have a cohabitation agreement, are in a similar situation. After a divorce or a separation especially many women with children encounter serious financial problems, while the former spouse often experiences an improvement of his financial situation. The article is based on an empirical and (partly comparative) legal study, which proposes new legislation to overcome the most unjust effects of ‘koude uitsluiting’. The author gives a short overview of these proposals.


L.C.A. Verstappen
Prof. mr. Leon Verstappen is als hoogleraar privaatrecht in het bijzonder notarieel recht verbonden aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Deze bijdrage is gebaseerd op het rapport Koude uitsluiting van de hand van M.V. Antokolskaia, B. Breederveld, J.E. Hulst, W.D. Kolkman, F.R. Salomons en L.C.A. Verstappen, reeks Familie & Recht, deel 2, Netherlands Institute for Law and Governance, Boom Juridische uitgevers, Den Haag, 2011.
Artikel

‘Als het hier niet lukt, dan maar in Marokko?’

Vormen van kapitaal in transnationale Nederlands-Marokkaanse echtscheidingen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2011
Auteurs I. Sportel
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    During a transnational divorce, spouses can get into contact with two different legal systems, each with its own procedures, courts and documents. This article focuses on transnational divorces between the Netherlands and Morocco. In these divorces Moroccan and Dutch family law interact in several ways. First of all, as determined by Dutch Private International Law, Moroccan family law can be applied in the Netherlands, by Dutch judges. Especially with regard to the division of property, the Dutch and Moroccan family law systems can produce significantly different outcomes. Moreover, a divorce from Morocco is not automatically valid in the Netherlands and vice versa. Using four examples of Dutch-Moroccan divorce cases the author shows how, in this complicated situation, spouses in transnational marriages make use of economic, social and cultural capital in both countries to obtain their divorce.


I. Sportel
Drs. Iris Sportel is als promovendus verbonden aan de vaksectie rechtssociologie van de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen.
Artikel

Scheiden anno 2011

Over depolarisering, mediation en overlegscheiding

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2011
Auteurs B.E.S. Chin-A-Fat
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In recent years many changes occurred in procedural divorce law and divorce practice in the Netherlands. The bottomline of these changes is that divorcing partners themselves should settle the consequences of the divorce as much as possible by mutual agreement. The author describes how in the same period divorce mediation boomed, especially after the introduction in 2009 of the so-called collaborative divorce. This type of mediation is characterised by the presence of lawyers acting for each of the two parties and the line-up of a team of experts. In general the supply of divorce guidance has diversified substantially. It is important that clients are able to choose the form of divorce guidance that suits them best. Divorce mediators should have enough experience and knowledge to handle the psychological as well as the legal aspects of a divorce. Finally the chances of a good ‘after marriage’ are enhanced by ensuring access to affordable mediation for all divorcing couples.


B.E.S. Chin-A-Fat
Mr. dr. Brigitte Chin-A-Fat is advocaat en vFAS-scheidingsmediator in haar eigen praktijk Chin-A-Fat De Voort Familierecht advocaten en mediators te Breda.

    The possibility of imposing shared child residence after divorce - even against the wishes of one of the parents - has been recently introduced in several countries. In the Netherlands such possibility was first part of a Private MP Bill. After its initial rejection, it became incorporated by amendment into the Governmental Bill that became law on 1 March 2009 - against the will of the Minister. Due to this turbulent legislative history and rather unclear wording of the legislation uncertainty remained as to whether shared residence can be imposed against the will of one of the parents and whether the judge is obliged to consider it as a first option in each child residence case. The recent decision of the Supreme Court finally clarified the situation: both questions are answered in the affirmative, however the best interest of the child remains the leading consideration for the judge deciding the case.


M.V. Antokolskaia
Prof. mr. Masha Antokolskaia is hoogleraar privaatrecht, in het bijzonder personen- en familierecht, aan de Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.

    The use of visual material in Dutch criminal proceedings has become more prominent in recent years. This development has important consequences in regard to the trial procedure and judicial decision-making. Despite the possible influence on our criminal procedure, Dutch criminal law lacks specific standards for the use of visual material in court. In the United States the use of visual technology is more established and better regulated. This article sets out the standards applicable to the use of visual evidence in the American criminal law system by exploring the Federal Rules of Evidence and relevant case law. These standards can be used as frame of reference when putting forward recommendations for possible standards in the Dutch criminal justice system.


J. Roosma
Drs. mr. Jaitske Roosma heeft als projectmedewerker gewerkt bij de politie Rotterdam-Rijnmond en bij de afdeling Digitale Technologie en Biometrie van het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut. Zij start in oktober 2012 met de RAIO-opleiding.

M.J. Dubelaar
Mr. Marieke Dubelaar is werkzaam als docent en onderzoeker bij de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

De praktijk van telehoren

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2011
Auteurs M. van der Ende

M. van der Ende

    The variety and importance of visual displays in American courtrooms has exploded. This visual and digital transformation of law practice heralds nothing less than a revolution in the ways that lawyers argue, jurors and judges decide, and the public thinks about the law. This article offers essential background for understanding law's visual and digital transformation. Also the ubiquity of digital technologies is discussed. The authors conclude by outlining the challenges that these features of digital culture pose for the law.


N.R. Feigenson
Prof. Neil Feigenson is verbonden aan de Law Faculty van de Quinnipiac University in Hamden CT. Hij is tevens werkzaam als onderzoeker bij de afdeling Psychologie van Yale University in New Haven CT. Dit artikel is een vertaalde en ingekorte versie van het inleidende hoofdstuk van hun boek Law on display; The digital transformation of legal persuasion and judgment (New York University Press, 2009).

Ch.O. Spiesel
Christina Spiesel is als senior-onderzoeker werkzaam bij Yale Law School. Zij is tevens adjunct professor of law aan de Quinnipiac University. Dit artikel is een vertaalde en ingekorte versie van het inleidende hoofdstuk van hun boek Law on display; The digital transformation of legal persuasion and judgment (New York University Press, 2009).
Artikel

Rechtspraak op televisie?

Een bespreking van het rapport van de commissie-Van Rooy

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2011
Auteurs G. Kor
Auteursinformatie

G. Kor
Dr. Gerben Kor is advocaat, mediaspecialist, programmamaker en onderzoeker aan de Vrije Universiteit. Hij is auteur van Medialisering van recht (Kluwer, 2008).

    In 2007 the option of videoconferencing for the hearing of witnesses and the questioning of accused persons in criminal proceedings was introduced in the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure. So far videoconferencing has only scarcely been used in criminal proceedings, mostly because of a lack of technical means. This however should change rapidly, because of the installation of videoconferencing facilities in all criminal courts and prisons. It remains to be seen whether judges will be convinced that scrutinizing witnesses and accused persons through an audiovisual connection is an acceptable alternative to face-to-face proceedings. If so, the use of videoconferencing can be applied in a wide range of situations, varying from decisions on the pre-trial detention of accused persons to the hearing of witnesses in a criminal trial.


P.A.M. Verrest
Mr. dr. Pieter Verrest is werkzaam bij de sector straf- en sanctierecht van de directie Wetgeving van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. De auteur schrijft dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.

    The use of images is burgeoning in the criminal justice system and will continue to do so, mainly because of the introduction of the electronic file. Digital technologies and images have become more important in every phase of the system: images are collected and created to gather, analyze and present evidence. Besides mug shots and fingerprints, current images range from CCTV footage to 3D reconstructions and MRI scans. The question is whether these technological advancements and the increasing use and presence of image in the Dutch criminal justice system is revolutionary. This article discusses differences between the ‘old’ and ‘new’ images, focusing on form and content. The increase in types of formats and the highly specialized contents of today raises many empirical questions about the influence of images. Most of these questions have not been conclusively answered so far. The three most convincing findings underline the possible far-stretching, perhaps even revolutionary, consequences.


G.N.G. Vanderveen
Dr. Gabry Vanderveen is als docent en onderzoeker verbonden aan de Faculteit Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Universiteit Leiden.
Artikel

Beeldinformatie in forensisch onderzoek

Nieuwe ontwikkelingen die aandacht vragen

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2011
Auteurs J. Bijhold
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    With the introduction of new technology for crime scene recording and image capture, a new field of expertise has been created that is referred to as forensic visualization. In this paper an overview is given of the possibilities and limitations of the new technology in the different stages of a full forensic investigation. Many of these techniques will have an impact on investigation procedures. Research is needed to find out what the impact will be and how we can take advantage of new technology.


J. Bijhold
Dr. Jurrien Bijhold is onderzoeker en projectleider forensische visualisatie bij het Nederlands Forensisch Instituut te Rijswijk (NFI).
Artikel

Scheidingen en gesubsidieerde rechtsbijstand

Veranderingen en continuïteit tussen 2000 en 2010

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 6 2011
Auteurs M. ter Voert en T. Geurts
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this study the authors examine changes over the past decade in the number of divorces and divorce-related proceedings. Furthermore, the authors look at the accompanying expenses for subsidised legal aid. They observed that, after six years of relative stability, divorce proceeding prevalence increased in 2010. Moreover, there were fewer adversarial divorce proceedings in 2010 than in previous years, while the number of divorce proceedings upon a joint petition and proceedings without opposition increased substantially. Proceeding prevalence for child custody and alimony nearly doubled over the past decade. The recent increase of divorce proceeding prevalence is presumably due to the discontinuation of flash divorce in 2009. Mitigation of opposition may stem from the introduction of the mandatory parenting plan in 2009. Legal aid expenses for divorce roughly followed the trend in the number of divorce proceedings. The expenses for divorce-related proceedings increased far more than the expenses for divorce proceedings. It can be expected that expenses and proceeding prevalence for divorce-related matters will decrease in the future due to the introduction of the parenting plan.


M. ter Voert
Dr. Marijke ter Voert is als senior-onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

T. Geurts
Drs. Teun Geurts is als junior-onderzoeker verbonden aan het WODC.

    This article focuses on a phenomenon often called ‘function creep’. This is the process whereby new functions are added to systems that are basically intended for other purposes, or when systems or data originally intended for function A are linked to other systems or data having function B. New technical possibilities have definitely paved the way for function creep and a growing number of ICT-applications appear no longer limited to the purpose for which they were originally set up. Function creep is an inherent feature of innovation. But at the same time it poses risks if considered from a privacy perspective. After detailing many examples of function creep, the article elaborates on a potential risk not often discussed: loss of data quality. The analysis concludes in arguing that citizens can act as a crucial countervailing power to limit the expansion of function creep. This however requires that governments are more open and accountable to allow for a transparent and verifiable comparison between the interests at stake.


J.E.J. Prins
Prof.mr. Corien Prins is hoogleraar aan het Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society (TILT), Universiteit van Tilburg en Raadslid bij de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR). Deze bijdrage is voor een belangrijk deel ontleend aan het rapport iOverheid van de Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (maart 2011, zie: www.wrr.nl), dat onder haar verantwoordelijkheid werd opgesteld.
Artikel

Hoe waarschijnlijk is function creep?

Een beleidswetenschappelijke analyse

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs M.S. de Vries
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article it is argued that function creep is a structural phenomenon which is inherent in policy development. The author discusses several policy development theories which might be useful in trying to explain the phenomenon that policy instruments tend to be applied in reaching purposes never intended at the time these instruments were developed.
    Kingdon's streams model, the classic phase-oriented approach (e.g. Hoogerwerf), Sabatier's advocacy coalition theory as well as Walker's diffusion theory give various explanations for the phenomenon of function creep. But crucial is that policy makers are always looking for new innovating policy instruments to achieve their objects. According to the author it is almost impossible to prevent function creep. To some degree the abuse of function creep can be prevented by institutionalising these processes and to submit them to democratic control, checks and balances, procedures and other guarantees. But this will never be enough to escape from the ‘voyeurist society’.


M.S. de Vries
Prof. dr. Michiel de Vries is als hoogleraar Bestuurskunde verbonden aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en als bijzonder hoogleraar aan de Universiteit van Aruba. E-mail: m.devries@fm.ru.nl.

    Intervention teams are among the most discussed tools in the current process of securitisation. Their integrated approach takes into account all underlying causes of insecurity and quality of life. For a more effective approach authorities and organisations have to cooperate and let go of their mutual boundaries. But can the participants put aside their differences in perspectives and policies? This article discusses the goal of ‘ontkokering’ (‘decompartalisation’), this was done through a study of the practices of intervention team SIP in Amsterdam. On basis of thirteen interviews and observations the authors argue that there are three main mechanisms or ‘molar barriers’, which conserve the old structures in the integrated approach of the intervention team: ‘methodical robustness’, ‘institutional robustness’ and ‘financial robustness’.


M. Schuilenburg
Mr. Drs. Marc Schuilenburg is werkzaam bij de afdeling Strafrecht en Criminologie van de Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam. Hij is tevens redactieraadlid van Justitiële verkenningen. Zie: www.marcschuilenburg.nl.

C. Dijkstra
Catharina Dijkstra MSc studeerde criminologie aan de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam.
Artikel

Terrorismebestrijding en securitisering

Een rechtssociologische verkenning van de neveneffecten

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 8 2011
Auteurs B.A. de Graaf en Q. Eijkman
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article offers an analysis of the side effects caused by the increased counterterrorism measures adapted in Dutch law and public policy after 9/11. Taking clues from Foucault's thinking on securitisation and Beck's risk society, it is argued that focus, referent subject and object of security measures and deployment of counterterrorism laws have shifted from the concrete individual to society and risk prevention as a whole (1), that this shift induces function creep (2) and a much quicker deployment of measures, resulting in an increasing suspect population (3). Rather than arguing against the legality and legitimacy of these measures, the authors analyse the epistemological shift in reasoning and unpack the various probabilistic arguments (as opposed to evidence-based arguments) behind the wave of securitisation after 9/11 - resulting in a lack of knowledge about, transparency and accountability of the generated side effects.


B.A. de Graaf
Dr. Beatrice de Graaf (universitair hoofddocent) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).

Q. Eijkman
Mr. dr. Quirine Eijkman (senioronderzoeker) is verbonden aan het Centrum voor Terrorisme en Contraterrorisme van de Universiteit Leiden (Campus Den Haag).
Artikel

De bestrijding van arbeidsuitbuiting

Werkwijzen en bevindingen van de SIOD

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs A. Bogaerts, P. Plooij en R. Zoetekouw
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    In this article the strategies and investigation results of the Social Intelligence and Investigation Service (SIOD) concerning labour exploitation are discussed. The results from reactive criminal investigation confirm current ideas in the literature about labour exploitation in relation to vulnerable (victim) groups. However, an increase in reports did not lead to more investigations. This is partly caused by bad or incomplete reports. Therefore the SIOD is in addition developing a new approach: the labour exploitation risk model. This method fits into the idea of Intelligence-Led Policing and tackles the problem that many exploitation cases are not reported to the police. In a risk model enterprises and employers with a (high) risk of violations are selected for control or investigation on the basis of particular characteristics generated from various information databases of various (government) agencies. The authors discuss the further development of the risk model and conclude with a look ahead.


A. Bogaerts
Anne Bogaerts MSc is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt haar collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

P. Plooij
Drs. Peter Plooij is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

R. Zoetekouw
René Zoetekouw is werkzaam als onderzoeker respectievelijk senior criminaliteitsanalist bij de SIOD. De auteur dankt zijn collega's en in het bijzonder Arjan van der Lugt, Floris van Dijk en Sabine Konings voor hun bijdragen aan de totstandkoming van dit artikel.

    Illegal activities like smuggling, prostitution and the production and sales of illicit drugs contribute to the national income of a country. In practice, however, they are not included in the statistics, because reliable estimates of the size of these activities hardly exist. Recently Statistics Netherlands started research into the share of illegal activities in the national income. This article presents the first estimates for the production and trade of illicit drugs. The total contribution of illicit drugs to the national income of the Netherlands ranges from € 1,300 million in 1995 to almost € 1,800 million in 1998 to 1,200 million in 2008. This is equal to approximately 0.45% of the national income in the 1990s to about 0.2% in 2008. The main reasons for this decrease are the decrease in the prices for drugs, the deterioration of terms of trade and the increase in international competition, especially for xtc and amphetamines.


M. Rensman
Dr. Marieke Rensman werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. Bruil
Drs. Arjan Bruil werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

A. van de Steeg
Dr. Annemieke van de Steeg werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

B. Kazemier
Dr. Brugt Kazemier werkt bij het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Het artikel is geschreven op persoonlijke titel.

    ‘Informal economy’ is a controversial concept defined in many different ways. This is reflected in the amount of synonyms, such as shadow economy, parallel economy, hidden economy, black economy etcetera. On the international level the concept of the informal sector was first used in 1972 by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in its report on a mission to Kenya. The popular view of informal sector activities was that they are primarily those of petty traders, street hawkers, shoeshine boys and other groups ‘underemployed’ on the streets of the big towns. The evidence presented in the report suggested that the bulk of employment in the informal sector, far from being only marginally productive, is economically efficient and profit-making, though small in scale. The informal sector is formed by the coping behaviour of individuals and families in economic environment where earning opportunities are scarce, or where regulation is too complex. The informal sector can also be a product of rational behaviour of entrepreneurs wishing to escape state regulations. There is a relation between welfare (GDP per capita) and relative size of the informal sector. Richer countries have relatively a smaller informal sector. However, government policies and attitudes are important as well. The relative size of the informal sector depends, among other factors, on the ‘regulatory capacity’ and ‘regulatory intent’ of governments. There is little known about the relation between informal and criminal activities. The informal economy seems to be a permanent feature of both high, middle and low income countries. Due to the actual economic crisis, people are pushed from the formal to informal economy. Rapid urbanisation is a factor as well. While the problem of size measuring is not insignificant, most observers agree that the informal economy is large and growing and will be an enduring feature of the economy of mega-cities.


B.M.J. Slot
Dr. Brigitte Slot is als beleidsmedewerker verbonden aan de directie Financiële Markten van het ministerie van Financiën. Zij schreef dit artikel op persoonlijke titel.
Artikel

Mensenhandel en arbeidsuitbuiting

Recente ontwikkelingen in de jurisprudentie

Tijdschrift Justitiële verkenningen, Aflevering 7 2010
Auteurs L. van Krimpen
SamenvattingAuteursinformatie

    This article describes the developments in jurisprudence on human trafficking in sectors other than the sex industry. In October 2009, the Supreme Court for the first time ruled in a case about human trafficking outside the sex industry. Whereas the number of cases before the Supreme Court ruling was limited, with only a few convictions for this type of exploitation, and with differences in the way courts interpreted the legal definition, this has changed tremendously after this ruling. The Supreme Court, in the case about exploitation in a Chinese restaurant, gave a very clear interpretation on the elements ‘intention of exploitation’ and the means ‘abuse of a vulnerable position’. Following the Supreme Court ruling, the number of cases has increased, as well as the number of convictions for this type of exploitation. Among these cases are also cases of criminal exploitation. It is not completely clear yet what type of behaviour falls within the scope of criminal exploitation.


L. van Krimpen
Mr. Linda van Krimpen is als onderzoeker verbonden aan het Bureau Nationaal Rapporteur Mensenhandel in Den Haag.
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